How to Write a Summary of an Article

Updated on April 10, 2019
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Virginia has been a university English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier.

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When Should You Summarize an Article?

There are a few instances when you might want to summarize an article. These are:

  • To show how an author's ideas support your argument
  • To argue against the author's ideas
  • To condense a lot of information into a small space
  • To increase your understanding of an article

What Needs to Be Included in a Summary of an Article?

A great summary should include certain important elements that make the reading experience easier on the reader. A good summary will consist of the following elements.

  • The main idea of the article is conveyed clearly and concisely
  • The summary is written in the unique style of the writer
  • The summary is much shorter than the original document
  • The summary explains all of the important notions and arguments
  • The summary condenses a lot of information into a small space

How Do You Summarize an Article?

Summarizing an article can be boiled down to three simple steps. By following these steps, you should have a thorough, clear, and concise summary in no time.

  1. Identify the main idea or topic.
  2. Identify the important arguments.
  3. Write your summary.

Continue reading for detailed explanations of each of these steps.

1. Identify the Main Idea or Topic

The aim of an article is to convey a certain idea or topic through the use of exposition and logic.

In a summary, you want to identify the main idea of the article and put this information into your own words. To do this, you must be willing to read the article several times. On the first reading, try to gain a general notion of what the article is trying to say. Once you've done this write down your initial impression. This is most likely the thesis, or main idea, of the article. Also, be sure to include the author's first and last name and the title of the article in your notation for later reference.

Example: In the article "Why Two Best Friends Doesn't Work," author Cassandra Grimes argues that most teenage girls can't get along in groups of more than two.

When trying to identify the central idea, you should ask yourself, "Why was this essay written and published?" Clues to help determine this include the following.

How to Identify the Main Idea of an Article

  1. Gather information from the title.
  2. Identify the place it was published, as this can help you determine the intended audience.
  3. Determine the date of publication.
  4. Determine the type of essay. (Is it expository, argumentative, literary, scholarly?)
  5. Take note of the tone of the piece.
  6. Identify certain notions or arguments that seem to be repeated throughout.

Applying these methods of identification, let's take a look at the article "Bypass Cure" by James Johnson. We can assume the subject of the article from the title. Upon further examination, it becomes clear that the author is arguing that new research suggests the best cure for diabetes is the surgical solution of a gastric bypass.

Example: "Bypass Cure" by James Johnson records a recent discovery by researchers that people who have bypass surgery for weight control are also instantly cured of diabetes. Since rising diabetic rates and obesity has become a worldwide concern, the article provides a startling but controversial potential solution.

Now that we have identified the main idea of the article, we can move onto the next step.

Think of the thesis of your summary as a caption on a picture.  Example: In spite of having lost most of the season due to an injury, Jim Johnson beat his own record and won the meet, qualifying him for the state finals.
Think of the thesis of your summary as a caption on a picture. Example: In spite of having lost most of the season due to an injury, Jim Johnson beat his own record and won the meet, qualifying him for the state finals. | Source

2. Identify Important Arguments

At this point in the preparation process, you should read the article again. This time, read more carefully. Look specifically for the supporting arguments. Some tips on how to identify the important arguments of an article are listed below.

How to Identify Important Arguments in an Article

  1. Read on a paper copy or use a computer program that lets you make annotations.
  2. Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph. (If no one sentence tells the main concept, then write a summary of the main point in the margin.)
  3. Write that sentence in your own words on the side of the page or on another piece of paper.
  4. When you finish the article, read all the topic sentences you marked or wrote down.
  5. In your own words, rewrite those main ideas.
  6. Use complete sentences with good transition words.
  7. Be sure you don't use the same words, phrases, or sentence structure as the original.
  8. You may find you need to leave out some of the unimportant details.
  9. Your summary should be as short and concise as possible.

In short, you want to boil the article down to its main, supporting arguments. Let everything else fall away, and what you are left with is an argument or an opinion, and the arguments that support it.

3. Write Your Summary

Your summary should start with the author’s name and the title of the work. Here are several ways to do this correctly:

Introduction Sentence Examples for an Article Summary

In "Cats Don't Dance," John Wood explains ...

John Wood, in "Cats Don't Dance," explains ...

According to John Wood in "Cats Don't Dance" ...

As John Wood vividly elucidates in his ironic story "Cats Don't Dance" ...

John Wood claims in his ironic story "Cats Don't Dance" that ...

Combine the thesis of the article with the title and author into your first sentence of the summary. Reference the following sentence as an example.

In "Cats Don't Dance," John Wood explains that in spite of the fact that cats are popular pets who seem to like us, felines are not really good at any activities that require cooperation with someone else, whether that is dancing or sharing.

If possible, your first sentence should summarize the article. The rest of your summary should cover some of the central concepts used to support the thesis. Be sure to restate these ideas in your own words, and to make your summary as short and concise as possible. Condense sentences and leave out unimportant details and examples. Stick to the important points.

How to Quote the Author of an Article

When you refer to the author for the first time, you always use their full name. When you refer to the author after that, you always use their last name. The following examples show how to use the author's name in an article summary after you have already introduced them.

Johnson comments ...

According to Wood's perspective ...

As Jones implies in the story about ...

Toller criticizes...

In conclusion, Kessler elaborates about ...

You don't need to use an author's title (Dr., Professor, or Mr. and Mrs.), but it does help to add their credentials to show they are an authoritative source. The sentences below show ways to do this.

In "Global Warming isn't Real," Steven Collins, a professor at the University of Michigan, claims that ...

New York Times critic Johann Bachman argues in "Global Warming is the Next Best Thing for the Earth" that ...

If you are discussing the ideas of the author, you always need to make it clear that you are reciting their ideas, not your own.

How to Introduce the Ideas of the Author in an Article Summary

  • Use author tags
  • Use mentions of "the article" or "the text"
  • Add the page number that the information is found on in parenthesis at the end of the sentence

Using Author Tags

In writing your summary, you need to clearly state the name of the author and the name of the article, essay, book, or other source. The sentence below is a great example of how to do this.

According to Mary Johnson in her essay, "Cats Make Good Pets," the feline domestic companion is far superior to the canine one.

You also need to continue to make it clear to the reader when you are talking about the author's ideas. To do this, use "author tags," which are either the last name of the author or a pronoun (he or she) to show you are still discussing that person's ideas.

Also, try to make use of different verbs and adverbs. Your choice of author tag verbs and adverbs can contribute to the way you analyze the article. Certain words will create a specific tone. See the tables for a selection of different word choices.

List of Author Tags

Says
Explains
Comments
Persuades
Suggests
Understands
Argues
Reminds
Helps us understand
Elucidates
Presents
Intimates
Concludes
Presents the idea
Creates the impression
Criticizes
Defines
Highlights
Concedes
Shows
States
Thinks
Admits
Lists
Notes
Analyzes
Disagrees
Observes
Points out
Emphasizes
Discusses
Identifies
Implies
Insists
Responds
Shows
Proves
Rejects
Suggests

Adverbs to Use With Author Tags

Conclusively
Expressively
Realistically
Tightly
Angrily
Radically
Clearly
Dutifuly
Evenly
Occasionally
Quickly
Ironically
Honestly
Eagerly
Elegantly
Sharply
Rarely
Loosely
Exactly
Happily
Hastily
Perfectly
Sternly
Unexpectedly
Sometimes
Never
Justly
Devotedly
Finally
Warily
Wearily
Completely
Fully
Doggedly
Iconically
Sarcastically
Seriously
Carefully
Politely

How Long Is a Summary of an Article?

The length of an article summary will depend on the length of the article you are writing about.

If the article is long (say, 10-12 pages) then your summary should be about four pages. If the article is shorter, your summary should be about one to two pages. Sometimes, an article summary can be less than one page.

The length of a summary will also depend on the instructions you have been given. If you are writing a summary for yourself, it's up to you how long or short it will be (but remember, a summary is supposed to be a short regurgitation of the information outline in an article). If you are writing a summary for a class assignment, the length should be specified.

Example Summary Paragraph

The following paragraph is an example of a one-paragraph summary of an article.

In "My Favorite Shoe," Treyvon Jones explains that Nike shoes are the best brand of running shoe for serious track athletes. Jones supports this view by pointing out that Nike shoes are more comfortable, last longer, and provide more cushioning for the feet. He notes that the statistics from sales and scientific evidence of how Nike shoes are better for the feet support his claim. In addition, Jones points out that most professional runners use Nike and he tells his own story of how he won the 100-meter men's competition after switching to Nike shoes.

Below is a template showing the components of a great summary.

Summary Template

Part of Summary
Contents
Introduction Sentence
In "My Favorite Shoe," Treyvon Jones explains (insert main idea).
Supporting Arguments
Jones supports this view by pointing out (insert author's supporting arguments).
Final Point
In addition, (insert author's overarching argument and point).

How to Edit and Revise Your Summary

Before you are officially done, it is important to edit your work. The steps below explain the process of editing and revision.

  1. Re-read the summary and edit out any obvious mistakes.
  2. Read your summary aloud. If anything sounds off, fix it.
  3. Let one of your peers read your summary. Make changes according to their feedback.

With that, your summary should be complete.

How to Summarize (Video)

Questions & Answers

  • How should I end my summary?

    The summary should end with the author's conclusion or last main point.

  • How do I conclude the summary of an article?

    Conclude your summary with a statement about what the author is trying to convince you to believe, do, or think.

  • How should you begin a summary?

    A summary should begin by stating the name of the author (first and last) and the title of the article, along with a single sentence describing the main idea of the whole article. Here are some examples:

    1. According to Tom Castaway in "Taking Your Management to the Next Level," effective management means clearly articulating your goals, supporting your employees and keeping the team on track.

    2. "Supporting Your Cat's Needs" by Jane Yogurt is a humorous article that describes how a can manipulates their owner into providing them everything they want.

    3. In her usual humorous style, Sanda Cunningham offers support and advice to dog owners who feel out of control in "Taking Back the Leash: A Dog Owner's Guide to Freedom from Panic Attacks."

  • What is "skimming?"

    "Skimming" means that you don't read every word. You look at the bold print in a chapter, the first sentences of each paragraph and look over a page to see if there are important points. Skimming is like doing an overview. Skimming is easy if you are reading in your own language and often we do skimming when we are looking at a newspaper, or scrolling down our social media posts. Basically, when you skim read, you are looking for the most interesting or most important things. When you find it, you might read a whole section, but you might also skip a lot that doesn't seem important.

© 2011 Virginia Kearney

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    • profile image

      Rachel Timme 

      2 weeks ago

      Thanks you so much for the in formations that I have learnt here about Summary writing. It's very important for us non English speakers. Was greatly appreciated. Thanks for sharing your knowledge and your gifts. May you be blessed abundantly in the work you are doing.

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      3 months ago from United States

      Hi Kaghija, paragraphs can be any length but a "typical" English essay has 5 sentences: topic sentence, 3 explaining/evidence sentences, conclusion/transition sentence.

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      3 months ago from United States

      Hi Sandi, you don't tell me what age your son is, but that type of assignment is pretty straightforward for High School. There are two ways to do a compare and contrast between passages. One way is to separate it into two sections: how the responses are similar; how the responses are different. A different and generally more difficult (but potentially better essay) is to do talk about the passages topically and inside each topic explain what is same and different. For example, topics could be: choices, responses, outcomes, character, tone of author, relevance to modern life etc.

    • profile image

      kaghija 

      3 months ago

      how many sentences should there be per paragraph?

    • SandiJS profile image

      SandiJS 

      3 months ago

      Hello Virginia:

      Recently my son had brought home an English Essay that his teacher is only allowing students to complete in 2 days!! It is writing an essay on comparing 2 different stories, on the basis of "How we make decisions when faced with difficult choices?" The 2 stories are titled, "The Lady or the Tiger" by Frank Stockton and "The Choices of Hercules" by James Baldwin. His instructions are to read both passages and write an essay in which compare Hercules' and the princess's responses to the choices they are given. He needs to support his discussion with evidence from the text. What do you suggest on how I go about explaining how to compare the two texts in one essay?

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      3 months ago from United States

      Hi James, my German is a bit rusty but I did a bit of searching for the answer and I think the problem is that English Present Perfect and German Perfekt are not quite the same. In both English and German, we can refer to past events using a simple past and the present perfect; however, the German Perfekt is somehwat different than the English perfect in that the engish "We have eaten" means it began in the past and is now completed, while the German "Wir haben...gegessen" is usually used to speak about a completed action.

      My guess is your student's English teacher did not know the difference.

      When I encounter these sorts of issues with students, I usually tell them that what I am trying to teach them is "standard English practice" which means that it is not just about rules but about how native speakers actually talk. No native speaker is going to talk about a historical situation in the present tense (even if there might be an obscure rule that would allow that). If he does that, he will be regarded as having incorrect verb tenses, or else confuse the listener. However, I will usually not grade a person down in this sort of situation. Instead, I would allow them to redo the assignment or else just give them a good grade. Here is the website I used for the answer: https://german.yabla.com/lesson-English-Present-Pe...

    • profile image

      James 

      3 months ago

      Hello, I am a native English speaker and teach ESL in Germany. Recently, I had one of my students write a summary of a historical event that I verbally had recounted. The purpose of the exercise was to test his listening comprehension. The story itself concerned a Saxon knight named Konrad von Wettin who lived in the 12th century. The student proceeded to write a very nice summary which demonstrated his excellent listening skills. The problem was that he wrote the summary in the present tense. For example, “Konrad is a knight living in the 12th century.” “He has a wife named Liutigard and twelve children.” He continued on in this fashion throughout the summary. In response, I corrected his grammar by putting every sentence, when appropriate, into the past tense. For example, “Konrad was a Saxon knight who lived during the 12th century.”

      To my surprise, he argued the corrections and stated that his German high school English teacher told the class to write summaries only in the present tense. My student went further to claim that if he had turned in a summary written in the past tense that he would have received a poor grade.

      So... I’m a bit phased and looking for some backup on this topic. Is my student correct? If so, why is he correct? As a history major, I would find it strange to write about a historical figure in the present tense unless I had discovered time travel. By the way, my story was told in the past tense as well, so when he made the leap to present tense I was surprised. I would be happy to post his original summary with my corrections if you would like to read it. Thank you in advance.

    • profile image

      Linus search 

      4 months ago

      This is good. The teacher in you is evident. Thanks a lot.

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      6 months ago from United States

      Generally I would suggest that you summarize each article in a separate paragraph but I’d suggest you ask your instructor.

    • profile image

      Bonheur 

      6 months ago

      How do I start my summary introduction when I read 3 articles should I list the article's name for three of them?

    • profile image

      Fitri 

      7 months ago

      Hi, thank you for this entry!

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      8 months ago from United States

      Hi Shirin,you can find that information in my articles that talk about summar response or “How to write a Summary Analysis Response Paper,” find them by searching for that title and my name.

    • profile image

      Shirin 

      8 months ago

      I want to know after I write my summary about am article then how do I start my discussion about that article in the following paragraphs

      Tanxxxxx

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      9 months ago from United States

      Often a summary is just one to three paragraphs. See the article for the format.

    • profile image

      Armaan 

      9 months ago

      What should be the format of a summary? How many paragraphs?

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      10 months ago from United States

      Hi Hazel, I am very happy to have you share this information by giving students a link to my website or showing my website information in class. However, please do not violate my copyright by copying and printing or posting this online without having students go to my website to view it. I cab offer my materials free to students and teachers because I make a small amount of money from advertising when people view my website.

    • profile image

      Hazel Carlos 

      10 months ago

      This information is so clear. May I share this information with my students in English 1302? The students have been assigned annotated bibliographies.

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      12 months ago from United States

      Hi Jessica! I'm so glad this was helpful and congratulations for getting up the courage to finish your degree. I recently met a woman in her 60s who is going to graduate with her AA degree this month and is planning to keep on going! I have lot of other articles on different kinds of writing. If you type the kind of paper you are doing in Google and then add my name or Owlcation, you can find them. Good luck!

    • profile image

      Jessica 

      12 months ago

      Thank you so much. This was so helpful. I am back in school trying to finally finish my degree after decades. I have to write a summary of a Case study. Then I have to write my first paper after decades.

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      12 months ago from United States

      You should keep the same name of items in the summary article that cannot be easily changed to a synonym. However, you should not keep the same structure of sentences. Actually, in a summary your sentences will only tell the broader picture not the details. Therefore, your sentences should not match the original.

    • profile image

      Grasstow 

      12 months ago

      should i keep the same structure and name of items?

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      12 months ago from United States

      You can just use the name of the first author and add "et al" which means "and others."

    • profile image

      Blessed 

      12 months ago

      I know I should begin a summary with the author's name and so forth, but if there are 4 authors, how do I go about including their names.

    • profile image

      happiness 

      12 months ago

      thanks, the site made me a good summary writer in class.

    • profile image

      Feri 

      13 months ago

      Thank you sooo much for all the information!!

      now I know how to write a summary with your helpful words and examples... great

    • profile image

      Ade 

      13 months ago

      OMG....This is the best explanation i have ever seen..now i know what needs to be done with my assignment. You're the best. Thank you.

    • profile image

      Muhammad SyaFiq bin Othman 

      14 months ago

      Your explanation very helpful and easy to understand. Now I can write good article summary for my assignment. Thank you very much.

    • profile image

      Amal 

      14 months ago

      Finally, someone actually gets to the point. And gives a practical, useful informations. I personal appreciate that. Now, I’m ready to write a summary.

    • profile image

      Florence 

      15 months ago

      Thank you for the information of how to write a summary. Very helpful. I am a first year at university, and referencing was a challenge for me. This article is definitely going to help me.

    • profile image

      leah 

      16 months ago

      Your explanations on how to write a summary article helps a lot.

    • profile image

      susan 

      17 months ago

      I caught very effective information from your explanation about how to write a summary of which kinds of words and how i can start the sentences...thank you

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      18 months ago from United States

      Hi Syawal, I do not have any articles about how to write short stories. That is a good idea!

    • profile image

      syawal 

      18 months ago

      Thank you very much bcoz from this article I can understand a little bit about how to write a summary.Did you have article about how to write simple short story?

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      18 months ago from United States

      Cyrille, the last sentence depends on whether your job is just to write a summary or whether you are also supposed to respond with what you thought about the article. If you are supposed to respond, then the last sentence should tell whether you were convinced by the article. If you are just summarizing, then the last sentence should say what the author wants to convince the audience to do, say, think, or believe.

    • profile image

      Cyrille Brown 

      18 months ago

      Hi! I don't know how to make the conclusion of the summary of an argumentative article

    • profile image

      Ekr 

      18 months ago

      10q This is very helpful .

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      18 months ago from United States

      Hi Mudradevi, You can do either present or past tense if you are consistent throughout, but generally, I think present tense works best. It would go like this:

      In "We See the Future," John Joshua states that...

      The author describes his thoughts about...

    • profile image

      mudradevi 

      18 months ago

      do we need to write summary in past or present tense?

    • profile image

      Jennifer 

      19 months ago

      We are using this in class right now. The teacher love this, because this is how sh want us to write. She loves this!!

    • profile image

      ZWIDEH SHECKEDNER KHUNGA NKHOMBO 

      19 months ago

      Thank you for helping me...its a very good work

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      20 months ago from United States

      Hi Bethany, I think that you are quite correct except that the response would not be personal. Instead, your response would be an outline of how you would teach that topic. I think I would try to clarify with the person who gave you this assignment whether they want an outline or a narrative (paragraph form) of writing. I think that summarizing the article as a beginning would be helpful, especially if you are going to teach this information. I don't have information about developing curriculum, but I do have some articles about outlining an explaining article, which is what this probably would be like.

    • profile image

      Bethany 

      20 months ago

      I was told to read several articles and then write a "curriculum outline" over each one (this is for a job where I will be required to teach certain topics, closely related to the required reading).

      I feel this is similar to a summary but maybe it should be formatted like an outline for an essay. I would love to hear what you think! I'm very confused.

    • profile image

      Carly Ownbey 

      21 months ago

      i am so glad you made this because i am not good at this kind of stuff

    • profile image

      Cynthia Bass 

      22 months ago

      Thanks for helping me. I haven't wrote a summary in awhile and this will help me.

    • profile image

      Mirkomil 

      22 months ago

      thank you a lot. monday i have english exam and it will help me

    • profile image

      mari 

      22 months ago

      Thank you for helping me. Actually it's my first time taking help from you. So thank you. I'll make sure to take help from you next time as well when I'll again get in some problem.I'm sure you will help me again. So thank you again.

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      22 months ago from United States

      Yes Mari- a definition could be appropriate if the audience may not know the word or how it is used in that context.

    • profile image

      mari 

      23 months ago

      Can i write a definition in my summary? Will it be okay to write it?

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      24 months ago from United States

      Hi Karen, you can use the actual noun of the person's name, or a word that describes the person or their relationship to you. For example:, mom, teacher, friend, the woman wearing purple, the lady with long hair, the middle-aged woman, Mrs. Jones or my friend.

    • profile image

      Karen Kenny 

      24 months ago

      Good Morning! I was just wondering if you might have a list of words to use in place of "I", "you" and "we"?

    • profile image

      Karen Kenny 

      2 years ago

      This article has been so HELPFUL! Thank You!

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      2 years ago from United States

      Hi Helencab! I'm so glad that my ideas are helping your students. One of the most enjoyable parts of posting these articles has been to see people all over the world using them.

    • profile image

      Helencab 

      2 years ago

      Thanks a lot! I have been looking for something like this for my students of 2nd Bachillerato (in Spain) and it's perfect!

    • profile image

      marii 

      2 years ago

      great tip!

    • profile image

      giselle 

      2 years ago

      Thanks for the grateful tips!

    • profile image

      Hanane Moumaddid 

      2 years ago

      thank you so much ...

    • Jorge Kwyntin profile image

      Jorge Kwyntin 

      2 years ago

      it helps a lot for summary writers like me..

      thank.........you VK

    • profile image

      Natha 

      2 years ago

      Great article, very helpful :)

    • profile image

      netha 

      2 years ago

      nice work

    • profile image

      Rebecca 

      2 years ago

      Congratulations, this was very helpful to me.

      Thank you

    • profile image

      Raphy 

      2 years ago

      extremely helpful. thanks

    • profile image

      Avian Report 

      2 years ago

      This is a nice piece of work!

      Thank you.

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      4 years ago from United States

      Hi Edu--If you assignment is to write about an article, then you usually need to summarize (tell the main ideas of the article) before you talk about it. Sometimes you summarize the whole article and then tell what you think. Other times, you might just summarize smaller parts of the essay and mix it with what you think. You might want to see my article on How to Write a Reading Response paper.

    • profile image

      Edu 

      4 years ago

      I would like to write an essay from an article.

      Is there any other way of writing the essay or summarizing the article is the only means to be my essay?

    • profile image

      Sourat 

      5 years ago

      I love it very very satisfied

    • unverm profile image

      unverm 

      6 years ago

      Thanks a lot...

    • profile image

      Zukiswa Dube 

      6 years ago

      thankyou so much this is loud and clear i was so frustrated don't know where to start my summary.

    • profile image

      Eldar 

      7 years ago

      That's the most clear explanation that i've been looking. Thank You though

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      7 years ago from United States

      So glad to have you join us on Hubpages xstatic. I've been a teacher of writing for years and I've published in print, but I love this medium because you get a chance to have much more feedback. And you can always go back and edit your Hubs! Besides, you can write on anything you like.

    • xstatic profile image

      Jim Higgins 

      7 years ago from Eugene, Oregon

      I bookmarked this one. I was an English major, but have not written formally for a long time. When I strated to write my first Hub the other day, based on an article I read elsewhere and some personal experience, I decided I needed to brush up on the process. This is a big help, and I will read more of your Hubs.

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      7 years ago from United States

      Thanks donnaisabella--what a pretty name! Glad you find the information useful. I really only started posting here for my own students and have been amazed at how many people look at my pages each day on writing. However, I've written these up because so many times I felt the books didn't explain very well. Best wishes!

    • donnaisabella profile image

      Isabella Mukanda 

      7 years ago from Fort Myers

      Very helpful information. Thanks for sharing. I wish I had this 26 years ago, what a difference it would have made. But guess what, I will still need it in a little while!

    • VirginiaLynne profile imageAUTHOR

      Virginia Kearney 

      7 years ago from United States

      I'm so glad I've helped you Asmaa. So many English books really don't give very clear directions. That is why I've written up a summary of the best instructions I've found over the years in different textbooks (plus my own ideas!). Hope your essay goes well!

    • profile image

      Asmaa 

      7 years ago

      Thank you so much!!!!

      You helped me a lot!

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