Lesson for Time Management and Independent Living for Children With Disabilities

Updated on August 24, 2018
Tim Truzy info4u profile image

Tim Truzy is a rehabilitation counselor, educator, and former dispatcher from North Carolina.

Being organized in managing time and appropriate use of space during all events are key elements for success academically and in later years.
Being organized in managing time and appropriate use of space during all events are key elements for success academically and in later years. | Source

We need our Time and Space

In order to achieve success during academic life and beyond, obtaining knowledge about one’s immediate surroundings and managing time are essential steps for young children, including those with visual impairments. A teacher working with students with visual impairments must explore these topics in several ways. Primarily, a teacher must be aware of how the loss of vision has impacted the ability of the student to access the visual environment. In addition, concepts regarding time must be explained and discussed, moving from the concrete to the abstract. Finally, experiences which unify knowledge must be provided. For these reasons, special education professionals called Teachers of the Visually Impaired (TVI) assist students with vision loss in grasping concepts through direct instruction.

One of my students asked an interesting question, motivating me to create this lesson. He inquired: “Mr. Truzy, I was watching a military movie on TV. One guy screamed the enemy was at three o’clock? I thought it was evening, based on what the other soldiers said. Was the sergeant not telling time right?” I saw an opportunity to teach about time management as specified in Compensatory Academic skills and Independent Living.

The lesson below focuses on areas of the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) to address deficits in learning pertaining to Compensatory Academic Skills and Independent Living. These are two of the nine subject areas of the ECC. However, you may wish to conduct these activities over several class periods. Modify as appropriate for your students’ comprehension level and your time restraints.

Poll

Which of these instructional approaches will you apply?

See results

Key Components of the Lesson

  • Grades – Elementary school children.
  • Materials –Materials for this lesson included: a plate with a fork and spoon, a book bag, and a notebook
  • Vocabulary – The vocabulary words I included were: next, before, during, past, future, now, start, begin, finished, later. I also added: schedule, end, and priority.
  • Inclusion of Technology – For this lesson, I used a braille watch and a computer.

Thinking about what happens during the day helps with time management.
Thinking about what happens during the day helps with time management. | Source

Phase 1: What Time is It?

The goal of this activity was to increase my students’ knowledge of time management in accordance with the ECC area of Compensatory Academic Skills.

I gave my students the vocabulary above, inquiring: “How do you keep track of time?” Here are the responses I received:


  1. I check my watch.
  2. I use my smartphone or laptop.
  3. I ask someone.


I directed my students who had technology to show the class how they applied the devices to finding out about the time of day. They did. I showed my students how to use screenreader technology on a laptop by navigating to the clock feature. (Screenreaders are software packages which help people with visual impairments access text and other items on the computer. Many such programs are free on the internet.)

I invited my students outside, noting the day and sunshine. Historically, I explained the importance of the sun for measuring time i.e., seasons, time of day, etc. (Every opportunity to connect the ECC with the standard curriculum must be pursued, which includes discussing historical facts.)

I said: “How do you organize your day?" This brought on silence. I asked my students to return to their desks.

We explored some daily activities aloud. The students mentioned: playing, eating meals, going to and leaving school, watching movies and listening to music. We discussed how using notebooks, book bags, and electronic devices for organizing helps with managing time more effectively. I talked about schedules and priorities at this point, reminding my students buses, their parents, and the school had schedules and priorities as well.

I passed around a book bag and a note book for my students to examine, offering suggestions on organization and time management.


Questions to Ask

At this point, I wanted to check for understanding and review. I told my students to help me choose the best of two options when they heard my statements:

  1. I’m going to a movie, can’t homework wait?
  2. Hey!! There’s John. I’m going to chat with him before I get to the next class.
  3. Man, I'll listen to this new song by the Whatevers and then I’ll tune into the teacher. Mr. Truzy can wait. This song is a serious jam! (My students laughed at my ancient slang.)
  4. I can leave my notes on the desk and play this video game. I don’t have to put them away. Notes will take care of themselves.
  5. I’m going to read the Super Frog comic book, then I’ll do my homework.
  6. My students chose the right course of action each time.


People with visual impairments may use braille and/or talking watches to keep track of time.
People with visual impairments may use braille and/or talking watches to keep track of time. | Source

Phase 2: Let's time it!

Next, I introduced the children to a large clock and a braille watch, like the one in the photo. The goal of this activity was to increase my students’ knowledge of managing time in accordance with the ECC area of Compensatory Academic Skills. I explained before clocks, watches, and smartphones could talk or were digital, people looked at hands on a clock or watch to determine time.

I showed my students how the hours and minutes were determined based on the long and short hands on the timekeepers. I let them explore the devices with their sense of touch. After discussing how time was measured on the devices, I asked them each to set a different time as I took the watch around the room. They were accurate with each turn.

We discussed how there was twenty-four hours in a day, divided into A.M. and P.M. I explained the military counts all twenty-four hours, with zero placed before numbers less than ten. My students kept saying: “At 3-30 P.M., or 15:30 hours, school is out.)

People with vision loss may use the concepts of how a clock is laid out when locating food on a plate.
People with vision loss may use the concepts of how a clock is laid out when locating food on a plate. | Source

Phase 3: Give me Dinner on Time

Finally, I brought out a plate with utensils. The goal of this activity was to increase my students’ knowledge of living independently relevant to dining. I told my students to imagine the plate as a clock. I explained that sometimes people may use the roundness of the plate to help them find food applying the concepts of a clock.

I place the fork and spoon at different simulated times: 4 o’clock, 8 o’clock, and ten o’clock. Then, I allowed my students time to practice.

I asked: “What if I told you your potatoes were at 12:00? 6:00? 3:00?” They found the location of the imagined food each time.

After this exercise, I instructed my students to take the vocabulary words home and use them to write sentences. One student pointed out: “It’s time to go. Exit: two o’clock.”

The student who gave me the idea for this lesson walked up to me. He said: “Mr. T., The sergeant in that movie was telling his men the enemy was to the right. But I hope the food in the cafeteria doesn’t come flying at me at any given minute or hour.” Lesson learned.

Poll

Do you schedule time for discussion during instruction?

See results

References

Lydon, W., & McGraw, M. (1973). Concept Development for Visually Handicapped Children: A Resource Guide for Teachers and Other Professionals Working in Educational Settings. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Lowenfeld, B. (1973). The visually handicapped child in school. New York: John Day Co.

Questions & Answers

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • Tim Truzy info4u profile imageAUTHOR

        Tim Truzy 

        5 months ago from U.S.A.

        Thank you, Jo. My wife and I love doing what we can for children who must face a world where creativity and resourcefulness are key components in surviving as adults in a world not designed for people who must deal with limiting mental, emotional, physical, or social abilities.

        It's fun and challenging.

        Much respect and admiration,

        Sincerely,

        Tim

      • jo miller profile image

        Jo Miller 

        5 months ago from Tennessee

        I think you must be a very special teacher.

      • Tim Truzy info4u profile imageAUTHOR

        Tim Truzy 

        5 months ago from U.S.A.

        Thanks, Sean,

        My kids are pretty special people. My favorite thing to do is give them just enough to think and find the answers. That's what I did with this lesson. Ultimately, I want to give my children the tools to continue to learn, long after they are done with school. I want them to be able to have the cognitive skills to satisfy their curiosity, fill in any gaps they may have, on their own.

        Thanks for your appreciated comment.

        Much respect and admiration,

        Sincerely,

      • Sean Dragon profile image

        Ioannis Arvanitis 

        5 months ago from Greece, Almyros

        My dear Brother, I am so blessed to know a luminous Soul like you and call you Brother! As a teacher for over 27 years, I know that the Love you put in your effort really can make a great change to the world!

        Proud to know you!

        Sean

      • Tim Truzy info4u profile imageAUTHOR

        Tim Truzy 

        5 months ago from U.S.A.

        One reason I was excited to write this lesson is that it gave me an opportunity to honor the men and women who helped laid the foundations for instruction of students with disabilities. Using concepts relevant to clocks for spacial relationships grew directly out of the military.

        Many soldiers returning home from W. W. II applied what they had learned to activities of daily living. Often, these men or women were coping with disabling conditions. The whole field of orientation and mobility (O&M) grew out of these determined men learning to walk around with canes to their favorite restaurants or other locations. Indeed, they paved the way.

        Much respect to them and you for reading,

        Sincerely,

        Tim

      • Tim Truzy info4u profile imageAUTHOR

        Tim Truzy 

        5 months ago from U.S.A.

        Thank you, Pamela,

        My heart is in this with these children. Historically, people and children who were different were locked away or hidden from sight because they were thought unworthy, even in some places they were assumed better off not alive.

        I keep believing that maybe one of these lovable children will grow up to be like Hawkins, Wonder, Ray Charles or other people with disabilities who made a big difference in humanity. If not, I pray they contribute to society by being good citizens.

        I appreciate your kind comment. I learn as much from them as they learn from me in any given day. It's what keeps the teacher/student relationship fresh and vibrant.

        Much respect and admiration,

        May your day be rewarding and peaceful,

        Sincerely,

        Tim

      • Tim Truzy info4u profile imageAUTHOR

        Tim Truzy 

        5 months ago from U.S.A.

        Hi, Flourish,

        You are absolutely correct. A few of the children I work with have low vision, meaning they have some residual vision. They enjoy the braille watch as much as my students who are totally blind.

        Making fully sighted students aware of others' needs would help; if anything, such awareness increases sensitivity and empathy, allowing some of the societal prejudices which have persisted and still are prevalent to diminish over time.

        When I can, I participate in guest lectures at my local universities and public schools to work with other professionals not in the rehabilitation or vision fields understand some of the challenges and accomplishments achieved by this population.

        As you so wisely pointed out in one of your articles: people never know when disability can strike them or a loved one, so awareness is key.

        As always,

        Thank you for your kind and thoughtful comment on this article.

        Much respect and admiration,

        Sincerely,

        Tim

      • FlourishAnyway profile image

        FlourishAnyway 

        5 months ago from USA

        It would be a good lesson in perspective to teach sighted kids the Braille watch and have them assume the role so they can empathize with the adaptations that others make.

      • Pamela99 profile image

        Pamela Oglesby 

        5 months ago from Sunny Florida

        Tim, I am so impressed with this article of teaching visually impaired students.It sounds like you involved the student using this curriculum to enhance their understanding, and it sounds like the most appropriate method.

        I enjoyed your article immensely as I guess I never gave much thought to teaching visually impaired chidren. I think you must be an excellent teacher.

      • Tim Truzy info4u profile imageAUTHOR

        Tim Truzy 

        5 months ago from U.S.A.

        Thank you, Eric. You always offer wise and kind words whether through your articles or your comments, and yes, you have a great sense of humor.

        Your comment means a lot to me because these kids are precious and they need help in as many ways as possible without people being condescending.

        I think the best comment I ever received from one of my students was that I let them be "kids."

        Based on what I've read from your work, I know we share that spirit.

        As always,

        Much respect and admiration,

        Sincerely,

        Tim

      • Ericdierker profile image

        Eric Dierker 

        5 months ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A.

        Tim this touched me on so many levels. What wonderful work you do. How special that you can apply curriculum and make it better , no much better.

        You made me realize and remember how fortunate I have been to be able to work with our most intuitive members of our society. And how special their friends/adults are to walk the life through with them and not at them.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)