Literal, Inferential, and Critical Comprehensive Reading
Comprehension is understanding what is being said or read. When it comes to reading, It is an active process that must be developed if a learner is to become a proficient reader. Effective reading skill development is further accomplished when the learner becomes proficient in literal, inferential and critical comprehensive reading.
Literal comprehension involves what the author is actually saying. The reader needs to understand ideas and information explicitly stated in the reading material. Some of this information is in the form of recognizing and recalling facts, identifying the main idea, supporting details, categorizing, outlining, and summarizing. The reader is trying to better understand what is acually happening within the text.
The reader is also locating information, using context clues to supply meaning, following specific directions, following a sequence, identifying the stated conclusion, and identifying explicitly stated relationships and organizational patterns. These organizational patterns can include cause and effect as well as comparison and contrast.
For example, some questions and activities may include:
- What words state the main idea of the story?
- How does the author summarize what she/he is saying?
- Outlining the first paragraph of the story.
- What happened first, second and last?
- How are these things alike? How are they different?
- What things belong together?
Inferential comprehension deals with what the author means by what is said. The reader must simply read between the lines and make inferences about things not directly stated. Certain ideas and concepts may be implied by the text, and they may not be apparent at first glance.
Again these inferences are made in the main idea, supporting details, sequence, and cause and effect relationships. Inferential comprehension could also involve interpreting figurative language, drawing conclusions, predicting outcomes, determining the mood, and judging the author’s point of view.
The following questions are usually asked:
- What does the author value?
- What is the theme?
- What effect does this character/event have on the story?
- How do you think this story will end?
Critical comprehension concerns itself with why the author says what he or she says. This high level of comprehension requires the reader to use some external criteria from his/her own experience in order to evaluate the quality, values of the writing, the author’s reasoning, simplifications, and generalizations. The reader will react emotionally and intellectually with the material.
Because everyone's life experiences are varied, answers to some of the following questions will vary:
- Could this possibly happen?
- Is this argument logical?
- What alternatives are there?
- Is this a fact or an opinion?
- Do you agree or disagree with the author?
- What is the best solution to this problem?
To conclude, literal, inferential and critical comprehensive reading is what makes a skilled, strong reader. This skill must be learned and developed. It does not just happen. With that thought in mind, it has also been shown that strong readers make good writers.
Sustained exposure to the English language does allow for an expanded vocabulary and knowledge of correct grammar usage. When this is combined with literal, inferential and critical reading experiences, it enables writers to better express themselves.
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