# Science Fair: Rolling Dice Probability Experiment

VirginiaLynne is an educator and mom of 5. Her science fair articles are from projects that competed successfully (local, state, national).

## Quick and Easy Experiment

In a time crunch? Need a project now? Here is a fast, easy experiment you can do in an evening, but which has interesting results. My second-grade daughter was doing this on her own, so it really is her invention. Since she needed a science fair project and we were running out of time, I grabbed the idea and converted it into an actual experiment. See the photos and her poster results below to know how to do the project. You can also use the videos in this article to help teach more about the mathematical concepts of probability.

## Parent Instructions

1. Read the Instructions: Depending on your child's age, you can let them read the instructions and look at the step-by-step pictures or read to them.
2. Decide on Your Plan: Older children can figure out how they want to record their experiment. Younger children might need help figuring out how to keep track of the dice rolls and record them on a chart. Kindergarten or first-grade children might need adult supervision as they do the rolling and recording.
3. Gather Your Supplies: You'll need dice, paper, pen, and cup (for rolling) on a flat surface. ( Also bring out the camera. Don't forget to take pictures along the way for your poster and print them off to decorate with).
4. Make Your Guess (Hypothesis). Write it down.
5. Set up a Chart: Make a chart where the child can count rolls and results.
6. Do Your Experiment. Let your child do the experiment with the dice and take notes.
7. Draw Conclusions: Look at the results together and help them understand the conclusions. Write these down on your paper. You might want to watch some of the videos below to help them understand probability.
8. Type up your Work. Then you or your child can type these up on the computer and print them off. Be sure to use a bold type and a pretty big one that is easy to read.
9. Make Your Board: You can buy a tri-fold board and sticker letters, or print off titles on the computer. Let your child make dice out of paper--that is easy!
10. Decorating: If you follow a board game, you can use the cover of the game or a copy of it or Internet pictures to decorate too. Usually, it is a great idea to put some pictures of your child doing the experiment, or at least one picture of your child on the board to show it is their work.
11. Have fun! I know that doing a science fair project is a lot of work, but it is also a time to spend some meaningful time with your child. Often we will enjoy thinking about these projects when we do something similar later—in this case, every time we play a board game involving rolling dice. Let your child tell people what they learned about probability. You will be surprised at how smart they will sound!

## What Parents Can Do

For elementary school projects, parents have to help at least part of the way. Here is how parents can be most helpful:

1. Help kids understand the experiment.
2. Help kids understand the format they need to follow: hypothesis, materials, procedure, results, and conclusion.
3. Help children find videos or other information to research their topic.
4. Help them create a log to keep notes about their experiment.
5. Help gather the materials needed.
6. Help them as they write out the different parts of the experiment. For younger children, the parents might want to write down what the child says rather than having the child write.
7. Type up the experiment if the child is not old enough to do that.
8. Help the child figure out how to put things together on their board.

## Sample Chart for Results

Rollstrial 1: correct dice (per roll)trial 2

roll one

roll two

roll three

## 5 Different Dice Experiment Ideas

Here are 5 other experiments you can do with dice:

1. How Many Rolls? You can throw one dice 100 times to see how many times you get each number: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
2. How Many Rolls for a Yahtzee? Playing off the game of Yahtzee where you need to get 5 dice the same number after 3 rolls, see how many times you can get a Yahtzee in three rolls if you try for 50 or 100 times.
3. Vary the Number of Dice. We used 40 dice because that is how many we had in the house! You could use 100, or 50, or even 10. We did five trials, but you could do more.
4. How Long to Bun-co? Using the idea of the game Bun-co, you can try to see how many rolls of 4 dice it takes for you to get a roll (in one throw) that all the dice are the same.
5. When Rolling Two Dice, What is the Most Common Sum? (see video below)

## Student Example

### How I thought of this experiment:

I like to roll the dice a lot. We have a box full of dice and I was putting them in a cup and rolling them to see how many times I had to roll to make them all the same number. My mom said that could be a good experiment!

### Question:

How many rolls does it take to get all 40 dice to be the same number?

### Hypothesis:

I guess most of the time it will take about 15 rolls.

### Materials:

1. 40 dice
2. A cup to roll dice
3. piece of paper and a pen.

### Procedure:

1. I put the dice in the cup and rolled them on the table.
2. Whatever number the big dice rolled was is the number I chose.
3. I counted all the dice that were that number and marked them on my chart.
4. I took up all the dice that weren’t that number and rolled again. I counted how many were my number and put that on my chart.
5. I kept on rolling dice and marking how many were my number on each roll.
6. I rolled until all the dice were the same number.
7. Do the experiment 5 times.

### Results

Here is how many rolls it took for all the dice to be the same number. I did the experiment five times.

• Trial 1: 15 Rolls
• Trial 2: 15 Rolls
• Trial 3: 16 rolls
• Trial 4: 17 rolls
• Trial 5: 20 rolls

What I noticed when I looked at my chart was that in the first six or seven rolls, there was always at least one of the dice that was right. Most of the time, there were a lot of them right. Four times I rolled more than 10 of the 40 dice the same number! Usually, I got 30 of the dice to be the same number after six or seven rolls. Getting those last ten dice to be the same number was a lot harder. I learned that the fewer dice you have the harder it is to roll a number.

### Conclusion:

I was right that it took 15 times of rolling the dice to get all of them the same number. I was surprised that it took more than 15 rolls on three of my trials.

What I learned: I learned that at the end there are mostly 0s because you have fewer dice and it is harder to get the one you want. You can’t get the one you want so easily when there aren’t as many dice. What I liked about this experiment was rolling the dice and seeing the numbers. I also liked hearing the sound of the dice on the table!

Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on March 05, 2020:

Hi Jessica--this is a perfect project for a 2nd grader. I think that for the report she could talk about what "probability" is and how it is useful in practical ways. You can find that out by just Googling the subject. I think that it woud be great to let her "audience" try out her experiment. You could have dice and a box to throw them in. Have them answer the question, "If I roll the dice 6 times, what is the chance I will get X?"

Jessica Oatis on March 05, 2020:

Thank you!!! I'm over hear freaking out on how to teach my 2nd grader about pool testing or light bending. This was so helpful!!!! She will love this!!!!

Jessica Oatis on March 05, 2020:

My 2nd grader has to have a 150 word report to go along AND a project in front of the board. Any suggestions? Could she write her report on how dice are made or should it be a repeat of what's on the board? Project? Just bring dice on a tray to roll them?

Ariana Grande on January 18, 2017:

I like your pictures!!!!!!!!!!

emwhite68 on March 12, 2015:

Thank you! This was so very helpful!

Estefany moran mariche on January 19, 2015:

I love this website

Estefany moran mariche on January 18, 2015:

I love this project

Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on April 22, 2012:

Thanks Catsimmons! I had originally posted some information for my kid's elementary school science fair when I was coordinator. That post on my blog brought in so much traffic that I realized there was a need. I moved the information over to Hubpages and expanded it. Now I'm adding individual project ideas. Science projects should be fun!

Catherine Simmons from Mission BC Canada on April 21, 2012:

Super handy hub!!

How many parents have spent hours scouring the web looking for ideas to help their kids? Here they are handily presented together.

Thanks for all the tips!