The Sticky Story of the Penny Black Stamp
Long before we could email, text or tweet our news to family and friends there was post, snail mail. During the British reforms of the 1830s, the postal system was revolutionised. The first prepaid adhesive stamp in the world was invented: The Penny Black. Did you know that it was quickly abandoned?
10 Questions and Answers About Heaven
The smile of a child, the fragrance of a flower, sunlight on a fresh, spring morning—all these are short-lived glimmers of heaven. The inward spirit longs for undying joy. God places this desire in the soul and seeks to fulfil it. This article tries to answer questions about heaven.
Henrietta Maria: A Young Catholic Queen in a Protestant Country
French-born Henrietta Maria was the daughter, sister, mother and wife of kings. In 1625 she was married to the autocratic Charles I in England. She was a Catholic in a Protestant country which made her unpopular. She had to overcome opposition to finally secure Charles' attention and confidence.
The Wars of the Roses: Medieval England's Climactic Conflict
Matthew's interests include writing, gaming, movies, and pretending to be Irish despite only having one Irish Great Grandparent.
Why Is Friday the 13th Considered Unlucky?
Friday the 13th is considered unlucky, but why? The superstitious Victorians added the bad luck of Friday to the misfortune of 13 and the 13th to seal its fate as a shudder-inducing date on the calendar in Western cultures.
Early Roman Warfare, by Jeremy Armstrong, a Review
A review of Early Roman Warfare, by Jeremy Armstrong, a book detailing a revised model of development for the early Roman armies.
Project Acoustic Kitty Lets the Spy Cat Out of the Bag
In the 1960s, the CIA thought it could train cats to spy on its enemies. Project Acoustic Kitty was born.
Lincoln and Douglas History in Winchester, Illinois
The town of Winchester, Illinois, was once home to Stephen A. Douglas and the site of an important speech by Abraham Lincoln. A number of buildings of historic and architectural significance remain there as well.
"The Bizarre King Zog" of Albania
Albania's King Zog I was a Charlie Chaplin-loving, ruthless dictator who made himself king with Benito Mussolini's backing. He rose from relatively lowly roots to the highest position in the land and yet with one word from Mussolini the dream ended.
Timeline of the Scientific Revolution
From the 15th through the 18th centuries, scientific thought underwent a revolution. The Aristotelian view of nature that had dominated science for almost 2,000 years was cast out. The Scientific Revolution brought forth a more rigorous method of scientific exploration.
6 Key Elements of Gothic Literature: Romance With Horror
Gothic novels are dark and compelling. You have to keep reading, no matter what horrors they contain. What are the key elements that define such a novel?
Medieval Food: What Did People in England Eat During the Middle Ages?
Fine dining in the feudal era was reserved for the rich, while the poor made do with bread and stew. Here is an overview of what people from various classes of medieval society depended on for their daily sustenance.
Analysis of Poem 'Immigrants in Our Own Land' by Jimmy Santiago Baca
'Immigrants in Our Own Land' focuses on identity and the hopes and dreams of chicanos (Americans of Mexican descent) and mestizos (mixed race Mexicans) who are 'living without a soul' in prison and society. Jimmy Santiago Baca based his poem on personal experience—an example of Pinto poetry.
Gerard Manley Hopkins’ "Pied Beauty"
Gerard Manley Hopkins’ "Pied Beauty" is an innovative sonnet, dedicated to honoring and praising the Divine Creator for the multitude and variety of gifts He has bestowed upon His children. That varied multitude offers the beauty that keeps the divine drama ever moving on pathways to glory.
Common Questions About Jesus' Death, Burial and Resurrection
After hearing sermons and teachings about the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ many times, even Christians still have questions about the sacred events. This articles addresses some of those common questions.
Charles II vs. Frances Stuart: The One That Got Away
Charles II is renowned for his legion of ladies. Despite mistresses including Nell Gwyn and Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland and myriad illegitimate children—several named Charles or Charlotte—this merry monarch didn't captivate his cousin, the beautiful Frances Stuart. It was a shock to his ego.
Analysis of Poem 'A Mother in a Refugee Camp' by Chinua Achebe
Chinua Achebe's 'A Mother in a Refugee Camp' focuses on the sad plight of a mother having to bury her son, carefully combing his hair before letting go of her loved one. Based on personal observations during the civil war between Biafra and Nigeria, the poem is a universal message to humanity.
Emperor Nero Influenced by Mother Agrippina the Younger
Roman Emperor Nero lived for just thirty years but these were tumultuous. He became notorious for his tyrannical behaviour, including the torture and execution of Christians, the burning of Rome and his extravagance. Nero constructed his own downfall.
Analysis of Poem 'I think of thee' (Sonnet 29) by Elizabeth Barrett Browning
'I think of thee' is Sonnet 29 in 'Sonnets from the Portuguese', Barrett Browning's groundbreaking sonnets in Petrarchan form which follow her emotional changes in her relationship with Robert Browning. Metaphor and simile combine, as tree and vine, thoughts disappearing as the two become closer.
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales: Charles I's Elder Brother
The Scottish prince who became King Charles I of Britain had an elder brother who died in 1612. It's tempting to wonder whether Henry Frederick would have been a better king than Charles who lost his head and his throne.
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave Explained
The ancient Greek philosopher Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is one of the most read pieces of Western writing in history. The story of the prisoners trapped in a cave and their escape to the sunlight (knowledge) is from Plato’s masterwork, The Republic.