Archaeology is one of Kelley's great passions. He's read many books on the subject, as well as every issue of "Archaeology" since 1987.
For many years the ancient people of earth built geoglyphs, which invariably leave people wondering how they were made, when they were made and for what purpose. The main reason for this speculation is that none of these cultures left written records regarding these ancient earthworks; nonetheless, scientists have done a great job of revealing some of their secrets.
Bear in mind that all of the geoglyphs on this list were built at least hundreds, if not thousands of years ago, and certainly not by contemporary folks using modern machinery or techniques. Also, some of these geoglyphs have been restored to a certain extent, for better or worse, which may enhance their esthetic attributes, though perhaps damage their archaeological value.
Please check out this list of what could be the world’s most impressive ancient geoglyphs.
14. Andean Wild Cat (Peru)
One of many geoglyphs located on the Nazca and Palpa desert regions of Peru, some 250 miles south of Lima, this feline geoglyph could be included with the other famous Nazca geoglyphs or lines. But this effigy of an ancient Andean wild cat, Leopardus jacobita to be exact, is centuries older than the other Nazca geoglyphs, and set apart by itself on a small hillside. This species of cat is considered a sacred animal by indigenous Andean peoples. Built by the Nazca civilization about 2,200 years ago, this 120-foot long, stylized cat bears a resemblance to other artifacts produced by the Paracas culture, which predates the Nazca civilization by hundreds of years.
13. Long Man of Wilmington (England)
Located on the slopes of Windover Hill in Wilmington, East Sussex, England, the Long Man of Wilmington is 235 feet tall and is a so-called hill figure, which are made by cutting into the turf and revealing the underlying rock or chalk. In the past, scientists thought this giant was created around 1000 BCE, or even earlier, but these days they’re fairly certain it was built between 1500 and 1700. Often considered a neo-Pagan representation, the Long Man holds one linear object in each hand, both of which could symbolize weapons or farm implements. Having literary references, the figure appears in “The Old Weird Albion” by Justin Hopper and “The Light Keeper” by Cole Moreton.
12. Kazakhstan Lines (Kazakhstan)
The Kazakhstan Lines comprise a group of more than 50 geoglyphs in northern Kazakhstan; their sizes range from 90 to 400 meters. Built of earthen mounds and timber, these lines show various geometrical designs, including the swastika, an ancient symbol going back perhaps 12,000 years. Very difficult to see on the ground, these shapes and lines were first identified on Google Earth. During the present, researchers and archaeologists, using aerial photography and ground-penetrating radar, have studied the geoglyphs. Nevertheless, they don’t know when they were created but think they could be as old as 2,000 years. But their purpose remains a mystery.
11. Blythe Intaglios (USA)
The Blythe Intaglios, found near Blythe, California, on the border between California and Arizona, are anthropomorphic or animal-like figures found among more than 200 such intaglios located in the Colorado Desert. The largest of these figures is 171 feet in length and the smallest 95 feet. Created by removing overlying soil or gravel, revealing a lighter dirt underneath, these gravel pictographs have no known Native American origin in the area. Radiocarbon dating for the figures ranges from 900 BCE to 1200 CE. Researchers think native peoples may have danced near the intaglios, which could represent mythical beings and/or places. Interestingly, the intaglios feature prominently in the Hardy Boys novel, Mystery of the Desert Giant (1961).
10. Westbury White Horse (England)
Located on a hillside on the Salisbury Plain near Westbury in Wiltshire, the Westbury White Horse is 180 feet tall and 170 feet wide. Restored in 1778 and remodeled in 1872, it may be as old as 878 CE, when Alfred, the King of Wessex, won a battle nearby, though documentation for this date is lacking. Moreover, the present representation may cover an older and smaller horse shown in an engraving from the 1760s. Originally, the White Horse was a war horse associated with the Saxons in the Dark Ages; and in the 1800s, it referred to the heraldic symbol representing the British Royal Family, the House of Hanover. Notably, Kenneth Trethowan wrote about the White Horse in Alfred and the Great White Horse of Wiltshire (1939).
9. Effigy Mounds (USA)
Located in the northwestern section of Iowa, Effigy Mounds National Monument features about 200 earthworks, some 30 of which are animal-shaped; the largest is Big Bear Mound, measuring 42 meters in length and over one meter in height above the surrounding ground. Built by the Mound Builder Cultures in the Midwestern section of the US, these geoglyphs were constructed during the first millennium CE and cover an area of over 2,500 acres. Numerous American Indian tribes are associated with the people who built the mounds, including the Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska, the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa and the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin. President Harry Truman established Effigy Mounds National Monument in 1949.
8. Atacama Giant (Chile)
The Atacama Giant is found in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, where, in some places, no rainfall has ever been recorded, which helps just about anything there last a very long time, including the nearly 5,000 geoglyphs in the area. Almost 400 feet long, the Atacama Giant is the largest anthropomorphic figure in the world and was built by either the Inca or Tiwanaku between 1000 and 1400 CE. Scientists think the geoglyph, which depicts the rain god, is a lunar calendar, which marks the position of the setting moon, thereby helping calculate the upcoming crop cycle and season, valuable information in a land where it rarely rains.
7. Wari Tapestry (Peru)
Built by the Wari Culture, which existed from 500 to 1000 CE, this impressive geoglyph is approximately 60 by 40 meters in size and somewhat resembles the tapestries or murals produced in the area for centuries; it is also similar in style to the famous Nasca Lines, also located in Peru. Found in the Arequipa area of Peru, this geoglyph has been nicknamed “Gross Munsa” in Spanish. Interestingly, the Wari were a warlike people similar to other Peruvian cultures such as the Moche, Chimu and Inca. The Wari were great builders of stone and produced elaborate agricultural terraces and canals.
6. Sajama Lines (Bolivia)
In the western Altiplano of Bolivia, enigmatic lines can be seen that seemingly go on without end—for over 22,000 square kilometers, actually. Built by the ancient people of Bolivia, perhaps as long ago as 3,000 years, the Sajama Lines were created when indigenous folks cleared away the covering of plants and dark rocks, revealing the lighter subsurface soil and rocks. These lines are mostly straight as an arrow and, as seen from the air, one may wonder how the builders could have made these orderly geometrical lines without surveying equipment. Since the Sajama Lines cover such an immense area, they are sometimes considered the largest artwork on earth, as well as the most expansive archaeological site. At present, nobody knows why these lines were built.
5. Paracas Candelabra (Peru)
Sometimes called the Candelabra of the Andes, or trident or lightning rod of the Andean god Viracocha, the Paracas geoglyph can be seen on the Paracas Peninsula at Pisco Bay in Peru. Having been dug two feet into the sandy soil, this artistic excavation is almost 600 feet in length and can be seen as far away as 12 miles. Pottery remnants found near the geoglyph have been dated to 200 BCE, indicating the Paracas culture probably built the structure. Interestingly, the Paracas culture also built other geoglyphs in the Palpa province of Peru. The Paracas culture is well-known for producing some of the finest textiles in Ancient Peru. Nevertheless, like many other mysterious structures on this list, nobody knows for certain what it represents or why it was made.
4. Cerne Abbas Giant (England)
Found near the village of Cerne Abbas in Dorset of the United Kingdom, the Cerne Abbas Giant, about 180 feet tall, is a hillside earthwork comprised of an ithyphallic man, perhaps a hunter, wielding a club. Often considered a depiction of the Greek god Hercules, or a Celtic-British figure of some kind, the giant was probably made in the 1600s—or so most experts claim. But some think it was constructed during the Early Medieval Period, or even during Roman times, centuries before. Carved into the white chalk found underneath a layer of turf, making it very easy to see, the Giant covers about one acre and is kept in very good condition; it’s re-chalked every 25 years. Moreover, in modern times, the Giant has become an iconic image in pop culture and can be seen on a beer company’s logo.
According to the September/October 2021 issue of Archaeology, archaeologist Martin Papworth thinks the Giant may resemble Saint Eadwold who, around 987 CE, lived at a Benedictine monastery located only 200 yards from the Giant. Papworth also says that lidar imaging of the Giant shows it was altered significantly over the centuries and, at one time, may not have shown a prominent part of the Giant that would probably be unsettling to monastic people!
3. Great Serpent Mound (USA)
Located near Peebles, Ohio, Great Serpent Mound was discovered by surveyors in 1848 and later designated as a National Historical Monument. This earthwork is a serpent effigy that’s 1,348 feet long and as high as three feet above ground. Built of soil, rocks and clay and covered by turf, the mound resembles an undulating snake eating an egg (some scientists think the egg represents the sun). Nobody knows the origin of the monument, though scientists theorize there could have been a succession of builders: the Adena Culture about 300 BCE, the Hopewell Culture about 500 CE and the Fort Ancient Culture in 1070 CE. All of these peoples were mound builders in the tradition of the Mississippian cultures of the US, so perhaps all three should be given credit for creating it. Interestingly, Great Serpent Mound is considered the largest serpent effigy on the planet, though serpent effigies in Scotland and Ontario, Canada are similar in appearance.
2. Uffington White Horse (England)
Built sometime during the late Bronze Age or early British Iron Age, the Uffington White Horse is a master work of minimalistic art. Comprised of trenches filled with white chalk, and about 260 feet in length, this earthwork is generally considered to represent a running horse, though it bears some resemblance to a saber toothed cat, dog or perhaps another animal (take your pick). White horse or not, in midwinter the sun seems to overtake the geoglyph, thereby depicting a solar deity. Interestingly, there are other white horses in England, namely the Kilburn White Horse, the Folkestone White Horse and the Westbury White Horse, all of which built of white chalk and very impressive, though not quite as large and stylized as the Uffington White Horse. Understandably, in pop culture, this horse has been the inspiration for many works in modern fiction and music, notably Rosemary Sutcliff’s novel, Sun Horse, Moon Horse (1977).
1. Nazca Lines (Peru)
In terms of size, impressive artistic and naturalistic depictions, as well as variety of forms, no geoglyphs are more spectacular than the Nazca Lines. Located in the Nazca Desert, the so-called Nazca Lines are a collection of lines and geometric shapes, but more than 70 are zoomorphic designs of monkeys, jaguars, fish, llamas, spiders and birds, as well as many other animals found locally. Human figures are also found, some of which quite large. Built by the Nazca Culture between 500 BCE and 500 CE, the largest of these figures is 1,200 feet long. Interestingly, some writers and researchers suggest that ancient astronauts built the Nazca Lines, theorizing they would have been too difficult for indigenous folks to produce. But scientists have proven the lines could have been made using the tools and knowledge available to the Nazca people. Of course, nobody knows for sure why they were built, but theorists suggest they had astronomical and/or religious significance.
Please leave a comment!
© 2018 Kelley Marks
Kelley Marks (author) from Sacramento, California on February 21, 2019:
Thanks for the comment, CottonCandy3000! I'm glad you liked my article. You can find more like it if you click on this link: https://hubpages.com/@kosmo
CottonCandy3000 on February 18, 2019:
Sorry for the last comment on your other site. I really liked that site. I also want to know if you can do more things like this. It is really good
Kosmo Kelley on May 04, 2018:
Thanks for the comment, Peggy Woods. I agree that the Nazca Lines are fun to gaze upon and read about, while the other earthworks are mind boggling as well.
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on May 04, 2018:
I was only familiar with hearing and reading about the Nazca Lines in Peru. Thanks for introducing me to these amazing geoglyphs found in other places around the world. It is hard to fathom how they were built in ancient times.
Kelley Marks (author) from Sacramento, California on April 30, 2018:
Thanks for the comment, GH Price. I'm fascinated about anything regarding the ancient world, as this article would seem to suggest. Later!
Georgie Lowery from North Florida on April 30, 2018:
I have always been fascinated by what our ancient ancestors got up to. This is a great article - well written and full of interesting information. Thank you for sharing!