Art history has always been of great interest to Kelley. He's read many books and articles on the subject.
Conceptual art defines the concept or idea behind the creation of such artworks, not their perceived beauty or artistry. Nevertheless, the artworks on this list are mostly pleasing to the eyes, so aesthetics may have played a part in their creation. Also, the compilation is produced in no particular order.
1. Fountain by Marcel Duchamp (1917)
Perhaps the first great work of Conceptual art—if not the most famous—Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain is a readymade object, a men’s porcelain urinal actually, which Duchamp submitted to an art exhibition for the Society of Independent Artists and displayed upside down and signed with the pseudonym, R. Mutt. Considered one of the first so-called anti-artists, Duchamp wanted to produce an artwork that wasn’t meant to please the eye—but instead, serve the mind. This “sculpture” became the inspiration for Dada, an avant-garde art movement in NYC and Europe. Referring to the artwork, philosopher Stephen Hicks wrote: “In selecting the urinal, his message was clear: Art is something you piss on.” Interestingly, Duchamp’s replicas of Fountain have sold for as much as $1.7 million apiece.
2. Collection of One Hundred Plaster Surrogates by Allan McCollum (1982–1990)
Allan McCollum began creating conceptual artworks in the 1960s and ‘70s in the Los Angeles area. One in a series of McCollum’s Surrogate Paintings, which he began in 1978, Collection of One Hundred Plaster Surrogates deals with the perceived value of mass produced objects de art compared to that of unique, handmade artworks. McCollum would ask, If you have a mold that can produce a unique work of art, why not use the same mold to produce hundreds of artworks so everybody can have one? Surrogates shows a collection of more or less identical, picture-like depictions made of enamel on cast hydrostone. Notably, McCollum began showing solo exhibitions of his work in 1970 and has produced over 130 in his impressive, prolific career.
3. The American Dream is Alive and Well by Nicholas Gallanin (2012)
Born in Sitka, Alaska, Nicholas Gallanin is a Tlingit Indian (Tlingit means “People of the Tides”), who’s been exhibiting his artworks throughout North America and Europe since the early 2000s. A conceptual artist, musician, silversmith and activist, Gallanin writes and speaks about colonialism and ecological concerns. He writes: “Culture is rooted in connection to land; like land, culture cannot be contained.” The multi-media artwork, The American Dream is Alive and Well, offers a contrast between the Native American and non-Native American perspective regarding the American dream.
4. Cadillac Ranch by Chip Lord, Hudson Marquez, and Doug Michels (1974)
Comprising an installation by Ant Farm, an experimental architectural, graphics arts and environmental design group founded in San Francisco, California, in 1968, Cadillac Ranch shows 10 Cadillacs automobiles, all of which buried front-first in a cow pasture along Interstate 40 near Amarillo, Texas. These Cadillacs are models from 1949 to 1963, all of which manufactured during the tailfin era of American cars. Incidentally, anyone can visit these cars and paint whatever they want on them, producing a kind of interactive art. And many movies or videos have been made at this pop culture magnet, including a scene from the film, Bomb City (2017).
5. The Physical Impossibilities of Death in the Mind of Someone Living by Damien Hirst (1991)
British artist Damien Hirst likes to create artworks about death, and The Physical Impossibilities of Death in the Mind of Someone Living certainly deals with death in a cadaverous way; it consists of a dead tiger shark preserved in a vitrine filled with formaldehyde. Funded by businessman Charles Saatchi, the shark cost Hirst £6,000 and £50,000 in total for displaying this “fish without chips,” as one journalist called it. Keep in mind this shark deteriorated so badly it had to be replaced by another shark in 2006, a process that cost another $100,000. In 2007, an article in the New York Times said “the shark is simultaneously life and death incarnate. In its tank it gives the innately demonic urge to live a demonic, deathlike form.” Responding to people saying anyone could stick a dead fish in a tank and call it art, Hirst says, "But you didn't (do it), did you?"
6. Surrounded Islands by Christo and Jean-Claude (1983)
Christo and Jean-Claude, a married couple born on the same day—June 13, 1935— produced works of environmental art for decades, the first of which in 1972. Jean-Claude died in 2009, but Christo continues to produce such artworks. For two weeks, Surrounded Islands could be viewed on 11 islands in Miami’s Biscayne Bay. A floating, pink polypropylene fabric was wrapped around each island by 430 workers wearing pink and blue outfits, designed and produced by fashion designer Willi Smith. Christo and Jean-Claude have said their outdoor artworks don’t have hidden meaning, they’re simply meant to have aesthetic impact. Incidentally, all of these “enhancements” are removed after a short time. Christo said, “I think it takes much greater courage to create things to be gone than to create things that will remain."
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7. You Are Not Yourself by Barbara Kruger (1981)
Barbara Kruger lives in NYC and LA and is a Distinguished Professor of New Genres at the UCLA School of Arts and Architecture. Most of Kruger’s art work comprises black and white photos or collages containing first person declarations about sexuality, feminism, identity, power and consumerism. Other such pithy statements on her artworks include: “I shop therefore I am,” and “Your body is a battleground.” You Are Not Yourself shows a woman staring at herself in a mirror that’s apparently been struck by a bullet. In 1991, Kruger said: "I would venture to guess that many people heed their mirrors at least five times a day and that vigilance certainly can structure physical and psychic identity."
8. The Lightning Field by Walter De Maria (1977)
Located in Catron County, New Mexico, and situated at an elevation of 7,200 feet on a remote, treeless, desert plateau, The Lightning Field comprises 400 stainless steel rods with pointed tips arranged in a rectangular grid, one mile by one kilometer in size. As the title seems to imply, The Lightning Field does attract lightning from time to time, though not often and, during thunderstorms, balls of St. Elmo’s Fire may roll through. Created by the Dia Art Foundation, which maintains the site, each of the poles has a concrete footing designed to keep the poles in place in winds up to 110 mph. In her book Glittering Images (2012) Camille Paglia wrote: “The work is not so much about lightning as about waiting for lightning—God’s wrath or the flash of revelation, the thunderbolt of artistic inspiration or love at fight sight.”
9. Skylanding by Yoko Ono (2016)
Yoko Ono initiated her artistic career in London, England, where she began a relationship with Fluxus, a group of avant-garde artists who experimented with performance art that emphasized the artistic process over results. But, for the most part, Ono remained an independent conceptual and performance artist, regularly exhibiting her work through the 1960s, when she met John Lennon, who helped further her artistic endeavors, and then she married him in 1969. Skylanding is an outdoor sculpture and Ono’s first permanent art installation in the US. Located in Jackson Park, Chicago, Illinois, the work promotes peace. Ono was inspired to create the work when she visited the Garden of Phoenix in Chicago in 2013, at which time she developed an affinity for the city of Chicago. Yoko Ono, often getting bad press for allegedly breaking up the Beatles, has produced artworks that seem to have passed the test of time.
10. Film Star by John Latham (1960)
A Rhodesian-borne British artist, John Latham often painted with a spray can, and he shredded, or otherwise tore up or chewed up books or other materials to create collage material for works such as Film Star. Latham’s work was popular with performance artists such as Gustav Metzger, Yoko Ono, Wolf Vostell and Al Hansen. Interestingly, Latham was associated with the rock band Pink Floyd; he produced “Interstellar Overdrive,” a nine-minute instrumental track on their debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967).
11. Wall Drawings From 1968 to 2007 by Sol LeWitt (2012)
Sol LeWitt was considered a founder of Minimal and Conceptual art. He was a particularly prolific producing wall drawings, both two and three-dimensional works, more than 1,270 of which were drawings on paper featuring various geometric shapes—pyramids, towers and cubes, etc. The sizes of these drawings ranged from those covering the walls of a gallery or outdoor works monumental in size. Wall Drawings from 1968 to 2007 featured works drawn directly on the walls of galleries, using materials such as graphite, crayon, colored pencil, India ink or acrylic paint. And in the 1980s LeWitt began producing large sculptures using concrete blocks; he also produced abstract works using gouache, an opaque water-based paint.
12. Electronic Superhighway: Continental US, Alaska, Hawaii by Nam June Paik (1995–1996)
Nam June Paik, a South Korean-American artist, worked with various media, though his main interest was video art, of which he is considered the founder. He also coined the term “electronic super highway,” when referring to the eventual explosion of telecommunications across the globe. In the 1960s and ‘70s, Paik became a celebrity, because of his creative works in TV and early video recording. The video art extravaganza, Electronic Superhighway: Continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, is permanently exhibited in the Lincoln Gallery of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Over the years and decades, numerous retrospectives have shown Paik’s work and many public collections include his artwork in locales around the world. And in 1992, Paik was awarded the Picasso Medal.
13. Polaris & Octans by Marinus Boezem (1997)
A Dutch artist and one of the proponents of Conceptual art and Arte Povera, Marinus Boezem builds his sculptures in environments or landscapes that bring to mind objects of Land or Earth art. Located in the Novotel Rotterdam Brainpark, The Netherlands, Polaris & Octans depicts the heavenly regions where the pole stars—Polaris in the northern sky and Octans the southern sky—are located in the celestial vault. Notably, Boezem’s imposing and thought-provoking artworks are often seen as revolutionary in the art world.
14. Device to Root Out Evil by Dennis Oppenheim (1997)
An American conceptual and performance artist and photographer, Dennis Oppenheim expounded upon the definition and nature of art, particularly as it relates to form, context and location of artworks, often confounding his critics in the process. Device to Root Out Evil, is a public sculpture comprising a topsy-turvy, country church mounted on the tip of its steeple. Shown at the Venice Biennale, the work contains hand blown Venetian glass in its roof and steeple. If this piece doesn’t challenge one’s definition of art as it relates to form, location and context, what would it take?
15. Work No. 200: Half the Air in a Given Space by Martin Creed (1998)
Martin Creed, a British artist, composer and performer, works in many different media, including films, installations, paintings, theater and sculptures of all kind—even those not designed to last very long. Work No. 200: Half the Air in a Given Space, is composed of a room mostly filled with white balloons, some of which clinging to the ceiling while others rest on the floor. When asked why he produces conceptual artworks, Creed said, “I want to make things because I want to communicate with people, because I want to be loved, because I want to express myself.” Notably, in 2001 Creed won the Turner Prize (named after the British painter J.M.W. Turner) for two exhibitions: Martin Creed Works and Art Now: Martin Creed.
16. The Mahogany Pavilion (Mobile Architecture No. 1) by Simon Starling (2004)
British conceptual artist Simon Starling won the Turner Prize in 2005 for his work entitled Shedboatshed, for which he took a wooden shed, built it into a boat, and then sailed in down the Rhine River; thereafter, he turned the boat back into a shed. The Mahogany Pavilion depicts another one of Starling’s boats and, judging from the look of this fine little vessel, it probably would have sailed the Rhine while pleasing the eye. Notably, Starling’s artworks have been exhibited in galleries and museums throughout the world.
17. Shadow of Light by Maurizio Nannucci (1993)
A contemporary Italian artist, Maurizio Nannucci specializes in photography, video, neon and sound installations, electronic and experimental music, as well as artist’s books. Since the 1960s, Nannucci has organized over 200 exhibitions and events, including the creation of Zona Radio, a radio station dedicated to presenting the audio work of other artists’. Shadow of Light is a neon installation created by Nannucci and shown at the Kasseler Kunstverein Friedericianum, a grand art museum located in Kassel, Germany. Shadow of Light dazzles the eyes with enigmatic symbols and images, creating what could be called a halo of neon musical forms.
18. Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice by Olaf Nicolai (2014)
A German conceptual artist of great renown, Olaf Nicolai obtained a doctorate in 1992 at Leipzig University, studying the Poetics of Wiener Gruppe, an Austrian group of writers and poets. Nicolai’s conceptual approach translates scientific theories into artistic forms of expression, about which he refers to a quote by sociologist Jeremy Rifkin: “The production of art is the final step of capitalism, whose driving force has always been to co-opt ever more human activities into economic processes.” Located in Vienna, Austria, Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice, is constructed in the form of a concrete X, which includes an inscription atop that reads: all (repeated many times) and alone written just once.
19. Case N by Adolf Bierbrauer (1952)
Adolf Bierbrauer was a German conceptual painter and sculptor. He is well-known for his “hypnosis” and “somnambulistic” paintings, which he produced in the 1950s and ‘60s. A medical doctor before he became an artist, Bierbrauer specialized in psychotherapy and hypnosis. Bierbrauer would hypnotize his patients and watch them as they related their traumatic experiences during WW II. He hoped to connect with these troubled people and also help his development as an artist and thereby become a kind of healer. The painting, Case N, is an example of his hypnosis technique. Bierbrauer is considered one of the founders of Conceptual art in Europe during the 1960s.
20. Kitchen by Thomas Demand (2004)
A German sculptor and photographer living in Berlin and Los Angeles, Thomas Demand likes to make three-dimensional models of what appear to be actual living spaces, offices or control centers, particularly ones with social and/or political undertones, and then he photographs these models; therefore, photography is an important aspect of his creative process. When the photos are exhibited in galleries, the models are then destroyed. Kitchen depicts the living space of soldiers stationed near Tikrit, Iraq, where Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was arrested and taken into custody in December 2003. Interestingly, Demand shows no people or written language in these curious photographs.
21. Infinity Room by Yayoi Kusama (1963)
A Japanese contemporary artist, Yayoi Kusama works primarily in sculpture and installation art but is also creative in painting, performance, film, fashion and fiction. Beginning her artistic career in the avant-garde art scene in NYC in the late 1950s to early ‘70s, Kusama worked in the Pop Art scene with such artists as Georgia O’Keefe, Eva Hesse and Donald Judd. For the Infinity Room installation, Kusama showed her penchant for the use of mirrors off all sorts, including infinity mirrors, all of which situated in purpose-built rooms filled with dangling neon-colored balls and lights, creating a cosmic ambience of never-ending space. Unfortunately, Kusama didn’t make much money with such exhibits, so she became depressed and tried to commit suicide a time or two. She often says, “If it were not for art, I would have killed myself a long time ago."
22. Three Heads Six Arms by Zhang Huan (2008)
Based in Shanghai, China and NYC, artist Zhang Huan specializes in performance and conceptual art, and also produces metal sculptures such as the gigantic artwork, Three Heads Six Arms (3H6A). Produced after Huan had converted to Buddhism in the early 2000s, this work resembles the Buddhist statues found in Tibet. Made of copper and steel, 3H6A is Huan’s largest sculpture to date and has been shown in various locations throughout the world, including San Francisco, California, Shanghai, Honk Kong and Florence, Italy. 3H6A generally receives good reviews, but staff writers for the San Francisco Examiner called it “striking, bizarre and fairly overwhelming.” Interestingly, in 2010, it cost about $100,000 to move the sculpture!
23. Untitled by Sebastien Preschoux (2012)
Jean Gallard Sébastien Preschoux is a Parisian artist who, like many other conceptual artists, produces artworks that are not easily reproduced or are often meant to be temporary. Inspired by spirographic art or illustrations, his handmade “thread art” or yarn installations—as one may call them—are meant to show that everything comes from something else. Preschoux says, “The important thing is to have a tactile relationship with the material, to be able to dread the qualities and the defects. With a computer you can make everything fast-paced and very flattering, everyone can fake it, so what’s the point? Nothing personal, nothing unique.”
24. Xenon by Jenny Holzer
Jenny Holzer is a neo-conceptual artist and belongs to the feminist art movement of the US. She lives in Hoosick, New York and has an atelier in Brooklyn, New York. Holzer’s artistry encompasses many forms of expression: advertising billboards, projections and LED signs; in fact, she’ll write something on just about anything—T-shirts, video, the internet, street posters, stone benches and even race cars. Her Truisms may be her best known artworks, one of which reads: “Protect me from what I want.” Another says, “Monomania is a prerequisite of success.” And still another reads: “Religion causes as many problems as it solves.” Her artwork, Xenon, is made from the National Security Archive.
25. Beijing National Stadium by Ai Weiwei (2008)
Born in China, Ai Weiwei is a contemporary artist specializing in sculpture, architecture and photography. From 1981 to 1993, he lived in the US and studied the art of Marcel Duchamp, Andy Warhol and Jasper Johns and became friends with poet Allen Ginsberg. Ai Weiwei is also an activist and outspoken critic of the Chinese government, getting jailed for such on some occasions. Nevertheless, Weiwei, corroborating with the Swiss firm Herzog & de Meuron, was an artistic consultant for the design of the Beijing National Stadium, aka “The Bird’s Nest,” which was used during the 2008 Summer Olympics. In general, Weiwei didn’t like the commercialism of the project, refusing to be photographed with it. He says, “I did it because I love design.”
26. Aten Reign by James Turrell (2013)
With the artworks of James Turrell, it’s mostly about Light and Space, an art movement involving minimalism and geometric abstraction as it relates to the usage of light in various artistic displays and contexts. Born in LA and having a master’s degree at Claremont Graduate University, Turrell is famously known for his skyscapes—rooms in which an aperture frames a portion of the sky. He is also known for his installation at Roden Crater near Flagstaff, Arizona, which, though unfinished, offers a naked-eye observatory of the celestial vault. Turrell says, “I'm working to bring celestial objects like the sun and moon into the spaces we inhabit. I apprehend light—I make events that shape or contain light." And the Guggenheim installation of Aten Reign offers a spectacular display of light that dazzles the senses!
27. Shimmering Pearls by Han Sai Por (1999)
Born in the Republic of Singapore, Han Sai Por became a full-time sculptor in 1997, and in the present day her artworks can be found all over the world. She sculpts primarily in stone—granite, marble or sandstone. But Shimmering Pearls is comprised of many glass globes mounted on metallic platforms, as shown in front of the Capital Tower in Singapore. Working within the group of movements known as Postmodernism, Sai Por says this about art: “If the artist says, 'this is art' then it is art, provided only that the artist can demonstrate a valuable idea or concept. Art needs man to judge and decide whether it is indeed art.”
28. Out of the Corner by Adrian Piper (1990)
Adrian Piper comes from mixed ancestry and started doing performance art in the 1970s. Earning a doctorate degree in philosophy in 1981, Adrian Piper’s artworks reflect her studies regarding Emmanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (1787), which she constantly reads; she’s also studied Eastern philosophy, particularly yoga, which she practices daily. Out of the Corner reflects Piper’s stance regarding racial passing and racism. Notably, Piper has received numerous awards, fellowships, medals and honors, and one of her biographies describes her as an artist who’s "profoundly influenced the language and form of conceptual art."
29. Walks in the Dark by Wendy Red Star (2011)
A multi-media artist of Native American descent, Wendy Red Star was born on a Crow Reservation in Billings, Montana. At present, Red Star works full-time as an artist in Portland, Oregon. Her art includes photography, fashion design, bead work, fiber art, performance art, sculpture and painting. Much of her art is humorous in nature and includes parody, satire or mash-ups relating to how Native Americans are marginalized and stereotyped by non-Native Americans. Walks in the Dark, part of her “Thunder Up Above” series, is a self-portrait of Red Star wearing a European dress with Native American motifs, as she strides upon an interplanetary set with a photoshopped background, presenting a curious presence in the darkness of space.
30. Fashion at the Graveyard by Arsen Savadov (1997)
Ukrainian born and of Armenian descent, Arsen Savadov is a contemporary artist specializing in paintings of Surrealism, neo-Pop Art, Transavantgarde and New Wave; he is also a conceptual photographer. Fashion at the Graveyard is a series of Savadov’s photos featuring lovely young women, clad in black or white, while posing fashionably or otherwise in various cemeteries—at times while the dearly departed are being laid to rest. Is there a message in these photos? Could it be that only the well-dressed are ready to go six feet under at the drop of a hat?
31. Wigs by Lorna Simpson (1994)
Growing up in Brooklyn, New York, Lorna Simpson is well known for her conceptual photography and multimedia artworks. Her art have been shown throughout the world, and she has an impressive list of honors and awards. Wigs refers to the relationship between African American women and their hair styles, and what constitutes beauty as it relates to the culture in the US from the 1950s till the present. Shown as a portfolio of 21 lithographs with felt text panels, these wigs appear as scientific specimens. Simpson says, “This work came at a point where I wanted to eliminate the figure from—or eliminate its presence from the work, but I still wanted to talk about that presence.”
32. Shedding Armor by Margaret Jacobs
Margaret Jacobs is a Native American artist from the Akwesasne Mohawk tribe of Ogdensburg, New York, and is known for her sculptures, jewelry and sketching. She attended college at Dartmouth, where she earned a bachelor’s degree in Visual Arts and received the school’s Perspectives Design Award. Shedding Armor is a steel sculpture in the shape of a turtle shell and represents some of the fine structures built by Mohawk ironworkers; it also refers to aspects of traditional Mohawk stories.
33. Parthenon of Forbidden Books by Marta Minujín (2017)
Marta Minujín has produced "happenings," artworks which are destroyed after being exhibited; and also produces artworks that are not destroyed, though disassembled later and its parts dispersed. Erected in Kassel, Germany, Parthenon of Forbidden Books was a replica of the Parthenon in Greece; it included 100,000 copies of censored books burned by Nazi Germany in the 1930s and ‘40s (after exhibited, these books were returned to their owners). This structure echoes Parthenon, another similar artwork by Minujín in 1983; and after this artwork was taken down, the books were given to people throughout the world!
34. The Pack by Joseph Beuys (1969)
The Pack shows 24 sledges, somewhat resembling sled dogs, as they seemingly tumble from the back of a timeworn car. About this piece, Beuys explained, “This is an emergency object: an invasion by the pack. In a state of emergency the Volkswagen bus is of limited usefulness, and more direct and primitive means must be taken to ensure survival.” Each sledge carries a survival kit of felt, animal fat and a torch, all of which used when Beuys’ Stuka Ju 87 crashed during WWII, almost killing him, after which Crimean Tartars rescued Beuys.
35. Babel by Cildo Meireles (2001)
Cildo Meireles is a Brazilian conceptual artist whose work decries political repression in Brazil. Meireles thinks Orson Welles’ War of the Worlds radio broadcast of 1938 was the greatest artwork of the twentieth century. Babel is a cylindrical stack of hundreds of radios—all of which turned on—showering viewers with the sounds of myriad languages. This brings to mind the fabled story of the Tower of Babel and exemplifies the positive aspects of globalization, which foster a unity in purpose in spite of language and cultural barriers.
36. BMW Group – 4 by Andy Warhol (1979)
Creating countless artworks during his lifetime, Any Warhol even found time to paint a race car! Taking only 23 minutes, Warhol painted directly onto a BMW race car, which Manfred Winkelhock and Marcel Mignot drove in the 1979 24 Hours of Le Mans. Warhol was the first artist to paint directly onto an automobile rather than have technicians transfer a design to the car.
37. La chute de l'espoir by Heidi Bucher (1986)
Primarily a sculptor, Heidi Bucher was a Swiss avant-garde artist who created conceptual artworks dealing with the human body, living spaces, apparel, domestic life, architecture, femininity and collective activities. La chute de l’espoir (the fall of hope, in English), is made of fiber, wood, glue and acrylic. Bucher’s artworks can be seen in exhibitions throughout the world.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2020 Kelley Marks
Kelley Marks (author) from Sacramento, California on July 07, 2020:
Thanks for the comment, Peggy Woods. I'm very pleased somebody finally left a comment for it! Anyway, I haven't seen any of these works of art; nevertheless, my favorite one is "Cadillac Ranch." I'm glad you laid eyes on it!
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on July 04, 2020:
It was fun getting to view these 20 works of art. The only one of these 20 that I have gotten to view in person is the Cadillac Ranch. Thanks for assembling this article.