Art history has always been of great interest to Kelley. He's read many books and articles on the subject.
The history of modern art is also the history of the progressive loss of art's audience. Art has increasingly become the concern of the artist and the bafflement of the public.
— Paul Gauguin
These impressive and generally iconic paintings by renowned artists changed the art world forever
Modern art began in the middle 1800s, when the advent of photography seemed to make painting obsolete. If you could simply photograph something, why draw or paint it? So, artists had to reinvent art, making it more personal, impressionistic, expressionistic, abstract, deconstructed or minimalistic. In fact, art became whatever the artist said it was. Or, put another way, the artwork was merely a reflection of the artist himself or herself.
Now let’s begin the countdown for the 60 Greatest Paintings of Modern Art!
60. Time (2014) Liu Xiaodong
Xiaodong has a Master of Fine Arts degree from the Central Academy of Fine Art (CAFA) in Beijing, China, and is a professor in the painting department at CAFA. Xiaodong paints works of social realism and is heavily influenced by the figurative paintings of Lucian Freud. He often paints the lao bai xing, common people, in every day poses and situations. The four common folk in the painting, Time, mostly ignore a young man who lies prone on the ground, off to the side, unconscious or dead. Why don’t they investigate and see if the man needs help? Perhaps they don’t want to get involved. Is this a message about life in contemporary China?
59. Girl with a Kitten (1947) Lucian Freud
Born in Berlin, Germany, and the grandson of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, Lucian Freud spent most of his life in London, England, where he joined the School of London, a group of figurative artists that included Francis Bacon, R.B. Kitaj, Frank Auerbach and Leon Kossoff, et al. Freud’s painting style if often considered German Expressionism or Surrealism. In the painting, Girl with a Kitten, the subject is one of Lucian Freud’s wives, artist Kitty Garman. This composition shows a resemblance to the Early Netherlandish paintings of the fifteen century. Astonishingly, Lucian Freud may have fathered as many as 40 children, but only 14 of such offspring have been identified.
58. Caught at the Border (1991) Pacita Abad
An artist of Philippine-American descent, Pacita Abad produced about 5,000 artworks during her lifetime, and these various works can be found in over 70 countries. The painting, Caught at the Border, offers an emotional statement about immigration; it shows a migrant woman staring from behind the bars of a prison. For this piece, Abad used a technique known as trapunto, on which a canvas is stretched over a quilted surface, causing an elevated effect. Surrounding the imprisoned woman are mirrors that reflect viewers’ images.
57. Prometheus (1930) José Clemente Orozco
Inspiring by the engravings of satirist José Guadalupe Posada, Orozco helped establish the Mexican Mural Renaissance in the 1920s. From 1922 to 1948, Orozco painted murals throughout Mexico and the United States. Orozco liked to depict scenes of human suffering, though he promoted the social and political causes of poor farmers and lower class workers. In general, his paintings were dark and pessimistic and showed the bloody toll of social change in Mexico; he was also a critic of the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920), showing its tragedy; and his paintings are often charged with Christian iconography. Painted a la fresco at the Pomona College Dining Hall in California, Prometheus is considered the first modern fresco painted in the US.
56. Gimn of Poseidon (2016) Arsen Savadov
A painter, installation and performance artist, as well as noted conceptualist photographer, Arsen Savadov lives in Kiev, Ukraine, but also spends time in New York City. Of Armenian descent, Savadov studied painting at the Shevchenko State Art School and is a graduate of the Kiev Art Institute. Since the early 1990s, Savadov has shown his artwork throughout the world. The painting, Gimn of Poseidon, is a prime example of Savadov’s ability to create striking paintings of Surrealism, neo-Pop Art or Fantastic Realism.
55. Half Dome at Yosemite National Park by Gregory Kondos
Of Greek ancestry, Gregory Kondos attended art school in Sacramento and Los Angeles, California, and he taught at Sacramento City College from 1956 to 1982. In 1990, Kondos was an artist-in-residence at Yosemite National Park, where he lived for many summers. Presumably, Kondos painted Half Dome at Yosemite National Park during the 1990s. Kondos said the painter Paul Cézanne inspired him to paint nature, in particular how to “paint the blues,” as he phrased it. “I’m the boss of the blues,” he stated. And about painting in general, he declared: “A painter paints; an artist tries to do everything, even just stringing beads. I’m not an artist, I’m a painter.”
54. Portrait of an Actress (1948) Diego Rivera
A Mexican muralist painter of great renown, Diego Rivera also painted works of Cubism and post-Impressionism. In 1929, Rivera married artist Frida Kahlo and remained her husband until 1955, when she died (Rivera passed in 1957). Both painters often included images of each other in their various artworks. However, Portrait of an Actress doesn’t appear to show a likeness to Frida Kahlo, though it could be one of actress Paulette Goddard, with whom Rivera had a friendship in the 1940s; in fact, Rivera did many portraits of women in the first half of the twentieth century. Curiously, the subject in this composition appears to be a woman about whom one could be wary!
53. Brown River III by Wayne Thiebaud
Wayne Thiebaud’s paintings are often considered Pop Art, though he doesn’t call himself a pop artist; he denigrates the two-dimensional work of artists such as Andy Warhol. Thiebaud (pronounced tee-boh), mostly raised in northern California and having taught at the University of California at Davis, is also known for his use of hyper realism as in his depictions of commonplace objects such as pastry, ice cream, cosmetics and clothing. He’s also painted landscapes of the Central Valley of California, e.g. Brown River III. He paints cityscapes of San Francisco, California, too; Park Place (1993) is a prime example of Thiebaud’s signature use of heavy pigment, vivid colors, exaggerated perspective and prominent shadows.
52. The Apartment (1943) Jacob Lawrence
Among the most famous African-American artists of the twentieth century, Jacob Lawrence produced many compositions of life in Harlem in upper Manhattan New York City, New York. Labeling his style as “dynamic cubism” and comparing his work to that of Henri Matisse, Lawrence produced many narratives of African-American history and historical figures, including the 60-panel Migration Series (1940-1941), which depicts the Diaspora of African Americans from South to North in the US during the 1910s. Lawrence received many accolades during his life, including the US National Medal of Arts in 1990. And he taught for 16 years at the University of Washington.
51. The Patience (1942) Georges Braque
In the early 1900s, along with contemporaneous artists such as Pablo Picasso, Frenchman Georges Braque is widely credited with the founding of Cubism, a style of painting that uses simultaneous perspective and the effects of light on geometric forms, which are fragmented or deconstructed into cubes and other shapes, creating three-dimensional subjects of all sorts—including people. At this point, many of Braque’s paintings were virtually indistinguishable from those of Picasso! The Patience evinces Braque’s continually evolving cubistic style, which exemplifies a more relaxed use of geometric forms, vivid color, as well as elements of Surrealism, popular at the time.
50. Reclaimed by Silence by Shonto Begay
A descendent of the Diné tribe and born on a Navajo reservation in Arizona, Shonto Begay—in order to deal with the oppression of having to assimilate American ideals, culture and beliefs while attending boarding school—began drawing and painting to maintain and express his cultural identity. Nevertheless, Begay continued his western education, earning a bachelor’s degree at the California College of Arts and Crafts. Begay’s landscape painting, Reclaimed by Silence, shows his love and fascination for all manner of Native American life in America’s Southwest. Begay’s style has been compared to the neo-Impressionism of Vincent Van Gogh. Some may notice Begay’s depiction of the sky, which seems influenced by Van Gogh’s The Starry Night (1889).
49. Abstrakes Bild No. 635 (1987) Gerhard Richter
German painter Gerhard Richter began working as a painter of Socialist Realism in the 1950s, until he escaped the communism of East Germany and moved to West Germany, where he began creating works of photo realism. Richter would project a photo onto canvas, and then paint over some of the photo, often adding a “bluring” effect with a soft brush, creating a surrealistic look. But, in the 1970s and ‘80s, Richter’s painting became much more abstract. Abstrakes Bild No. 635 is an example of Richter’s prowess for adding and subtracting paint on canvases, creating compositions that are colorful, textural and easy to live with. In 2011, Richter, when asked what the role of an artist is in the present day, he replied, “It’s more entertainment now. We entertain people.”
48. Custer’s Last Stand (1899) Edgar Samuel Paxson
An American frontier painter, Edgar Samuel Paxson was a realist painter who trekked from Kansas to Canada in the middle to late 1800s; in fact, Paxson was traveling in Montana when the Battle of the Little Bighorn took place in June 1876. After the battle, Paxson interviewed Indians such as Crazy Horse, who had taken part in the battle, as well as soldiers who had first visited the battle scene. It took Paxson 20 years to complete the six by nine foot painting, Custer’s Last Stand. Interestingly, the style of the painting, particularly the subjective juxtaposition of the Indians and soldiers and the purple clouds in the sky, suggest Paxson was influenced by the works of modern artists in the late nineteenth century.
47. Hay Harvest at Éragny (1901) Camille Pissarro
Camille Pissarro was a pioneer of French Impressionism and neo-Impressionism; in fact, he was the only painter to show his work at all Paris Impressionism exhibitions from 1874 to 1886. Moreover, he was a father figure to such great Impressionists as Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin. Art historian John Reward called him the “dean of Impressionist painters,” because he was the oldest in the group and had a pleasant, affable personality. Hay Harvest at Éragny shows Pissarro’s penchant for painting country folk performing simple tasks. In 1882, Pierre-Auguste Renior said Pissarro’s work at this time was “revolutionary.” Hay Harvest highlights Pissarro’s interest in neo-Impressionism, particularly his use of pointillism; actually, he was the only Impressionist painter to eventually switch to neo-Impressionism.
46. Poker Game (1894) Cassius Marcellus Coolidge
Cassius Coolidge was born in Antwerp, New York. His parents were abolitionist Quakers. Coolidge, having no fondness for farm labor, left the fields in the 1860s and began earning a living by painting signs, illustrating books and creating cartoons for a newspaper. Even though Coolidge had little training as an artist, he was well-educated. Then, while working in carnivals, he created life-size, novelty portraits with comedic elements, what became known as comic foregrounds. Poker Game is one of 16 in a series of calendar paintings Coolidge produced in the early 1900s. All of these artworks show anthropomorphic dogs engaged in human activities such as playing poker. Coolidge is credited with creating this motif, which he also used to paint dogs playing pool. Notably, Poker Game sold for $658,000 in 2015.
45. Nude Sitting on a Divan (1917) Amedeo Modigliani
Italian painter and sculptor, Amedeo Modigliani, though not famous during his short lifetime (35 at death in 1920), nevertheless his stylized portraits and nudes eventually became popular posthumously. Mainly working in Paris, France in the early 1900s, Modigliani’s figures often show men and women with elongated heads and necks and, at times, full-figured bodies, which drew jeers from critics and aficionados. In 1917, Modigliani had the only solo exhibition in his life, for which he showed many female nudes, including Nude Sitting on a Divan, which caused a sensation. Also exhibited at the same show, Nu couché au coussin Bleu (1916), a reclining nude, sold for $170 million in 2015.
44. Rainy Day, Boston (1885) Childe Hassam
Childe Hassam was an American Impressionist specializing in urban landscapes, coastal scenes and, later, outdoor nudes. Always a prolific artist, Hassam produced over 3,000 artworks during his 75 years. Rarely having trouble selling his artwork, Hassam sold his paintings for $6,000 apiece in the early 1900s. Rainy Day, Boston evinces Hassam’s interest in capturing urban landscapes using oil on canvas rather than watercolors, which sold better at the time. Unfortunately, by the 1920s and ‘30s Hassam’s works of Impressionism were often considered passé compared to the Realism of such painters as Edward Hopper and Salvador Dalí. Incidentally, Hassam dismissed artistic movements such as Cubism and Surrealism, calling them “boobys art.” At any rate, decades after Hassam’s death in 1935, classic works of Impressionism made a comeback and began selling for astronomical amounts!
43. Water Lillies and the Japanese Bridge (1897 – 1899) Claude Monet
One of the founders of French Impressionism, Claude Monet was also one of the first painters to produce plein air landscapes. This type of painting takes place outdoors so the artist can utilize sunlight and atmospheric effects in order to depict objects as they actually appear in nature at different times of the day—or different times of the year or in varying weather conditions—rather than how they may be idealized or preconceived in the studio. Using the garden and pond flora at his residence in Giverny, France, Water Lillies and the Japanese Bridge exemplifies some of Monet’s best Impressionist painting from the 1880s until his passing in 1926. Also, in the late 1800s to the early 1900s, Monet traveled to the Mediterranean where he painted numerous famous buildings, landmarks and seascapes.
42. Resurgence of the People (2019) Kent Monkman
Kent Monkman is a First Nations artist of Canadian Cree ancestry. Monkman’s paintings are generally historical in nature and refer to American frontier life in the 1800s. These various works subvert or parody the dominance of Euro-American sensibility and prejudice. Referring to the famous painting, Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851), the Resurgence of the People depicts Monkman’s alter ego or persona which expresses a “two-spirit” or androgynous third gender, thus creating his own identity and historical presence, which he uses to mock the authority of the European colonizers. Standing prominently in the boat, Monkman holds a feather in his right hand as he steps forward. The boat, nearly sinking, seems filled with refugees—Native Americans, white and black people—all of whom fleeing a flood or other disaster.
41. The New Democracy (1945) David Alfaro Siqueiros
One of the greatest Mexican Muralists, as well as a famous artist of social realism, Siqueiros was a member of the Mexican Communist Party and a supporter of the Soviet Union; and, along with Diego Rivera, he studied the work of fresco painters of the Renaissance. Often considered an artist and revolutionary, Siqueiros painted The New Democracy using modern painting techniques and tools—electric projectors, photography, spray guns and new paints—so he could cover large sections of buildings in outdoor conditions. Siqueiros wanted his paintings to be easily seen by the masses as they strolled by. Interestingly, in the 1940s, Siqueiros taught Jackson Pollock a drip-and-pour technique that led to Pollock’s “drip paintings.”
40. Ciphers and Constellations, in Love with a Woman (1941) Joan Miró
Joan Miró was a painter and sculptor born in the late 1800s in Barcelona, Spain. Originally influenced by Fauvism, Cubism and Dada, as well as painters such as Vincent Van Gough and Paul Cézanne, Miró may be better known for his paintings of Magical Realism, Lyrical Abstraction or Surrealism, though he never identified himself as being a Surrealist. Ciphers and Constellations, in Love with a Woman, one of 23 paintings in Miró’s Constellations series, is a prime example of some of his most popular—and perhaps best—paintings. Not just a painter, Miró was also a great sculptor and ceramicist and also produced multi-media works and even tapestries.
39. Carcass of Beef (1924) Chaïm Soutine
Expressionist painter Chaïm Soutine was so obsessed with realism that he dragged a cattle carcass into his apartment so he could explore his personal vision and technique while painting it, even though its awful smell alarmed the neighbors; it also leaked blood into the hallway, prompting artist Marc Chagall, while visiting, to scream, “Someone has killed Soutine!” One in a series of 10 carcass paintings, Carcass of Beef was inspired by Rembrandt’s similar still life, Slaughtered Ox (1655). Notably, in 1923, American art collector Albert C. Barnes bought 60 of Soutine’s paintings at the same time. Soutine, penniless in those days, took the money, hailed a cab in Paris and had the cabbie drive him to Nice on the French Riviera, some 400 miles away!
38. The Drowning Girl (1963) Roy Lichtenstein
Painting in the new Pop Art style championed by Andy Warhol and James Rosenquist, Roy Lichtenstein’s career went meteoric in the early 1960s when he began showing his paintings at the Leo Castelli Gallery in NYC. These large commercial paintings looked as if they’d been clipped from the pages of comic books, utilizing such conventions as Ben-Day dots, thought bubbles and clichéd narrative. These comic blow-ups sold briskly, though some art critics thought they lacked originality and were vulgar and empty; in fact, some called Lichtenstein “one of the worst artists in America.” The Drowning Girl is one of Lichtenstein’s most popular paintings and has been called a “masterpiece of melodrama.” It arguably could be considered an artistic example of America’s capitalist industrial culture.
37. Ad Parnassum (1932) Paul Klee
Swiss artist Paul Klee, whose painting style encompassed Expressionism, Cubism and Surrealism, published the Paul Klee Notebooks in 1920s’ Germany. These are a collection of his lectures for the Bauhaus schools in Germany and are considered as important to modern art as was Leonardo da Vinci’s art was to the Renaissance and Isaac Newton’s work was to physics. Ad Parnassum is a composition Klee painted after taking a trip to Egypt three years prior (hence the pyramid) and is considered a masterwork of Pointillism. In 1949, Marcel Duchamp commented that Paul Klee could draw and paint in a way many artists strived to do, that is, create art that seems childlike in its conception, yet shows “great maturity in thinking,” and he added that Klee’s work was “incomparable” in contemporary art.
36. Sleeping Venus (1944) Paul Delvaux
Belgian painter Paul Delvaux may have painted more female nudes than any other modernist painter! Most of his paintings show unclad women in compositions that may contain Graeco-Roman architecture, mythological themes, references to Jules Verne, trains and train stations, skeletons, crucifixions or people or objects juxtaposed in an anachronistic or hallucinatory fashion. Heavily influenced by Giorgio de Chirico and René Magritte, Delvaux liked to paint women who seem hypnotized as they walk through phantasmagorical realms. Sleeping Venus shows women in a classical setting, with a Doric colonnade, considered masculine (left) and an Ionian one, considered female (center), while the women are either relaxed (or sleeping), or genuflecting as they beseech the gods or Men, perhaps. Is this painting a metaphor for women in contemporary life?
35. The Boating Party (1893 - 1894) Mary Cassatt
Born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, Mary Cassatt began studying painting as a teenager in the middle 1800s. While in school she developed a bohemian lifestyle and embraced feminism. In 1866, she moved to Paris where she continued studying art and often visited the Louvre where she, along with other women, copied paintings, some of which were sold for small sums. At this time, she also developed a long friendship and mentorship with painter Edgar Degas. Then in the 1870s Cassatt exhibited her paintings along with other Impressionists, though much of her work was rejected, perhaps because of her gender. Cassatt painted The Boating Party when she was finally enjoying success as painter. Art historian Frederick Sweet calls it “one of the most ambitious paintings she ever attempted.” And, notably, in 1966, the painting appeared on a US postage stamp.
34. No 1 Royal Red and Blue (1954) Mark Rothko
Considered a Surrealist and Abstract Expressionist, though he didn’t identify with any art movement, Mark Rothko began studying art and painting in NYC where he lived in the 1920s; his teachers and mentors were Arshile Gorky, Max Weber and Milton Avery, all heavyweights in the contemporary modernist world. In the 1930s and ‘40s Rothko’s paintings were based on Greek mythology, as well as Christian and ancient Egyptian religious themes. But by the 1950s, Rothko delved into abstraction and began giving his paintings numbers rather than titles. Considered a Color Field painting, No 1 Royal Red and Blue is a huge painting with a vertical format and no frame. It’s a decidedly simple painting, one which Rothko wanted to evoke emotion, mortality, sensuality and spirituality. Rothko’s paintings have sold for millions of dollars in recent decades. In 2012, this painting sold for $75 million.
33. The Dream (1910) Henri Rousseau
A French post-Impressionist artist who painted in the Primitive or Naïve style, to the point of being ridiculed (some critics referred to his paintings as childish). Rousseau, a self-taught artist, painted dozens of jungle scenes during his career. The Dream, his last completed work (he died shortly after its completion), is a dreamy scene filled with stylized foliage and animals, highlighted by a voluptuous nude woman reclining on a divan as she points with her left arm toward a black snake charmer playing a flute. Of course, reclining nudes have been popular subjects throughout the classical tradition, as well as in modernist paintings, the works of Matisse and Manet coming to mind. Rousseau’s work influenced numerous avant-garde artists such as Jean Hugo, Max Beckmann, Pablo Picasso and Jean Metzinger.
32. Untitled (Skull) (1981) Jean-Michel Basquiat
An artist of Neo-expressionism in the late modernist, early postmodern period, Jean-Michel Basquiat was an African-American artist who lived and painted in the Lower East Side of Manhattan during the 1980s when his artworks were being exhibited locally and internationally. Basquiat’s paintings had a graffiti-like, urban look and used social commentary to evoke introspection and were often charged with political criticism or class struggle issues, racism and colonialism. His artwork has inspired many hip-hop artists such as Jay-Z. The Skull painting reflected Basquiat’s seminal interest in heads and skulls, which he often drew or painted. Notably, in the middle 1980s, Basquiat developed a friendship and artistic corroboration with Andy Warhol and, coincidentally, both died about the same time - Warhol (1987) and Basquiat (1988).
31. The Cracked Cardinal (2001) George Condo
One of many contemporary artists living and working in NYC, George Condo established his artistry in the East Village, creating what he called Artificial Realism, a combination of European Old Master painting and Pop Art. One of many artists who comprised a revival of painting in America, Condo exhibited his artworks in the 1980s, and he also worked at Andy Warhol’s factory, though primarily producing silkscreen prints at that venue. Condo has also corroborated with author William S. Burroughs. Eventually developing a style of painting that combines pop culture figures with humor and grotesque imagery, what Condo calls Psychological Cubism, he produced The Cracked Cardinal and many other similar paintings of this style in the early 2000s. To conclude, if there’s a more popular and influential artist in contemporary America, who would that be?
30. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907) Pablo Picasso
Painted during Picasso’s African art and primitivism period (1907 to 1909), this large painting depicts five young nude women who work as prostitutes at a brothel in Barcelona, Spain. The three women on the left exhibit the Iberian style of Spanish art, while the two on the right show faces resembling African masks, with which Picasso had shown great fascination. This painting, considered immoral by some, caused quite a stir in the art world and was not shown publicly until 1916; even some of Picasso’s friends thought it was terrible or just a joke. At any rate, this painting was a precursor to Analytic Cubism, a new art revolution championed by Picasso and Georges Braque and considered the most influential art movement of the twentieth century.
29. Composition VII (1913) Wassily Kandinsky
Generally considered the pioneer of abstract art, Wassily Kandinsky grew up in Moscow, where he created his Composition series, which comprised 10 paintings, the number seven of which Kandinsky called the “most complex piece he ever created.” Then in 1922 he moved to Germany, where he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture, until 1933 when the Nazis closed the school and confiscated the first three of Kandinsky’s compositions, labeling them as “degenerative art” - and then destroyed them. The imagery found in Composition VII includes Christian eschatology, resurrection, New Age spirituality and the Four Horseman of the Apocalypse as found in the Revelation of John of Patmos.
28. The Mellow Pad (1945 – 1951) Stewart Davis
Stewart Davis’ career as a painter arose in early twentieth century in New York City, where the Ashcan school, an artistic movement featuring artworks depicting everyday life in NYC, seemed to exemplify a period of political rebellion in America. A key painting from this period is Self-Portrait (1919). Then, in the 1920s and ‘30s, Davis developed a much more colorful and abstract style of painting that could be considered proto-Pop Art. Many of these artworks show Davis’ love of commercialism, man-made objects, Cubism and jazz. Paintings such as The Mellow Pad and A Little Matisse, A Lot of Jazz show why Davis may have been the greatest modernist painter in America – until the rise of Abstract Expressionism in the 1940s and ‘50s, perhaps, but who’s to say?
27. Victory Boogie Woogie (1942 – 1944) Piet Mondrian
Dutch painter Piet Mondrian began his career in the 1890s. A proponent of post-Impressionism and Cubism, Mondrian’s early pieces were very pleasing to the eye, even beautiful, particularly Spring Sun: Castle Ruin: Brederode (1909 – 1910). But around 1913 Mondrian gave up representational art and founded De Stijl (The Style), which exemplifies his theory of neoplasticism and for which he used only primary colors and geometric shapes, such as in Tableau I (1921). But Victory Boogie Woogie is a livelier, more optimistic piece than his earlier, austere paintings, signifying a revolutionary change in his abstraction. To sum up Mondrian’s ethos, he said, “Art is higher than reality and has no direct relation to reality. To approach the spiritual in art, one will make as little use as possible of reality, because reality is opposed to the spiritual.”
26. Series 1, No. 8 (1918) Georgia O’Keeffe
Sometimes called the Mother of American Modernism, Georgia O’Keeffe is famous for painting flowers, buildings in New York City, cloudscapes, and landforms in New Mexico. Many of O’Keeffe’s flowers resemble female genitalia, particularly Series 1, No. 8, which brings to mind a woman's vulva; however, O’Keeffe denied this intension. Early in O’Keeffe’s career she painted in a realistic way but by 1914 her painting became much more abstract, though still seemed to depict recognizable objects. And, as with many abstractionists, O’Keeffe painted few if any people, an animal or two, maybe, but that’s all. Notably, she lived to be 98 and her painting, Jimson Weed (1932), sold for $44.4 million in 2014, the highest price ever paid for a painting by a woman.
25. Mountains and Sea (1952) Helen Frankenthaler
An abstract painter in the ilk of the famous Abstract Expressionists of the 1940s ‘50s and beyond, Helen Frankenthaler was heavily influenced by the work of Jackson Pollock. After she saw at an exhibition of Pollock’s drip paintings in 1950, she said, “It was all there. I wanted to live in this land. I had to live there, and master the language.” She was also influenced by the water color paintings of Paul Cézanne and John Marin. Emphasizing spontaneity in her paintings, she said, “A really good picture looks as if it happened at once.” Utilizing a technique she called “soak stain,” which allowed colors to soak into the canvas, Frankenthaler’s painting Mountains and Sea is one of her first exhibited paintings and is perhaps the most popular painting of her decades-long career.
24. The Scream (1893) Edvard Munch
Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, a man beset by psychological problems (severe mental illness ran in his family), created one of the most famous paintings of modern times. The Scream symbolizes to many the anxiety of modern humankind, though Munch himself said he painted it as a reaction to seeing a blood-red sunset, which seemed to him a “scream of nature.” Over the decades when his paintings became exemplars of German Expressionism, Munch strove to create paintings that showed his current psychological state, even though this state may have included suicidal thoughts, pessimism, alcoholism or violent behavior. One critic wrote: "With ruthless contempt for form, clarity, elegance, wholeness, and realism, he paints with intuitive strength of talent the most subtle visions of the soul."
23. Christina’s World (1948) Andrew Wyeth
Christina’s World is one of the most recognizable American paintings of the twentieth century. It depicts a woman crawling across a treeless field as she gazes at a house and other smaller buildings in the distance. The woman is Anna Christina Olson, who suffered from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, an incurable illness causing the progressive loss of muscle tissue. Regarding the painting’s inclusion is pop culture, it has appeared movies such as: 2001: A Space Odyssey (the painting hangs on the wall of a hotel room through which walks astronaut David Bowman after he passes through the star gate) and War on Everyone, in which a character looks at a print of the painting and says, “It’s kinda creepy. It's like something bad's gonna happen but there's nothing she can do about it.”
22. The Card Players (1895) Paul Cézanne
Considered a Post-Impressionist painter, Paul Cézanne - whose work seems to bridge the gap between nineteenth century Impressionism and early twentieth century avant-garde movements such as Cubism, Futurism, Dada, Fauvism and Art Deco - influenced such giants of modern art as Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso, both of whom remarked, “Cézanne is the father of us all.” Cézanne painted The Card Players during his final period in the 1890s to early 1900s, when he had many physical and mental problems; nevertheless, he produced five paintings in this series, one version of which was sold to the Royal Family of Qatar for $250 to $300 million in 2011. This was the highest price paid for a painting until November 2017.
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21. Christ’s Entry into Brussels (1889) James Ensor
A Belgian painter working in styles such as Surrealism and Expressionism, James Ensor belonged to Les XX, a group of 20 Belgian artists, designers and sculptors who had an annual exhibition of their of art, to which many other prominent artists were invited. Unfortunately, when Ensor exhibited Christ’s Entry into Brussels, it was rejected by Les XX and not shown in public until 1929. Considered a scandalous work, it shows Christ riding a donkey into a carnival-like assemblage of people wearing grotesque masks; historical figures are also depicted among the crowd. Regarding Ensor’s controversial artwork, one critic wrote, “Ensor is a dangerous person who has great changes and is consequently marked for blows. It is at him that all the harquebuses are aimed.”
20. Impression, Sunrise (1872) Claude Monet
Claude Monet, one of the founders of French Impressionistic painting, entered Impression, Sunrise in the first showing of Impressionistic paintings at a Paris salon in 1874. Actually, the word Impressionism originated with the title to this artwork, as Monet used it to describe how the sunrise made an “impression” on him, particularly the play of light on its various aspects, in the port of Le Harve one particular morning. So, should Monet be credited as being France’s first Impressionistic painter – or, for that matter, the first such painter in the world? That’s a subject of debate. The work of painter Joseph M.W. Turner (1775 to 1851), whose work was decidedly Impressionistic toward the end of his career, could get a vote or two as the first Impressionistic painter in the world. Nevertheless, Monet is often called the Father of Impressionism.
19. 32 Campbell’s Soup Cans (1962) Andy Warhol
One of the forerunners of Pop Art, which arose in British and American art galleries in the 1950s, Andy Warhol was the first artist to produce paintings of soup cans and other mundane American household products. 32 Campbell’s Soup Cans is a collection of 32 canvases (20 by 15 inches each) using synthetic polymer paint on canvas. Warhol first showed the painting at the Ferus Gallery of Los Angeles, launching the West Coast debut of Pop Art in 1962. This work of blatant commercialism riled proponents of Abstract Impressionism, which had ruled American art since the 1940s. Because of the popularity of the Warhol’s soup cans and other commercial images, he became the most famous artist of Pop Art, as his artworks were the highest-priced of any living American artist. Tragically, before Warhol had gallbladder surgery in 1987, he had the premonition that he wasn’t going to leave the hospital alive – and he was right!
18. Woman III (1953) Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning was a Dutch-born painter who moved to the US in the 1920s and began painting in 1928, doing mostly figurative works. But in the 1940s his painting became less representational, particularly his black and white abstract works. After World War II, de Kooning and many other American painters such as Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko founded the New York School of Abstract Expressionism. In the early 1950s, de Kooning started his “Woman Series, “ which comprised six paintings of women, each of which showing the influence of Picasso - and Woman III may be the best of the series. In 2006, Woman III sold for $137.5 million, at the time the fourth most expensive painting ever sold!
17. I and the Village (1911) Marc Chagall
Perhaps the greatest Jewish artist of the twentieth century, Marc Chagall had a painterly style that was a mixture of Cubism, Symbolism, Fauvism and Surrealism. Moreover, he worked in many different artistic formats: painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramics, tapestries and fine art prints. I and the Village, like many of Chagall’s paintings, is hard to describe. As one scholar put it, the painting is a “Cubist fairy tale.” Based on Eastern European folklore and Russian and Yiddish culture, the painting juxtaposes many imaginative elements, all of which defy the laws of gravity, proportion, size and natural color. Based on Chagall’s childhood recollections, one may wonder if Chagall is the green-faced man in the painting. Incidentally, in the 1950s, Pablo Picasso declared that “when Matisse dies, Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what color really is.” Chagall lived to be 97.
16. Flag (1955) Jasper Johns
While serving in the US Army, Jasper Johns began having dreams about the American flag, so after he left the service he began creating artworks associated with this iconic image. In 1955, Johns created a multi-media painting entitled Flag, comprised of encaustic, oil paint and collage on canvas, then mounted on fabric and finally plywood. All 48 states (Hawaii and Alaska hadn’t been added to the union as yet) were not identical and the stripes in the flag were made with strips of newsprint and then covered with red or white paint, much of the newsprint showing through. Interestingly, Johns’ work is often associated with neo-Dada and Pop Art. And in 2014, Flag was auctioned at Sotheby’s for $36 million.
15. The Models (1888) Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat was a proponent of post-Impressionism, a French art movement that developed from the late 1880s to the early 1900s and included neo-Impressionism, which more closely encompassed Seurat’s painting style, and both were included in pointillism; this is, his painted images were comprised of tiny colored dots, looking something similar to dot matrix printing. Astonishingly, The Models shows three young female models in a state of undress, and included in the upper left background of the piece is part of Seurat’s famous painting - A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. So, The Models includes two masterpieces in one. Who did that? Georges Seurat did!
14. Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (1897) Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin was a businessman until the French economy crashed in 1882. Then he turned to painting, using the post-Impression style of the 1880s. Along the way, he moved away from Impressionism and helped explore styles such as Synthetism, Symbolism and Cloisonnism, all of which differed from Impressionism, because they emphasized two-dimensional patterns with no gradations of color, which gave paintings little or no depth or classical perspective. In the 1890s, Gauguin visited Tahiti and later the Marquesas Islands, where he lived for years with the natives and married a 13-year-old girl. Gauguin created many paintings of these Polynesians and the best of this group was Where Do We Come From?, which he considered his masterpiece and final artistic testament. And then, after finishing it, he attempted suicide, though he didn’t succeed and kept living until 1903.
13. Golconda (1953) René Magritte
A Belgian Surrealist, René Magritte liked painting artworks that challenged people’s sense of reality. Often depicting ordinary objects and/or people in unusual, improbable or fantastic settings, Magritte’s paintings take you on a dreamy trip to your own subconscious– or perhaps the collective subconscious of humankind, if such a thing exists. Golconda shows a residential scene of red-roofed buildings, over which numerous middle-aged men dressed in overcoats and bowler hats (as Magritte often depicted himself in paintings) are seen falling from the sky – or suspended in air in a kind of grid pattern. Are these men individuals or multiples of the same man? Curiously, Magritte’s mother committed suicide when he was 14, and it’s been theorized that his puzzling artworks shift from a state of her being alive – or dead.
12. Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881) Pierre-Auguste Renior
One of the greats of Impressionism, Renior liked painting pretty women in beautiful settings and often showing degrees of feminine sensuality, a tradition that goes back to the art of Rubens and Watteau. Inspired by the work of Camille Pissarro and Édouard Manet, Renior was one of the artists to enter his paintings in the first Impressionist exhibition in Paris in 1874. Luncheon of the Boating Party shows life as it was in those halcyon days in France; in fact, the woman playing with the dog on the left is Renior’s future wife, and the others are his many friends, including painter Gustave Caillebotte (lower right). Renior continued painting well into old age, even while suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosis of his right shoulder. Interestingly, his three sons became artists and filmmakers, notably actor Jean Renior (1894 to 1979).
11. Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory (1954) Salvador Dalí
Certainly one of the most eccentric, narcissistic artists of all time, Salvador Dalí once said, “I am not strange. I’m just not normal.” His grandiose demeanor aside, Dalí’s genius as a great painter is without peer, particularly as it relates to the masters of Surrealism. Astonishing and bizarre, Dalí’s images cannot be forgotten. It’s hard to believe they could have sprung from the mind of a human being! In The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory, Dalí, using his interpretation of quantum mechanics, deconstructs perhaps his most famous work, The Persistence of Memory (1931). Whether one painting is better than the other, who can say? Interestingly, in 2017, Dalí’s corpse was disinterred for DNA evidence to settle a paternity suit. It turned out the kid wasn’t his! Also, shortly before his death in 1989, he said, “When you are a genius, you do not have the right to die, because we are necessary for the progress of humanity.”
10. The Love Embrace of the Universe (1949) Frida Kahlo
Despite having polio and being seriously injured in a traffic accident at 18, for which she suffered medical problems the rest of her life, Frida Kahlo had an impressive career as a Mexican Surrealist painter (or Magical Realist, painters using realism with fantasy elements added). While living, Kahlo wasn’t well known as an artist, simply muralist Diego Rivera’s wife, until the 1970s, that is, when her legacy attacked the attention of Chicanos, feminists, the LGBTQ movement and Native Americans. Now people wrote books about her! Kahlo’s painting, The Love Embrace of the Universe, shows Kahlo with Diego Rivera, as they’re embraced by Mexico, the Earth and the Universe. Often mythologized, for better or worse, Kahlo has become one of the most recognized artists of the twentieth century. Interestingly, in 2018, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors changed the name of Phelan Avenue to Frida Kahlo Way.
9. Battle of the Lights, Coney Island (1914) Joseph Stella
Joseph Stella was an Italian-American who specialized in Futurist painting in the early 1900s. Then he transitioned to painting in the Precisionist style in the 1920s and ‘30s. Influenced by Cubism and Futurism, Precisionism emphasized America’s emergence as a modern industrialized society by highlighting its impressive bridges, skyscrapers and factories. Battle of Lights, Coney Island was one of the first successful paintings of American Futurism. Thereafter, Stella became a renowned painter in the New York art scene, though his work attracted much criticism from conservative art critics who found works of modernism threatening and impossible to define. Be that as it may, during the late 1930s and into the ‘40s, Stella’s painting style became more realistic and baroque, which didn’t fit the modernist - much less avant-garde - mold, so the art world forgot about him.
8. Luncheon on the Grass (1863) Édouard Manet
Édouard Manet’s paintings are considered integral aspects of the beginning of modern art in the Western tradition. Manet, whose work bridged the gap between realism and Impressionism in the 1860s, began his artistic career by copying the work of Old Masters in the Louvre in Paris. Luncheon on the Grass, a pastoral scene using the juxtaposition of two fully dressed men and one nude woman (the woman appearing relaxed and painted in a sketchy fashion) was controversial at the time, which perhaps explains why the painting was rejected by the Paris Salon when it was first entered. Another exceedingly influential painting Manet created the same year was Olympia, which shows a reclining nude prostitute, whose defiant gaze rivets the viewer and adds greatly to the sexual tension in the piece. Curiously, this painting was accepted by the Paris Salon!
7. Full Fathom Five (1947) Jackson Pollock
Perhaps the greatest painter of Abstract Expressionism, Jackson Pollock created his best paintings by using what’s called action painting, a technique began in the early twentieth century by artists such as Frances Picabia and Max Ernst, though Pollock applied paint horizontally by dripping, pouring, splashing or spraying upon what was usually a very large canvas. Perhaps Pollock’s greatest period producing drip paintings was from 1947 to 1950. Many of these paintings eventually sold for tens of millions of dollars. An alcoholic, who often insulted people when drunk, Pollock tried using art to help him get sober, but he never succeeded for long, dying in an alcohol-induced car crash in 1956, age 44. Notably, a catalog introducing his dramatic style read as follows: “Volcanic. It has fire. It is unpredictable. It is undisciplined. It spills out of itself in a mineral prodigality, not yet crystallized.”
6. Joy of Life (1905) Henri Matisse
Along with Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse was one of the giants of modern art in the twentieth century; both helped advance the use of visual arts in the early 1900s, particularly regarding painting and sculpture. Around 1900 Matisse became a leader of the Fauves (French for wild beasts), that is, painters who emphasized painterly values and the bold use of color, sometimes in a dissonant way, and relied less on representation or realism. Fauvism only lasted a few years, yet Matisse had found his artistic niche, though his seemingly undisciplined painting drew much criticism. Nevertheless, from 1906 to 1917 Matisse may have created his best paintings, and Joy of Life is certainly an example of his apex output. Interestingly, when Matisse became elderly and suffered from health problems, he could no longer paint, so he used paper cut-outs instead, a technique known as decoupage.
5. Guernica (1937) Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso, known mainly as a Cubist and Surrealist, may not have been the greatest artist of the twentieth century, but he was almost certainly the most prolific. By estimates Picasso may have produced as many as 50,000 artworks, including 1,885 paintings, 1,228 sculptures, 2,880 ceramics, approximately 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints and numerous tapestries and rugs. Anyway, maybe not his greatest painting, though almost certainly his most famous, Guernica depicts Picasso’s reaction to the bombing of the town of Guernica during German and Italian aerial bombing in the Spanish Civil War. Incidentally, Picasso, living in France most of his life, stayed in Paris during World War II. Picasso was often harassed by the Gestapo, which liked to search his apartment. One time an officer found a photo of Guernica and asked Picasso, “Did you paint that?” And Picasso replied, “No, you did.”
4. Danaë (1907) Gustav Klimt
An Austrian painter, Gustav Klimt painted in the Symbolist style, which emphasized spirituality and imagination, as opposed to realism and naturalism. Klimt was primarily a figurative artist specializing in female nudes often depicted in an overtly erotic fashion. In the early 1900s, Klimt’s “Golden Phase” was the most popular, critically acclaimed and monetarily successful of his career. Interestingly, most of these paintings included gold leaf. Over-the-top sexually, for the time, some of these masterpieces were considered pornographic. Danaë features the young woman of Greek mythology who, while locked in a tower by her father, was visited by Zeus and later gave birth to Perseus. Also painted by such as artists as Titian and Rembrandt, Danaë was a symbol of divine love and transcendence. By the way, Klimt fathered at least 14 children and died during the flu epidemic of 1918; and his painting Adele Bloch-Bauer I sold for $135 million in 2006.
3. The Starry Night (1889) Vincent van Gogh
A quintessential tortured genius, Vincent van Gogh, was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter who suffered from mental illness his entire life and died young at the age of 37. Though young when he died, he had produced a phenomenal amount of artworks – 2,100 of them, 860 of which were oil paintings. Also an impoverished man, van Gogh suffered from psychosis, delusions and what could be considered clinical depression. When he could no longer live with his mental issues, he shot himself in the chest with a revolver and perished two days later. The Starry Night is certainly one of his best paintings, though it would be impossible to pick the best, wouldn’t it? Van Gogh’s usage of swirls in this nocturne is perhaps its most appealing aspect. Small wonder it has become one of the most recognized paintings in the history of artistic expression. By the way, the bright object just to the right of the cypress tree is the planet Venus.
2. Nighthawks (1942) Edward Hopper
A painter of American realism, Edward Hopper became known for his oil painting, though he also painted with water colors and became a printmaker in metal etching. Painting in both rural and urban settings, it was many years before Hopper developed his own popular style; in 1931 he sold 30 paintings. Certainly Hopper’s most well-known and influential painting is Nighthawks. By the way, the scene used for Nighthawks was a diner in Greenwich Village, demolished years ago. Shown for a month at the gallery, the painting finally sold for $3,000, good money in those days. And, notably, in popular culture and the arts, the diner scene is often used as a setting where dead rock stars or movie stars gather for coffee (the waiter portrayed as Elvis, perhaps). The panting has also influenced writers and producers of plays, movies, operas, novels, albums and music videos. If there’s a more iconic rendering of modern American life, what would it be?
1. Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2 (1912) Marcel Duchamp
In the early 1900s, Marcel Duchamp rejected what was known as retinal art and instead hoped to produce art that challenged the mind. A proponent of Cubism, Conceptual Art and Dada, Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2 depicts a nude woman descending a flight of stairs. Using superimposed elements that evoke motion pictures and chronophotographic imagery, Nude was shown for the first time in Barcelona, Spain in 1917. Exhibited with works of Cubism, Fauvism and Futurism, Nude scandalized show-going folks, though it eventually became an iconic work of modern art.
Interestingly, Duchamp indentified with so-called anti-artists by entering “Readymades” or found objects in art shows; in fact, at a 1917 exhibition, he submitted a men’s urinal. Displayed upside down and labeled Fountain, it was signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt. Fountain was rejected at this art show; nevertheless, it eventually became one of the most famous and influential artworks in the world, though not necessarily one of Duchamp’s best!
Please leave a comment!
Questions & Answers
Question: What are your qualifications for creating a list of great paintings?
Answer: I've been collecting art and reading about it since the early 1990s.
© 2018 Kelley Marks
Ivana on June 11, 2020:
Many great works and amazing facts! Love from Serbia Mr. Sparrow :)
Jefflucky on May 21, 2020:
Why doesn't de Chirico often make best painting lists?
Zoha.alinejad on December 27, 2019:
This article was amazing .
I learnt from it. I'm a painter from iran and i'd like to guide me.thank you
Kelley Marks (author) from Sacramento, California on December 19, 2019:
You're right, Gary D. these paintings were created by artists living in the US, Europe, Mexico or Canada and are popular works of modern art. If you know of any paintings that are not so popular, yet great works of modern art, please let me know about them, because I'll almost certainly add more to this list—any day now.
Gary D. on December 18, 2019:
I know it is impossible to be knowledgeable about everything,
but your list seems to only includes work from Europe and the USA
Loise on November 24, 2019:
Me like many - Floral painter, portraits, abstracts, landscape, different stayles - Mark Rothko, impressionists, Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso, Wassily Kandinsky, Henri Matisse. Now me like - Juliette Belmonte, Ilgonis Rinkis, Minas Halaj.
DLE on July 21, 2019:
That Stella piece is astonishing. A full viewing could take a couple hours. Thanks for sharing it. One of the few pieces I had never seen previously.
Kelley Marks (author) from Sacramento, California on June 05, 2019:
Thanks for the comment, Jack Lee. I haven't heard from you in a long time! "Christina's World" is also one of my favorite paintings. Millions of other people love it as well. Later!...
Jack Lee from Yorktown NY on June 03, 2019:
My favorite painter in this group is Andrew Wyeth, and “Christina’s World”. He has painted over 10,000 works of art in his lifetime. The famous series on Helga is also on top of my list...
Uriel on June 02, 2019:
What about: Kandinsky, Klee, Ernst, De Chirico and Leger ?
And removing Duchamps who is (in my opinion) a crook; the equivalent of Lacan in psychoanalysis.
M b on April 20, 2019:
Joy of Life #1
Kosmo Kelley on November 26, 2018:
Thanks for the comment, Peggy Woods. Maybe I'll add a poll at a later date. I'm interested to see how many people agree with my pick for the number one painting. Later!...
Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on November 26, 2018:
It is always interesting to me as to what makes a favorites list when it comes to art. Some of these paintings were much more to my liking than others. It would have been interesting if you had inserted a poll as to which one was the favorite painting of your readers. My two favorites were the Matisse and Renoir.
Alexander James Guckenberger from Maryland, United States of America on November 14, 2018:
Kelley, it can be on the next list! :D
Kelley Marks (author) from Sacramento, California on November 14, 2018:
Thanks for the comment, Alexander! I also like "Odalisque" by Matisse. Should it be on this list?...
Kelley Marks (author) from Sacramento, California on November 14, 2018:
Thanks for the comment, Jack Lee. I haven't heard from you in awhile. Anyway, I must admit that at least some of these paintings would be fairly easy to do. Even you and I could probably do one or two. Ha!...
Jack Lee from Yorktown NY on November 13, 2018:
Very nice, but art is in the eye of the beholder. I am not a fan of modern art in general. A rack of cambell soup cans or an American flag is not art to me.
The prove of the pudding for me is, if a child of 8 can make the same painting, it is not art.
Alexander James Guckenberger from Maryland, United States of America on November 13, 2018:
"Odalisque" is fantastic! I'm also glad that you included Dali. :)