40 Facts about Tamerlane - Timur the Lame

A reconstruction of Tamerlane's face.
A reconstruction of Tamerlane's face. | Source

Who Was Tamerlane?

Timur was a 14th Century Turko-Mongol military leader who conquered most of the Muslim world, central Asia, and parts of India. His Timurid Empire rivaled the size and power of the Mongolian domain forged by Genghis Khan a century earlier.

Known by his nickname, Tamerlane, it's unclear why many people in the Western world have never heard of this brutal and ingenious warlord. To rectify this neglect, the following is a list of interesting facts about Tamerlane. The list includes notable events in his life; analyzes his acerbic personality, and remarks on current impressions of this fascinating historical figure.

A statue of Tamerlane in Uzbekistan.
A statue of Tamerlane in Uzbekistan. | Source

40 Interesting Facts about Timur the Lame

1. Timur (meaning `iron') was born in 1336 near the city of Kesh in Transoxiania. This historic Persian city is now known as Shahrisabz in modern day Uzbekistan.

2. Tamerlane is the European derivation of Timur’s Persian nickname, Timur-e Lang, which means `Timur the Lame’.

3. During his mid-twenties, Tamerlane was crippled by injuries to his right leg and right hand. Legend states that he was shot by arrows when his band of thieves was ambushed by a shepherd. It’s more likely that the injuries were sustained in battle when he was a soldier for the Khan of Sistan (in north-east Iran).

4. In 1941, Russian archaeologists excavated Tamerlane’s tomb, confirming that he had a debilitating hip injury and two fingers missing from his right hand.

5. The excavation revealed that he was tall for the time (1.73 m) and broad-chested. He had prominent cheek bones and Mongoloid features (see reconstruction).

6. Timur’s tomb was allegedly inscribed with the words “When I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble”.

7. His coffin supposedly read: “Whoever opens my tomb shall unleash an invader more terrible than I”. Hitler invaded the USSR within two days of the exhumation, and when Timur was finally reburied, the Soviet victory at Stalingrad shortly followed.

Tamerlane's tomb in Samarkand.
Tamerlane's tomb in Samarkand. | Source

8. Tamerlane’s ambition was to rebuild the empire of Genghis Khan, who had died a century earlier.

9. His military conquests saw him conquer land that comprises the modern day countries of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, large parts of Turkey and Syria, and the north-western portion of India (Delhi).

10. It is estimated that his armies killed 17 million people, which was about 5% of the global population at the time.

11. He referred to himself as the `Sword of Islam’ and converted much of his empire to the religion. This included Genghis Khan’s descendents, the Borjigin clan.

12. Tamerlane’s own religious affiliation is unclear, and he may have been using Islam as a means to consolidate and exert power. Indeed, he was a highly intelligent politician who spoke Turkish, Mongolian and Persian.

The breadth of the Timurid Empire.
The breadth of the Timurid Empire. | Source

13. Tamerlane’s father was a prominent member of the Barlas tribe, which had been close with Genghis Khan’s Borjigin clan. However, the Barlas tribe had been converted to Islam and spoke Turkish.

14. Despite this, Tamerlane idolized Genghis Khan and used similar methods to build his empire. For example, he was a military mastermind who led a multi-ethnic army. He instilled great loyalty, and was adept at taking advantage of temporary weaknesses in the political state of his enemies. He also used spies and propaganda to sow the seeds for invasion, and planned his campaigns years in advance.

15. Tamerlane was a natural leader. He spent his teenage years leading a band of petty thieves. They stole livestock from farmers, and property from travelers and merchants.

16. In his twenties, Tamerlane fought under the rule of various Khans and Sultans. His leadership skills led to him being given command of a thousand soldiers for an invasion of Khorasan (in north-east Iran). The success of this mission led to further commands and prestige.

17. When his leader, Kurgan, died, the subsequent struggle for power was eventually halted by the invasion of Tughlugh Khan from the Mongol Chagatai Khanate. The head of the Barlas tribe fled the invasion, and Timur was chosen by the Mongols as his replacement.

18. When Tughlugh Khan died and entrusted Transoxiania to his son Ilyas, Timur and his brother-in-law, Amir Husayn, sensed their opportunity and took the region by force.

Timur is made king in northern Afghanistan.
Timur is made king in northern Afghanistan. | Source

19. Now in his mid-thirties, Timur was a tribal leader with a territory to defend. He used his power wisely, showing kindness and charity to nobles, merchants, and the clergy. This gained him many allies, and much power.

20. Amir Husayn treated his subjects harshly and became jealous of Timur’s growing power. They quickly became rivals, forcing Timur to capture Amir. He was later assassinated, giving Timur complete control in northern Iran and Afghanistan.

21. Tamerlane dominated over the Chagatai chieftains to the north-east, and eventually claimed the Mongol territory by marrying, Saray Mulk Khanum, a Chagatai princess and descendant of Genghis Khan.

22. Tamerlane was unable to become the Mongol emperor because he was not a descendent of Genghis Khan. Likewise, he couldn’t claim legitimacy in the Muslim world because he wasn’t a descendent of Muhammad. Instead he ruled the Chagatai Khanate via a puppet ruler, and attributed his military successes in Persia to the will of Allah.

23. Timur led his armies in all directions over the next three decades. In the south and west, Persia was completely conquered. To the north-west, Georgia and Azerbaijan were taken. To the north, the Mongol “Golden Horde” was decisively defeated, though he avoided threatening the Mongol homeland to the north-east.

Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi.
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi. | Source

24. In 1398, and at the age of 62, Timur was now a legendary conqueror with a vast territory. He turned his army towards India in the south-east. Unlike his other conquests, Timur slaughtered the Pakistani and Indian people, justifying the barbarism as a holy war against the Hindu religion.

25. The Sultan of Delhi used war elephants, covered with chain mail, to terrify Timur’s troops. In a stroke of cruel genius, Timur placed hay on the backs of camels, set the hay on fire, and prodded them until they painfully charged at the elephants. The elephants turned and stampeded their own troops, granting Timur an easy victory. The population of Delhi were massacred.

26. Much like Genghis Khan, Tamerlane was opportunistic. His campaigns of Persia and Delhi took advantage of power struggles that had weakened their defenses.

27. Timur’s cruelty grew in his later years. Legend states that his invasion of Baghdad (Iraq) in 1399 required each of his soldiers to show him two severed heads from the largely Christian population.

Tamerlane imprisoned and humiliated the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid.
Tamerlane imprisoned and humiliated the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid. | Source

28. In revenge for insulting letters sent by the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid (Turkey), Timur conquered the Ottoman Empire in 1402, and Bayezid died in captivity.

29. His victory began a civil war in Turkey in which Timur’s candidate, Mehmed I, secured power. Mehmed belonged to a tribe that the Mongols had previously allowed to rule the region.

30. Tamerlane had friendly relations with some European states, namely France and Spain. Both he and the Europeans saw themselves as reluctant allies against the Ottomans.

31. Right up until his death, Timur continued to expand his empire. The leader of the new Chinese Ming Dynasty had insulted Timur, provoking his wrath. However, after 3 months of successful battles, the campaign ended when Timur succumbed to fever and died.

32. Despite preferring spring assaults, Timur had prematurely attacked the Chinese during the harsh winter of 1404. This suggests that his anger at the Chinese contributed to his demise.

33. Timur Tamerlane died on the 17th of February 1405 at the age of 68. His body was embalmed and buried in an ebony coffin in Samarkand, fifty miles north of his birthplace in Kesh.

34. Timur had 4 sons. The eldest two, Jahangir and Umar Shaykh, died before him, while Miran Shah died soon after. Timur was succeeded by his youngest son, Shah Rukh.

35. The Black Sheep Turkmen destroyed the western half of his empire when they sacked Baghdad in 1410, though Shah Rukh continued the Timurid dynasty by retaining control of the eastern half. He set up his capital in Herat, Afghanistan.

Some beautiful Timurid architecture.
Some beautiful Timurid architecture. | Source

36. Tamerlane’s descendents include Babur, founder of the Indian Mughal Empire, and the scientifically adept Timurid ruler, Ulugh Beg.

37. The Timurid Empire lasted until 1507. The Persian Safavid dynasty took most of Iran in 1501, while a contingent of Uzbek tribes invaded from the north to take Herat in 1507.

38. Like many other formidable leaders, Tamerlane’s legacy is unclear. He is regarded as a hero in central Asian states such as Uzbekistan.

39. In much of Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and India, he is vilified as a monster for massacring the populations. Nevertheless, some Muslim scholars applaud him for uniting the Muslim world.

40. Despite forcing Christians out of much of the Muslim world, he was highly regarded in Europe for defeating the Ottomans, though that impression has become less favorable in recent times.

A Short Lecture About The Timurids

It's unclear why Tamerlane and the Timurid Empire are under-represented in popular historical discourse. Perhaps it's because his achievements were very similar, but slightly less notable, than those of Genghis Khan. Why speak of the second greatest Asian ruler when you can speak of the first?

It's possible that his empire was too short-lived to be given much attention (137 years). After all, the Persian, Ottoman, Mongol, and Mughal Empires survived far longer. Perhaps, his cruelty discouraged the civilizations who could have popularized his story; or maybe his lameness caused fewer writers to glorify his achievements. While others have succeeded in immortalizing themselves with barbarism, we may never know why Tamerlane escaped a similar degree of notoriety.

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Comments 41 comments

Mel Carriere profile image

Mel Carriere 3 years ago from San Diego California

I read about Tamerlane when I was a young man, and this refreshed my memory. This was a fascinating era of history. It is incredible that these simple, pastoral people of the Asian steppes could conquer the known world. Great stuff, I enjoyed reading it.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 3 years ago from New Zealand Author

Cheers Mel. I think it's mainly because they were expert horsemen. When the Greeks and Persians became city-dwellers, they may have fallen behind the Eastern nomadic peoples in terms of cavalry skills. Also, with many small tribes (rather than a couple of vast cities), it was easier for skilled individuals to rise to the top of society. Khan and Tamarlane appeared to promote people based on merit rather than birth-right, giving them superior generals and tactics.

Ausseye 3 years ago

Hi your work but not your subject

The history of a tyrant is well forgotten and easy to throw into the dark hole in the universe

both he and Hitler are worthy partners to share a forgotten space in time. Unfortunately many more should share his historical fate, including Genghis. Love your research and written work, hate the character you chose to enrich us with, hope you chose someone kind next time as you write well.

Suhail and my dog profile image

Suhail and my dog 3 years ago from Mississauga, ON

Hi Thomas,

I read your article with great interest. When I was growing up in Pakistan, they used to tell us about Tamerlane (or Amir Timur or Timur-e-lung) in our school textbooks.

Timur is considered a national hero of Uzbekistan. In Pakistan, the reaction is mixed. Many people carry his name, but that may be a Mughal name rather than coming straight from Timur-e-Lung.

Timur was what is was then considered as a 'New Muslim' as opposed to having some credentials, lie you have mentioned. Pakistani historians believe he was a man in terrible inferiority complex, who waged wars just to teach other Muslims a lesson.

Also, why he may not be remembered is that he didn't leave any influence on the world after his death. He didn't build any libraries, roads, buildings, educational institutions, mosques, gardens, etc. and didn't introduce anything that could be continued as something positive for others.

Compare him with a later Indo-Pakistani hero - Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 22 May 1545). Although he ruled for only 5 years, he gave the Asian subcontinent its first main highway known as G.T. Road, concept of roadside restaurants, and express delivery of mail.

Voted up, awesome and shared!

Wesman Todd Shaw profile image

Wesman Todd Shaw 3 years ago from Kaufman, Texas

This is a terrific page, and thanks very much for providing this information.

I confess I knew the name, but couldn't recall what or who Tamerlane was until I started reading.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 3 years ago from New Zealand Author

Thanks for commenting and raising that point Ausseye. I do have a kind of sick fascination for these types. I have written about Hitler, Genghis Khan, Vlad the Impaler, Stalin, Ivan The Terrible and Rasputin too! It's more from a psychological perspective though. I enjoy trying to understand their personalities. For example, Tamerlane seemed to be a prickly and reactive individual who took offense easily and always sought revenge. Unfortunately, I didn't find much information on his childhood though.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 3 years ago from New Zealand Author

Thank you suhail. I wasn't sure about Timur's temperament before your comment, so it's nice to hear that many Pakistani historians agree with what I've said about him. I suppose his injury could have easily contributed to the inferiority complex.

I like your point about Timur not leaving much behind. That would be a good explanation for his absence from history.

Also, thank you for your vote and share! It's much appreciated.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 3 years ago from New Zealand Author

Cheers Wesman. I'm glad you found it interesting and informative!

Ausseye 3 years ago

Hi ThomasI HopeASwanWho Seeks Answers :

You describe a person with enormous egos, inflated self-esteem and an unbelievable sense of entitlement. They are smooth talkers, and prolific liars. They are aggressive, impulsive, reckless, and when caught behaving badly, defiant. Does this sound familiar?

What you are reading is a profile of a particular type of person who through history have been very, very successful ……stand out and make history but alas they are now known as low on love, emotion and humanity. We are talking about Sociopaths, if you’re like most people, you may think that a sociopath is a serial killer. This is occasionally true, but in reality, most sociopaths never kill anyone. They get others to do their dirty work and sit back and claim the glory.

Modern research shows their brains are responsible, being cold to love, empathy and humanity.. Their frontal lob is oh so cold compared to the majority… they represent approximately 5% of the population full blown and another 8% partially blown…so have quite an influence in the lives of those on our planet.

My reason for replying is that being informed makes us less of a victim if we choose to observe, and the world a slightly better place to be. All those you mentioned shared those traits.

History also makes a point…success at all levels has some cold reality….I hope global warming has some effect on brains….just kidding.

Suhail and my dog profile image

Suhail and my dog 3 years ago from Mississauga, ON

You are most welcome Thomas.

I have noted that there were some glaring errors in my following paragraph (now corrected):

Timur was what was then considered as a 'New Muslim' as opposed to having some credentials, like you have mentioned. Pakistani historians believe that he was a man in terrible inferiority complex, who waged wars just to teach other Muslims a lesson.

I apologise if I mis-communicated earler

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 3 years ago from New Zealand Author

Thanks Ausseye. Yes, I've done a bit of research into narcissism myself. At the root of their problem is a deep level of insecurity, so that would fit with Tamerlane.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 3 years ago from New Zealand Author

No worries Suhail. I understand and agree with what you said.

Jakhangir Mirzo 2 years ago

Hi Thomas my name is Jakhangir Mirzo From Uzbekistan.I read your theme very perfect.I'm too Barlos.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 24 months ago from New Zealand Author

Thank you for commenting Jakhangir Mirzo. I'm happy you liked it.

faliq khudadost 23 months ago

enjoyed reading this epic legendary adventure :) from being the thief he become the conqueror :) reminded me the dialogue when you kill one person you are called murderer when you kill million people call you conquerer :(

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 23 months ago from New Zealand Author

Glad you liked it Faliq. I also find tales of ascension from poor beginnings to astronomical heights fascinating. That's an interesting adage you've ended with too.

Aziza 22 months ago

Hello, I'm from Uzbekistan. I'd like to thank you for providing so much fascinating information about our hero. He was a great person, no matter what people think about him in other countries but here he is considered to be our grandfather. And his monument is situated in the heart of the city. Thanks a lot, I'm really on cloud nine to see this page.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 22 months ago from New Zealand Author

Thank you for the kind words about the article Aziza. It was my pleasure to write it. I'm glad it came across as fair and balanced to you in Uzbekistan.

Aziza 21 months ago

Thanks ever so much :)

aesta1 profile image

aesta1 21 months ago from Ontario, Canada

I haven't read much about Tamerlane but I have about Genghis Khan. My idea of Genghis has changed and I am sure that when I listen to the people of Uzbekistan Tamerlane, I will also have a much more balanced view than just reading from Western historians. I have been corrected many times on my views of events in history.

Gulmira 16 months ago

Thank you for the article! Thank you for your interest! Being Uzbek, we are proud of our great ancestor, he is a symbol of courage, bravery. After gaining the independence, Uzbekistan became able to restore the rich heritage of the nation, to revive the names of great ancestors including Amir Temur.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 16 months ago from New Zealand Author

Thanks for commenting aesta1. Sorry I missed your comment before. I know what you mean about Genghis Khan. He could be seen as a tolerant reformer as much as the vicious conqueror depicted by Western historians. I think that, usually, it's somewhere in between.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 16 months ago from New Zealand Author

Thank you for your comment Gulmira. I'm always very happy to hear the opinions of Uzbeks here, and I'm glad this has reached you and been well received. It's great that the removal of the Soviets has led to a rich cultural resurgence.

Taimur 15 months ago

Hi Thomas.. I'm from Pakistan.. My is after Timur.. Sometimes I think he is very cruel and sometimes I think he did what should be done.. I have read books on him.. He used to bring Beautiful building design or statues from the cities or countries he invade.. Timur was a great Leader yes you can call him a great leader.. but killing millions of people you can't call him great..

On one occasion he build a tower of head Skeletons... I'm not his dynasty or something .. I think i like him because of my name :P

great great great work man.. Very appreciable... Keep going..

(sorry for english :/)

Rumasa profile image

Rumasa 15 months ago

Great article, although there is one little thing that I would like to dispute. Being from Pakistan I can almost surely say that Timur is celebrated there. In fact, Taimoor is a very common name there. I had never heard anything bad about him, in other words, I wasn't aware of his atrocities until I came to US.

Anne Harrison profile image

Anne Harrison 14 months ago from Australia

I have heard of Tamerlane (in fact, a winery near us is named after him) yet I knew little of the man. Thank you for sharing

Kristen Howe profile image

Kristen Howe 14 months ago from Northeast Ohio

Thomas, congrats on HOTD! This was a real interesting hub to read about him. Voted up!

Chantelle Porter profile image

Chantelle Porter 14 months ago from Chicago

Fascinating article. i have heard of Tamerlane but knew nothing about him. Great read.

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 14 months ago from New Zealand Author

Taimar, thank you for your comment. Yes, he was a very cruel man. The tower of heads may have been after taking Baghdad, though I wouldn’t be surprised if he did it after other invasions too. There always seems to be positives and negatives with these legendary rulers, but I think Timur was a bit too monstrous for a balance to be struck.

Rumasa, thank you very much. I expect there are parts of Pakistan (mainly west of the Indus River) that like Timur more than other parts (east of the Indus). Timur’s massacre of entire villages east of the Indus also focused on Hindu populations, which may make him a positive symbol for current nationalistic struggles against India.

Thank you Anne Harrison. That’s an unusual choice of name for an Australian winery!

Cheers Kristen. I’m very pleased to have gotten HOTD for this!

Thanks Chantelle. I’m glad you found it interesting and informative.

bodylevive profile image

bodylevive 14 months ago from Loachapoka, Alabama

He was an awful man and that's why no one remembers him in history. He did get you HOTD, so congrats on that.

Lee Cloak 14 months ago

Great hub, congrats on making hub of the day, i have heard of this guy many times but knew little about him until know, thanks for sharing, Lee

Thomas Swan profile image

Thomas Swan 14 months ago from New Zealand Author

Thank you bodylevive and Lee Cloak. I'm happy to have written something you find interesting.

justthemessenger profile image

justthemessenger 14 months ago from The Great Midwest

Intersting. Somehow Tamerlane doesn't get the same fame as Gengis Kahn. I guess the number 7 fact about him shows that people should leave well enough alone.

Jaees 10 months ago

I am still confused.. is timur directly decend from mongols or not ??

PatrickT 10 months ago

Tamerlane was worse even by conquerors of his time. He destroyed not only so many (17 million +) innocent lives but the heartbeat of civilisations around Bagdad, Esfahan, Damascus and Delhi to name only a few. He added nothing except enriching his city of Samakand. He was the scourge/sword of Islam. Interesting to consider how Chinese history would have been changed if his planned assault on the Ming achieved fruition.

Dildora 8 months ago

Tamerlane was surely great person who unified more than 10 small provinces at its time just in Mawaranahr and many other countries. Dears, please, give an attention that Taimoor had very good characteristics and didn't force occupied regions. He had many beautiful buildings built not only in Samarkand, but in Shiraz, Baghdad, Yassi, Darband and many others. He had very good friendly relationships with Henry III of Castile, Henry IV of England and Charles VI of France and he sent precious presents them. I mean he spent not only flourishing of his motherland, but tried to balance. It's not easy to manage the great empire with such big territory with kind character, that's why he managed to choose the usage of military force

Himanshu Tiwari 8 months ago

You forgot to add that he is responsible for death of 20 million people. He and his army has killed/murdered 100 thousand captives near delhi in one day.He is one the biggest mass murderer competing with adolf. He is more of a looter and murderer rather than any hero. read his biography looks like sordid tale of a mental psychopath.

Dildora 7 months ago

Himanshu Tiwari, could you please tell me, which king or the head of the great empire didn't kill any person? It is Tamerlane who was written in great number of books and historical sources. There is no an exact number of people, were killed by Tamerlane. And you can never be aware of the fact of victims and sacrifices made by other conquerors. I am, from Uzbekistan, as one of the young generation of Tamerlane, proud of my ancestor no matter what others think about him. I do know who he was from our history.

Not important 3 months ago

Man, those Persians and Georgians really spoiled the name of Timur. And by contrast, he did not care much about restoring his image even-though he was more than capable to do so.

Most of those "massacre" come from only one or two sources and whose are persian and georgian, a defeated states who has only bad things to say about Timur. Unless we get other sources to confirm the numbers (like 5% of world population were supposedly killed during his invasions) I think people, including the author, should really stop rolling the statements from unreliable sources. Don't get me wrong, I am not saying he was all good. He was a ruthless invader just like any other but he doesn't deserve this much of hate.

And come on! Who believes he was a thief? His father was a head of a prominent Mongolian tribe and head of city. You really think his son would be a thief of sheep? This has to be the clue for all those misinformation about the identity of Timur.

Another point of view 2 months ago

Firstly, I would like to thank Mr. Swan for a very informative compilation of facts.

Now to the discussion of the credibility of said facts.

When considering such historical information, one should always be skeptical and analyze other surrounding circumstances to draw conclusions. Therefore, I would like to add this perspective in regards to the numbers of victims reported in different sources. Considering the fact that Timur used networks of spies and propaganda tactics in his conquests, it is possible that his brutality was purposely disseminated among other unconquered populations to instill fear and encourage submission without struggle.

In terms of punishment used under his leadership for rebellions or submissions, we should consider the fact that Timur would probably forced to crush all dissent brutally to remain as an effective ruler.

One last thing that I would like to mention is that Central Asia was a weak region suspect to raids from neighboring rulers at the time. Being based in the Central Asia, he had to subdue his neighboring rulers to ensure stability within his own region. This could explain his quickness to be upset with insults by other rulers, namely Bayazid, in order to have an excuse for his campaigns. After all, an unprovoked assault would harm his troops' morale and make regions more resistant to his invasions.

Just my two cents.

Abdusattor 4 weeks ago

HI Tomas Swan, i have read your article, i agree with you about Timur's succesfulity. He won all battles after becoming ruler of mawaraunahr in 1370, in his account hasn't any defeats. I think it's notable fact. And who was he been, his name TIMUR is very popular in Uzbekistan (my country) , Turkey (in form Demir or Timur), Kazakhstan,Kyrgystan, in Russia too. I would be happy if you add this facts your next articles. Great thanks to U.

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