Ced earned a bachelor's degree in communication studies in 1999. His interests include history, traveling, and mythology.
1. En no Ozunu (役小角), AD 634–???
Shugendō (修験道) is a Japanese syncretic faith that incorporates Mahayana Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism, Chinese Taoism, and various Japanese shamanistic beliefs.
Historically, the founder of the faith is widely accepted to be the ascetic En no Ozunu, although little is verifiable about this mysterious mystic. It is only known that he lived during the seventh century, that he perfected his supernatural abilities at Mount Katsuragi and the mountains of the Kumano region, and that even the Imperial Court valued his knowledge of herbal medicine.
Folklorically, though, legends about En no Ozunu’s supernatural achievements are plentiful. For example, the ascetic is said to be served by two Japanese yokai (supernatural creatures) named Zenki and Goki. The Heian Era compendium Shoyoku Nihongi also described En no Ozunu as capable of commanding natural spirits and ogres, and binding them when they disobey.
While heading to China on a pilgrimage, the mystic was even said to have explained the wisdom of the Buddhist Lotus Sutra to 500 tigers while in the Korean Peninsula.
In addition, as the founder of Shugendō, En no Ozunu was the first Japanese yamabushi (山伏). The current distinctive appearance and practice of these mountain ascetics are largely based on classic depictions of En no Ozunu.
Shugendō itself continues to attract significant numbers of practitioners in Japan too, with the Three Mountains of Dewa in Yamagata Prefecture the most famous Shugendō pilgrimage site. In recent years, classic Shugendō practices, such as endurance testing under a raging waterfall, also found much popularity with foreign visitors seeking more unique travel experiences.
2. Kukai (空海), Ad 774–835
More commonly referred to as Kōbō-Daishi (弘法大師, the master who propagated Buddhist doctrine), the founder of the Shingon Branch of Japanese Buddhism is widely considered the most important historical religious leader of Japan.
In his 30s, Kukai visited China, during which he received esoteric initiation from the Chinese Master Huiguo. Following his return to Japan, he was notably involved in several significant public projects. These include being appointed the administrative head of Todai-ji i.e. the Office of Priestly Affairs, overseeing the construction of Kyoto’s Tō-ji, and managing the restoration of the Manno Reservoir.
In later years, Kukai successfully petitioned Emperor Saga for permission to establish a mountain retreat at Mount Kōya too. This retreat eventually became the headquarters of Japanese Shingon Buddhism. Shingon Buddhism also grew into one of the country’s foremost Buddhism branches.
Jump forth to modern times, temples, shrines, and historical sites honoring Kukai are found throughout Japan, including at remote locations such as the countryside of Shikoku.
Some Shingon followers also believe that the master monk has not passed from this world but is still at Mount Kōya, “asleep” in a state of perpetual meditation. For them, the great master is patiently awaiting the arrival of Maitreya, the Buddha of the Future, while still watching over his beloved Japan.
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3. Saichō (最澄), Ad 767–822
A compatriot and personal friend of Kukai, Saichō was the founder of the influential Tendai School (天台宗) of Japanese Buddhism. He also established the famous Enryaku-ji monastery complex on the outskirts of Heian-kyō (Kyoto). In the centuries to follow, Enryaku-ji and the Tendai School will both play heavy roles in the religious and political landscapes of Japan.
Ordained at the age of 20 at Tōdai-ji, Saichō spent significant time at Mount Hiel (the future site of Enryaku-ji) meditating on Buddhist doctrine, following which he traveled to Tang Dynasty China on an official pilgrimage. During the journey, it is believed that he met Kukai, an encounter that developed into a long friendship.
Following arrival in China, Saichō resided at Mount Tiantai where he was trained in Chinese Tiantai Buddhism methods of mediation, thought, and practice. After returning home, Saichō tirelessly worked to achieve official recognition for a new school of Buddhist practice. His efforts ultimately paid off in AD 806 when Emperor Kammu permitted the establishment of the Tendai School headquarters on Mount Hiel.
Of note and as mentioned above, Enryaku-ji became a significant player in national politics in subsequent centuries. At its peak, not only was the monastery complex huge, it was home to a powerful army of warrior monks known as sōhei (僧兵).
This monastic army eventually became so powerful, even leading Japanese warlords feared it. In 1571, Oda Nobunaga notoriously attacked the complex in an effort to squash potential military opposition. The monastery, however, survived the catastrophe and was rebuilt in the early years of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Last but not least, one of the chief advisors of Tokugawa Ieyasu i.e. the first Tokugawa shogun, was a Tendai School priest named Tenkai (天海). In his role as advisor, Tenkai further cemented the role of the Tendai Buddhist School in Japanese pre-modern politics.
4. Shinran (親鸞), Ad 1173–1263
The founder of the Japanese Jōdo Shinshū (浄土真宗) School of Buddhism led a life full of tribulations.
Born an aristocrat in 1173, Shinran lost both parents at an early age, a tragedy that was his first realization of the impermanence of life. Subsequent practice at Mount Hiel (see above) for 20 years then failed to afford him enlightenment. Instead, he became more disillusioned than ever.
In frustration, Shinran retreated to Rokkaku-dō Temple to meditate. It was here that he supposedly experienced a vision of Avalokitesvara. The bodhisattva, in the form of legendary Prince Shotoku, directed Shinran to meet Hōnen (法然), another disillusioned monk.
Hōnen had by then developed the foundations for a new school of Buddhist Practice, one that emphasized possible salvation for all through the recitation of Buddhas’ names, or nembutsu (念仏). While historical documents seem to indicate Shinran as only a lesser disciple of Hōnen, it is widely accepted that Shinran inherited the mantle and ministry of his new master.
To exemplify Hōnen’s belief in possible salvation for anyone, and not just for the ordained, Shinran even married and publically ate meat. Both acts are unacceptable for Buddhist monks even today. The acts, naturally, then established a high degree of notoriety for Shinran.
In 1207, Shinran met his next major hurdle in enlightenment when nembutsu was banned by the Shogunate. Defrocked and exiled to remote Echigo (modern-day Niigata), Shinran renamed himself as the “foolish, bald one,” but continued to propagate his beliefs in nembutsu and salvation for all. He soon enjoyed significant popularity with the commoners of the countryside.
When the ban was lifted five years later, the self-styled Japanese religious leader did not return to the capital but instead relocated to a remote area in the Kantō region. 13 years later in 1224, he completed his magnum opus i.e. the Kyōgyōshinshō, which laid the foundation for the future Jōdo Shinshū school.
Today, the Jōdo Shinshū, or the True Pure Land Buddhism School, is the most widely practiced branch of Japanese Buddhism. Master Shinran himself passed from our world in 1263, at the high age of 90.
5. Nichiren (日蓮), Ad 1222–1282
Nichiren, the founder of Japanese Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮仏教), is one of the most controversial historical Japanese religious leaders. If not the most.
During his lifetime, he was notorious for his unapologetic views towards other schools of Japanese Buddhism. Vice versa, his staunch belief in possible enlightenment for all resonated with the common people. Nichiren’s doctrines also created a form of Buddhism practice that was far more accessible to commoners.
Born in 1222 in ancient Awa Province (modern-day Chiba Prefecture), Nichiren intensively studied Buddhism from the age of eleven, and in AD 1253, declared that the Lotus Sutra is the highest truth in Buddhism. He also proclaimed that the repeated recitation of the name of the sutra is an assured pathway to enlightenment. The specific recitation itself is the famous Namo Ho Renge Kyo (南無妙法蓮華經).
His subsequent stinging criticisms of established schools of Japanese Buddhism then led to him being exiled to the Izu Peninsula. After he was pardoned, he continued to aggressively promote his earlier religious views as well as his political opinions. These included how he believed the main crisis of then i.e. repeated invasion attempts by the Mongolian Empire, was due to the wrong form of Buddhism being practiced in the country.
Without surprise, Nichiren’s strong opinions ultimately irked so many religious and political leaders, he was sentenced to death. So it’s said, at the moment of execution, a brilliant orb appeared and incapacitated his executors with fear. After escaping death, Nichiren’s popularity vastly grew too, culminating with the establishment of a new school of Lotus Buddhism i.e. Nichiren Buddhism.
Today, Nichiren Buddhism not only enjoys a significant following in Japan, it has also expanded worldwide. It is furthermore considered one of the largest and most ethnically diverse Buddhist groups in the world.
- Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, June 24). 役小角. Wikipedia. https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BD%B9%E5%B0%8F%E8%A7%92. [In Japanese]
- Wikimedia Foundation. (2021, May 28). Kūkai. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C5%ABkai.
- Cartwright, M. (2021, June 21). Buddhism in Ancient Japan. World History Encyclopedia. https://www.worldhistory.org/article/1080/buddhism-in-ancient-japan/.
- The Basics of Nichiren Buddhism, Ch 1: Nichiren's Life and Teachings. Soka Gakkai (global). (2021, April 20). https://www.sokaglobal.org/resources/study-materials/buddhist-study/the-basics-of-nichiren-buddhism-for-the-new-era-of-worldwide-kosen-rufu/chapter-1.html.
- Smith, F. G. (Ed.). (1995). Pure-Land Zen: Zen Pure-Land: Letters from Patriarch Yin Kuang. (T.-T. Thich, Trans.). Amida Fellowship. ASIN: B000K7SJGK.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2020 Ced Yong
Ced Yong (author) from Asia on June 26, 2020:
That's another name I considered and came across while writing this article. I didn't include it though for I wasn't sure most Japanese would consider the founder as a key historical religious leader.
Alexander James Guckenberger from Maryland, United States of America on June 26, 2020:
This is interesting. I am reminded of the founder of Konkokyo reading this.
manatita44 from london on June 25, 2020:
Yes, yes, and like Rumi, he is known by poets and scholars of the West. One day I will sing you our Japanese song. It is extremely beautiful!!
Ced Yong (author) from Asia on June 25, 2020:
Oh yes, Kukai was a renowned artist and poet too. As I wrote into hub, you can't travel Japan without encountering his legacy. :)
manatita44 from london on June 25, 2020:
Very interesting! I have heard of Nichiren and Kobi-daishi, the latter as a Haiku Master. They certainly wielded influence in Japan. Thanks.