A. E. Housman's "When I was one-and-twenty"
A. E. Housman
Introduction and Text of Poem, "When I was one-and-twenty"
A. E. Housman's lyric, "When I was one-and-twenty," consists of two rimed stanzas of eight lines each. The rime scheme is ABCBCDAD in the first stanza and ABCBADAD in the second stanza.
(Please note: The incorrect spelling, "rhyme," was erroneously introduced into English by Dr. Samuel Johnson. For my explanation for using only the correct form, please see "Rime vs Rhyme: An Unfortunate Error.")
This poem appears #XIII in Housman's collection titled A Shropshire Lad, along with "To an athlete dying young," which offers a view point regarding death.
In A. E. Housman's "When I was one-and-twenty," the speaker at age twenty-two reports the truth of sage advice he received at age twenty-one about falling in love.
When I was one-and-twenty
WhenI was one-and-twenty
I heard a wise man say,
‘Give crowns and pounds and guineas
But not your heart away;
Give pearls away and rubies
But keep your fancy free.’
But I was one-and-twenty,
No use to talk to me.
When I was one-and-twenty
I heard him say again,
‘The heart out of the bosom
Was never given in vain;
’Tis paid with sighs a plenty
And sold for endless rue.’
And I am two-and-twenty,
And oh, ’tis true, ’tis true.
Reading of "When I was one-and-twenty"
First Movement: "When I was one-and-twenty"
The speaker, a young man only twenty-one years old, enters his reportage with a quotation that he says he heard spoken likely by a much older man; according to the speaker, he "heard a wise man say."
The wise man's words were meant to give advice regarding the issue of falling in love. Because the older man is speaking to a young man (or perhaps a group of young men), he addresses an issue that would likely be quite relevant to young people of that age group.
The sage advises that the younger men should never "give [their] heart[s] away"—that is, they should guard against falling in love. He tells them it is fine to give away things such as money but that they must at all costs keep their hearts.
The young speaker of the poem has either heard that advice directly or indirectly from the so-called "wise man." That same wise man also advised that giving gifts to a prospective paramour was fine as long as the giver kept his wits about him and was not tricked into losing his own good judgment.
The older, wiser man makes it clear to the those younger and less experienced that maintaining one's emotional and mental well being is of paramount importance. He hopes to make the younger ones understand that they must never allow another person to invade and possess their lives.
The young speaker however also makes it known that he did not follow that sage advice. He was like most young people who are head-strong, believing they know best, not allowing older folks to influence them. This younger speaker simply disdains the older man's advice, taking his chances with the future.
Second Movement: "When I was one-and-twenty / I heard him say again"
The young speaker reports further that the older speaker had advised that allowing oneself to fall in love would have consequences. The younger speaker is now musing on that advice.
The speaker recalls that the sage had told him about the sorrow that would be experienced if the young man did not heed the advice of the older.
Now the speaker has aged a year and allowed himself to become entangle by giving away his heart. He has become a victim of lost love and now realizes that the advice he had been given was correct.
By giving his heart away, the young speaker is now paying the price with pain, sorrow, as he continues to sigh and cry and muse on that sage advice that he now wishes he had followed.
© 2017 Linda Sue Grimes