A Complete Glossary of Poetic Terms
Introduction To The Complete Poetic Glossary
This glossary contains all the commonly found poetic terms you expect to find in English poetry, plus some of the more obscure ones. Students, poets and interested readers of poetry should be able to find just what they're looking for.
As a poet and student of poetry I've longed for a glossary that has examples from poems. I could never find a suitable one so I created my own! I hope you'll find it useful, handy and comprehensive.
The list is alphabetical with examples, where appropriate, immediately below the entry.
Stressed And Unstressed Syllables
Please note that I have used the following letters to denote stressed and unstressed syllables:
x = stressed
u = unstressed
abecedarian - words in a poem arranged in alphabetical order a b c d e f and so on.
accelerated - related to rhyme which speeds up in contrast to other lines in a poem.
- in lines 3 and 4 of limericks the rhyme helps speed up the poem.
accent - the emphasis or stress placed on a beat.
- accentual metre - sometimes called strong-stress metre, it is the oldest type of metre being found in the earliest known 'Hymn' written by Caedmon in the 7th century. Lines are divided by caesura and include alliteration. Was prevalent up to 14th century when accentual-syllabic poetry began to be created, with emphasis on the foot.
acronym - a word formed from the initial letters of other words.
adjective - a part of speech which qualifies a noun.
adverb - a part of speech which qualifies a verb, adjective, another adverb or a whole sentence.
Alcaic - a rare form of ode named after Alcaeus a Greek lyric poet.
alexandrine - an iambic hexameter, having six iambic feet.
- Spenser's The Faerie Queene is written in stanzas of 8 iambic pentameters plus a hexameter or alexandrine.
alliteration - repeated consonants in two or more closely connected words.
allusion - an expression or reference to something without explicit mentioning; an indirect reference which brings something to mind.
amphibrach - a foot of three beats, the first and last unstressed, the middle stressed. (uxu)
- Wilfred Owen in Anthem For Doomed Youth, line 7:
The shrill demented choirs of wailing shells;
amphimacer - a foot of three beats, the first and last stressed, the middle unstressed (xux)
anapaest - a foot of three beats, the first and second unstressed, the last stressed(uux)
- In a limerick lines 3 and 4 will consist of two anapaests:
In much less than an hour
Her garden did flower
antibacchius - a foot of three beats, the first and second stressed, the last unstressed (xxu)
antiphonal - lines of verse that 'sound against' each other, as in call and response in church liturgy for example.
antispast - a foot of four beats, the first and fourth unstressed, the second and third stressed (uxxu).
antistrophe - the second stanza of an ancient Greek or Pindaric ode. (odes by Keats, Marvell,
arch-rhyme - also known as chiasmic rhyme, mirror symmetry abba (Tennyson, In Memoriam A.H.H.
area - a term used by William Carlos Williams who wanted an inclusive poetry free from neoclassical restraints.
assonance - the repeated sounds of vowels in words nearby.
- see Gerard Manley Hopkins God's Grandeur
autorhyme - a word that rhymes with itself, repeated words or echoes. (also known as null rhyme)
- T.S.Eliot in The Waste Land uses autorhyme:
There is shadow under this red rock,
(Come in under the shadow of this red rock),
And I will show you something different from either
Your shadow at morning striding behind you
Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you;
lines 25-29 (also at 62-3,162-3,347-56,414-21)
bacchius - a foot of three beats, the first unstressed and the last two stressed (uxx).
ballad - a narrative poem of a story most often encountered in quatrains with a refrain.
- Wordsworth and Coleridge Lyrical Ballads (1802)
- Oscar Wilde Ballad of Reading Gaol (1898)
- Muriel Rukeyser Ballad of Orange and Grape
ballade - a form of poem or song with a type of repeated lyric.
beat - a main accent, word or syllable bearing stress or unstress.
Beats - the Beat generation, based mostly on the west Coast of the USA, from the 1950s and 60s influenced by writers such as poets Allen Ginsberg and Corso, novelists Jack Kerouac and William Burroughs.
blank verse - unrhymed poetry of iambic pentameter
- Robert Frost's Mending Wall:
Something there is that doesn't love a wall,
That sends froze-ground-swell under it,
And spill the upper boulders in the sun;
And makes gaps even two can pass abreast.
bob-lines - very short lines that stand out within a verse or stanza. Often comic or melancholic.
- John Betjeman's opening lines of I.M. Walter Ramsden
Dr Ramsden cannot read The Times obituary to-day
Let monographs on silk worms by other people be
For he who best could understand and criticize them, he
broken-rhyme - when a word is split at the line end to enable rhyme.
- In James Merrill's Snow Jobs
Like blizzards on a screen the scan-
dals thickened at a fearful rate,
Followed by laughter from a can
And hot air from the candidate.
cadence - a fall in pitch of the voice at the end of a phrase, line or sentence.
caesura - a forced or natural pause, short or long, often in the middle or near the middle of a line.
- In Robert Lowell's Skunk Hour :
I stand on top
of our back steps and breathe the rich air-
a mother skunk with her column of kittens swills the garbage pail.
She jabs her wedge-head in a cup
of sour cream, drops her ostrich tail,
and will not scare.
canto - one of the sections of a longer poem
catalectic - of a metrical line of verse, missing one or more beats, usually unstressed at the beginning or end of a line.
chain-rhyme - the continuation from one stanza to another of one or more rhyme sounds as in Spenser's sonnets and in terza rima.
chiasmus,chiasmic - an arrangement of words, clauses that are mirrored or diagonally symmetrical.
choriamb, choriambus - a metrical foot of four beats, the first and fourth stressed, the second and third unstressed. (xuux)
cinquain - a syllabic form invented by Adelaide Crapsey involving five line stanzas.
clause - a unit of syntax larger than a word or phrase. A sentence may have only one clause (She stands up) but often there are several.
clerihew - a short nonsensical or comic verse named after its inventor Edmund Clerihew Bentley 1875-1956). Two rhyming couplets of unequal length (aabb) make a clerihew, the first line of which is often someone's name. Lines 2-4 should comment on the subject name.
- Edmund Bentley's own clerihew:
when Charles the Second
was no hero.
He fiddled at home,
up in flames went Rome.
closed - refers to a couplet with the second line end stopped as found in the major poems of Dryden and Pope.
common metre - or ballad metre, an iambic quatrain abcb.
- The traditional ballad Sir Patrick Spens has two lines of 8 beats and two of 6:
The King sits in Dunfermline town,
Drinking the blood-red wine;
'O where will I get good sailors,
To sail this ship of mine?'
concrete poetry - poetry in which the shape or visual identity of a poem conveys meaning, the pattern of the words forming a picture or representation. Also called shape poetry.
- George Herbert's Easter Wings(1633) is a famous shape poem.
confessional poetry - poetry of a personal nature using the I as the real focal point. It grew in strength in the 1950s and peaked in the 1960s. Exponents of the genre include Robert Lowell, John Berryman, W.D. Snodgrass, Anne Sexton and Sylvia Plath.
couplet - a stanza of two lines with or without rhyme, open or closed with end stops.
- Tony Harrison, the British poet, from A Kumquat for John Keats:
Whole, straight off the tree, sweet pulp and sour skin -
or was it sweet outside, and sour within?
For however many kumquats that I eat
I'm not sure if it's flesh or rind that's sweet.
cross-rhyme - double rhymes that alternate abab.
curtal sonnet - devised by Gerard Manley Hopkins, an abridged sonnet of 10 lines.
- Pied Beauty
dactyl,dactylic - a metrical foot of 3 beats, the first stressed, the second and third unstressed. (xuu)
diamb - a foot of four beats the first and third unstressed, the second and fourth stressed.
diction - the choice of words in speech and writing.In poetry, diction is restricted by rhyme, form and metre.
dimeter - a line of two feet. (as in the 3rd and 4th lines of a limerick for example)
dispondee - a foot of for beats, all stressed (xxxx)
ditrochee - a foot of four beats, the first and third stressed, the second and fourth unstressed (xuxu)
douzaine - a 12 line stanza, often found in canzoni (65 line Italian 'song'poem)
can be a monologue or dialogue written in the voice of the character or characters.Dramatic monologues are associated with poets such as Alfred Tennyson and Robert Browning.
* Tennyson - Ulysses
* Browning - My Last Duchess
* modern British poet Tony Harrison - V
* W.D.Snodgrass - The Fuehrer Bunker
echo verse - when the last syllables of certain lines repeat, often wit changed meaning.
eclogue - poems of pleasant, pastoral places, as written by Virgil.
effusion - spontaneous, unrestrained outpourings.
eisthesis - indentation of a line or lines by one or more spaces from the left margin.
ekthesis - the setting of a line or lines right up to the left margin.
elegy - a poem lamenting the dead, mourning for the deceased or loss of something or someone.
- Greek and Roman elegies tend to be of couplets (of dactylic hexameters and a pentameter)
- Thomas Gray Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
- John Donne Elegy XIX
end-rhyme - rhyming words that end lines.
end-stopped - the opposite of enjambment - lines that end in a full stop - punctuation ends the sense of the line.
enjambment - lines that are not end stopped but continue with sense onto the next line (couplet, stanza)
- Robert Frost The Gift Outright (lines 8,9)
Something we were withholding made us weak
Until we found out that it was ourselves
We were withholding from our land of living,
epic - long narrative poems in the classical mode that deal with national heroes, legendary figures, events or exploits of a race or tribe.
- Homer Iliad
A long narrative often on a serious weighty subject such as national or international events, legendary figures, heroes and so on.
* Beowulf - an epic saga from the 10th century
* Homer - Iliad
* Edmund Spenser - The Faerie Queene
* John Milton - Paradise Lost
* William Wordsworth -The Prelude
* Elizabeth Barrett Browning - Aurora Leigh
epithalamion - a poem that celebrates a wedding, often a lyric ode.
- Edmund Spenser Epithalamion
epitrite - a foot of four beats, only one of which is unstressed - first (uxxx) second(xuxx),third(xxux) and fourth(xxxu) epitrites depending on position of unstressed beat.
epyllion - a shorter epic narrative poem - also called a minor epic.
- William Shakespeare Venus and Adonis
- Christopher Marlowe Hero and Leander
falling rhythm - occurs when unstressed beats follow stressed beats, as with trochees and dactyls. The voice falls away when the lines are read.
feminine - when a line ending has an unstressed hypermetric beat; also an unstressed rhyme.
- for example in the words pillow and willow.
foot - a metrical unit of unstressed and/or stressed syllables or beats in a line.
- ranges from monometer to octameter
- this rare poem by Robert Herrick is in iambic monometer:
'Upon His Departure Hence'
found poetry - a 20th century invention inspired by prose poems whereby a poem is formed from found texts the source of which could be newspapers, advertisements, novels and other printed matter. These are then modified according to the poet's needs.
- Alan Brownjohn Common Sense (1989)
fourteeners - couplets in iambic heptameter, containing 14 syllables.
- Rudyard Kipling Tommy (1890)
free rhyme - rhyme that is inconsistent, without regular pattern. Sometimes called occasional or random rhyme.
- Sylvia Plath Daddy and Lady Lazarus
- T.S.Eliot The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
free verse - also known as open form poems or vers libre, free verse is poetry without traditional structures of rhyme,rhythm and metre.
full-rhyme - often called perfect or true rhyme, occurs when two or more words share the same last stressed vowel and following sounds.
- Lewis Carroll Jabberwocky
'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
And the mome raths outgrabe.
Georgic - relating to didactic poems on pastoral themes as originally written by the Roman poet Virgil.
haiku - a Japanese form of three lines, traditionally with 17 syllables (5,7,5) in total but can vary. Pure haiku offer observations from the natural world together with philosophical insights.
- Richard Wright Haiku: This Other World
- Richard Wilbur Zea
half rhyme - (also known as near, off or slant rhyme) between words that have identical last stressed vowels and all following sounds. Half rhymes add dissonance and uncertainty.
hemistich - a half line, typically held by alliteration or rhythm.
heptameter - a line of 7 feet.
heptet - a stanza of 7 lines.
heroic - a special form in iambic pentameter.
hetereometric - with stanzas, lines of varying length.
hexameter - a line of 6 feet.
Hudibrastic - of rhyme, invoking humour and a comic element, derived from Samuel Butler's long comic poem Hudibras.
hyperbeats - extra beats in a line, either stressed or unstressed.
- William Shakespeare Hamlet
To be, / or not / to be, / that is / the question. (4th foot is a trochee, others iambic except the fifth foot which has that extra unstressed syllable)
iamb, iambic - a foot of 2 beats, unstressed followed by stressed (ux)
ictus - a stressed beat of a foot.
identical rhyme - (rime riche) words identical in sound and spelling
imperfect rhyme - all other rhyme other than rime riche and full rhyme.
ionic majore - a foot of four beats, first two stressed (xxuu)
ionic minore - a foot of four beats, first two unstressed (uuxx)
isometric - lines of constant length within a stanza.
LANGUAGE poetry - poetry of a new movement that emerged in New York and San Francisco in the 1970s. Exponents included Lynn Hejinan, Perelman and Ron Silliman. This poetry seeks to form bodies of language that may not have conventional or understandable meaning.
leonine rhyme - exists between words before caesura and at the end of the same line.
- Charles Causley Christ at the Cheesewring
As I walked on the wicked moor
Where seven smashed stones lie
I met a man with a skin of tan
And an emerald in his eye.
- See also T.S. Eliot Skimbleshanks (from Old Possum's Book of Cats)
light verse - comic or humorous verse, often in lyrical form.
limerick - a five line poem made famous by Edward Lear. Limericks are anapaestic pentains, one or more lines are catalectic.
lineation - of lines, when they are formed into stanzas and poems.
- from Walt Whitman Crossing Brooklyn Ferry (2)
The impalpable sustenance of me from all things at all hours of the
The simple, compact, well-join'd scheme, myself disintegrated, every
one disintegrated yet part of the scheme,
line-break - occurs when one line moves onto the next /
long metre - a quatrain, single rhymed (abcb), in iambic tetrameter.
lyric - originally a song from ancient Greece (played on the lyre, hence lyric) but now applies to most short, classical non narrative/dramatic poems.
Metre and Meter - They Mean the Same Thing
Please note that in British English the spelling is metre, whilst in American English this changes to meter.
medial - at or near the middle of a line or lines.
Metaphysical - refers to poetry of the late 16th century and early 17th century, typically with complex stanzas and philosophical arguments.
mock-epic - traditionally a satiric or comic poem disguised as an epic for reasons of mockery.
- Pope The Rape of the Lock
Modernism - denotes modernist poetry which emerged around 1910, championed by Ezra Pound (make it new) and T.S.Eliot plus others. Late modern period developed in the 1950s and post modern poetry arrived in the 1960s.
molossus - a foot of 3 beats, all stressed (xxx)
monometer - a line of 3 feet.
monorhyme - when all lines rhyme aaaa.
- John Updike I Missed His Book
Though authors are a dreadful clan
To be avoided if you can,
I'd like to meet the Indian,
near-rhyme - same as half-rhyme.
New York school - a group of young poets living and working in New York in the 1950s and 1960s, including Frank O'Hara, John Ashbery, Kenneth Koch abnd James Schuyler.
nonsense poetry - absurd, whimsical, fantasy poetry with made up words and little straight narrative.
- Edward Lear Nonsense Songs (1871)
- Lewis carroll The Hunting of the Snark (1876)
null rhyme - autorhyme.
objective correlative - intellectual term created by T.S.Eliot in his famous 1919 essay on Hamlet. 'The only way of expressing emotion in the form of art is by finding an objective correlative; in other words, a set of objects, a situation, a chain of events which shall be the formula of that particular emotion;such that when the external facts, which must terminate in sensory experience, are given, the emotion is immediately invoked.'
octameter - a line of 8 feet.
octave - the first 8 lines of a Petrarchan sonnet rhyming abbaabba.
octet - a stanza of 8 lines.
ode - a formal poem, differing in length and form but generally a long, lyric poem addressing a definite object or event. There are Alcaic, Sapphic, Pindaric and Horatian odes.
- John Dryden A Song For St Cecilia's Day
- James Tate Ode to the Confederate Dead
- Robert Lowell The Quaker Graveyard in Nantucket
Onegin stanza - created by Aleksandr Pushkin for Eugene Onegin. It has 14 lines of iambic tetrameter, rhyming ababccddeffegg
open - variable form; a line is open when typically in a couplet, the 2nd line is enjambed to 1st line of next couplet.
ottava rima - an 8 line stanza, iambic pentameter rhyming abababcc
- W.B.Yeats The Circus Animals' Desertion
- Byron Don Juan
paeon - a foot of 4 beats, only one stressed. Depending on the stress there are different paeons : 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th.
pantoum (pantun) - originally from Malaya entering English poetry from france. It has a specific rhyme scheme: abab/bcbc repeated, using 2 lines from each in the next quatrain.
- Donald Justice Pantoum of the Great Depression
- Greg Williamson New Year's: A Short Pantoum
- John Ashbery Pantoum
- Kumin Pantoum, with Swan.
pararhyme - words with identical sounds following the last stressed vowel. For example lust/lost, splendour/winter
- Wilfred Owen Strange Meeting
parody - a work that mocks or parodies another piece of work.
pastiche - a work that mocks the style of other works.
pastoral - a genre usually relating to idyllic rural life, or rustic life with its pleasures and issues. (see also urban pastoral).
- Andrew Marvell The Mower
- Christopher Marlowe The Passionate Shepherd to His Love
pentain - a stanza of 5 lines.
- Randell Jarrell The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner
pentameter - a line of 5 feet. The most commonly found in English poetry, from the 14th century to present day.
- Geoffrey Chaucer The Prologue to Canterbury Tales.
- Geoffrey Hill Lachrimae
- Gertrude Schnakenberg Supernatural Love
Petrarchan - a special sonnet with an octave rhyming abbaabba and a sestet cdecde.
Pindaric - of an ode which has 3 stanzas of a definite form.
- see work by Ben Johnson, John Dryden, Thomas Gray and William Wordsworth
portmanteau - a word invented by merging two or more known words, for example...contagerous,gregulent,gregaria,telematic.
prose-poem - a poem posing as prose or vice versa, where line breaks and other spatial elements are absent. Prose poetry first arose with the French poets Baudelaire and Rimbaud and moved across to the USA and where poets like W.C.Williams were inspired. In later decades Robert Bly,John Ashbery and Bernstein used the idea.
prosody - the study and notation of metre.
prothalamion - a poem that anticipates the celebration of a wedding.
pyrrhic - a foot of 2 unstressed beats (uu).
quadruple - 4 beats in any foot.
qualitative - with reference to metre, based on stress patterns.
quantitative - with reference to metre, based on vowel length.
quatrain - a stanza of 4 lines. Examples include:
- T.S. Eliot The Wasteland (part III)
- Christina Rossetti The Woodspurge
- Robert Frost Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
- Alfred Tennyson In Memoriam A.H.H.
- Thom Gunn The Missing
- Seamus heaney The Skunk
renga - sequences of haiku linked by 14 syllable couplets.
rhyme royal - a 7 line iambic pentameter stanza rhyming ababbcc
- Geoffrey Chaucer Troilus and Criseide
- Thomas Wyatt They Flee From Me
- W.H.Auden The Shield of Achilles
rhyme scheme - the rhyme pattern within a poem or stanza,notated alphabetically abcdabcd etc etc.
rising rhythm - occurs in lines when stressed beats follow unstressed beats.
rocking lineation - occurs when counterpoint is produced, often by caesura placed in 2 or more successive lines.
- William Wordsworth The Prelude
Dust as we are, the immortal spirit grows
Like harmony in music; there is a dark
Inscrutable workmanship that reconciles
Discordant elements, makes them cling together
In one society.
rubai/yat - a Persian quatrain form, aaba, as seen in Fitzgerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
- Edward Fitzgerald The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam of Naishapur
Wake! For the Sun, who scattered into flight
The Stars before him from the Field of Night,
Drives Night along with them from Heav'n, and strikes
The Sultan's Turret with a Shaft of Light.
Sapphic - of an ode, mostly dactylic, rare in English. See work by Philip Sidney, Alfred Tennyson and Ezra Pound among others.
scansion - the analysis of the metrical patterns within a poem or stanza or line.
semantic rhyme - between words of similar meaning, for example jeer/sneer, love/give, rough/tough.
sestet - a stanza of 6 lines.
sestina - a poem of 39 lines in 6 sestets and a tercet envoi, each ending with one of 6 words in sequence abcdef faebdc cfdabc ecb fad deacfb bdfeca eca (or ace).All 6 end words of sequence to be used in the envoi.
- Elizabeth Bishop Sestina
Shakespearean - of sonnets, rhyming ababcdcdefefgg
shape-poem - with a visual shape in print see also concrete poem.
Sicilian stanza - a cross-rhymed octet rhyming abababab
slant rhyme - half-rhyme.
sonnet - conventionally and commonly a 14 line poem with a definite rhyme scheme in iambic pentameter, but can vary.
Originally from Italy and introduced into England by Sir Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century. There are 3 basic types:
- Italian or Petrarchan abbaabba cdecde
- Shakespearean ababcdcdefef gg
- Spenserian ababbcbccdcd ee
spondee - a foot of 2 stressed beats.
sprung rhythm - a term created by Gerard Manley Hopkins to describe his metrical practice which was based on Old or Middle English lines of accent, with heavy alliteration. Dissatisfied with gentle mainstream rhyming verse he sought a more challenging metre to reflect his spiritual struggles.
stanza - a group of lines of varied form and possible rhyme scheme, several of which go to make up a complete poem.
- Spenserian stanza - 8 iambic pentameters plus a hexameter rhyming ababbcbcc.
stichic - a sequence of individual lines, as opposed to stanzaic lines.
stressed - of beats, within a line or stanza, to be spoken emphatically.
syllabic - in relation to a certain number of syllables in each line.
- syllabic metre - when only the syllables are measured in any line with no regard to stress, as found in Romance language poetry such as French and Italian. (see accentual metre)
synecdoche - when a part of something is named instead of the whole.
syntax - the relations between words and clauses, within or without a framework of rules.
- e.e. cummings Spring is like a perhaps hand
- Kenneth Koch Permanently
One day the Nouns were clustered in the street.
An adjective walked by, with her dark beauty.
The Nouns were struck, moved, changed.
The next day a Verb drove up, and created the Sentence.
Tennysonian stanza - an arch-rhymed quatrain in iambic tetrameter
- In Memoriam A.H.H.
tercet - a stanza or unit of 3 lines in which one or more does not rhyme with the others.
- Dante The Divine Comedy
- Shelley Ode to the West Wind
- W.C.Williams Asphodel, That Greeny Flower (blank tercets)
terza rima - a succession of tercets that rhyme aba bcb cdc ded etc etc.
tetrameter - a line of 4 feet.
tornada - the envoi of a sestina or canzone.
triadic line - a name for the tercet invented by W.C. Williams (also known as the step down line)
tribrach - a foot of 3 beats, all unstressed (uuu)
trimester - a line of 3 feet.
triolet - an octet with lines I and II repeated abaaabab
- W.E.Henley Easy is the triolet
- Wendy Cope Valentine
triple - a foot having 3 beats.
triplet - a stanza or unit of 3 lines, all rhyming aaa
- Gjertrud Schnackenberg Supernatural Love
My father at the dictionary stand
Touches the page to fully understand
The lamplit answer, titling in his hand.
trochee - a foot of 2 beats, one stressed followed by unstressed (xu)
U V W Z
unstressed - of beats, spoken softly or unemphatically, often more rapidly with voice pitched lower.
urban pastoral - in contrast to pastoral, a modern term for the urban landscape poem, relating to sociology and mindset.
- John Betjeman Death in Leamington
- Philip Larkin The Whitsun Weddings
- Rita Dove The Bistro Styx
variable foot - related to the work of W.C.Williams and his free verse scansion.
verse - synonymous with poetry but distinct in that it refers to a line or unit,metrically created.
versicle - a little verse or single line.
villanelle - 19 lines in iambic pentameter aba aba aba aba aba abaa (5 tercets and a quatrain)
vowel-rhyme - between words with last stressed vowels identical but following sounds differ, for example bite/fire courage/bunker
wrenched accent - occurs when requirements of metrical stress prevail over the natural stress of a word or words.
zeugma - when a single verb governs several parallel words or clauses.
- Alexander Pope The Rape of the Lock
"Gainst Pallas, Mars; Latona, Hermes arms,"
I hope you find this poetic glossary useful and that it helps guide you deeper into the often complex world of poetry. Please feel free to leave comments - if you discover other terms that may be of use to others I would like to know!
Norton Anthology of Poetry, Norton, 2005
the Poetry Handbook by John Lennard, OUP, 2005
© 2015 Andrew Spacey