APA Format Writing Guidelines: Citing Sources

Updated on March 15, 2017

It's All About Documenting

In this guide I will often refer to the APA Manual. The link to the manual is below.


Why document?

  • Enables the reader to identify your sources and judge the quality of your work.
  • Encourages the reader to retrieve and read the articles or books you cite.

What needs to be documented?

  • Direct quotes.
  • Paraphrases of material from your sources.
  • Judgments or original insights from others.
  • Illustrations, tables, charts from your sources.

How to document:

  • Use the American Psychological Association (APA) style, 2010, 6th edition.
  • Follow this method of documentation consistently throughout your paper.
  • The preferred typeface is 12 point Times New Roman or 12 point Courier.
  • See sample papers in the APA manual, pages 41-59.
  • Use of headings and subheadings, see pages 62-63.
  • Citing references in text, see pages 174-179.
  • Citing references in reference list, see pages 180-224.
  • For more information, see the APA website: http://www.apastyle.org

References

1. Citation of references in the text of the paper


a. Work by a single author

Parenthetical reference
In a recent study (Fido, 2009) on the benefits of pet therapy…


b. Personal Communication

Cite personal communication in the text only; personal communications are not included on the reference list. Provide exact date of communication. (See APA Manual, page 179)


According to Eickhoff (personal communication, November 15, 2014) nurses must provide culturally sensitive care at end-of-life for children.


c. Direct Quotes (see APA Manual pages 170-172)

Include author, year and page number for any material directly quoted from a source. The following are some examples:


“Whatever you can do to stay positive and motivated about your school experience will help you feel less stressed overall” (Dunham, 2008, p. 49).


According to Dunham (2008) “Whatever you can do to stay positive and motivated about your school experience will help you feel less stressed overall” (p. 49).



2. Citation of references in the reference list

  • All references cited in your paper must appear on the reference list.
  • The reference list should be double spaced.
  • The first line of each reference is set flush to the left and each subsequent line is indented 5 spaces.
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by surname of first author.
  • The name of a journal and the volume are placed in italics.
  • The name of a book is placed in italics and all lower case.

Example of References Page

References / Works Cited


a. journal article (see page 199)

Gary, K. (2014). Transforming the world of nursing: The North Memorial Model of Care. Advances in Nursing Science, 22 (11), 36 – 42.

Pool, A., & Soucy, E. (2013). The art and science of emergency nursing care.

Journal of Emergency Nursing, 33(10), 44- 56.

b. book (see page 202)

Dunham, K. (2008). How to survive & maybe even love nursing school.

Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

c. edited book (see page 202)

Huebscher, B., &Wiklund, D. (Eds.). (2011). The comprehensive guide to neonatal nursing. St. Louis: Mosby.3

d. chapter in a book (see page 204)

Barnett, M., & Bird, S. (2012). The heart and science of cardiac nursing. In K. Dunlap

& M. Frisvold (Eds.), Foundations of nursing care (pp. 51-87). St. Louis: Mosby.

APA Format Video Guide

Essay Writing Guide

Source

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)