Analysis of Poem The Force That Through The Green Fuse by Dylan Thomas

Updated on March 2, 2019
chef-de-jour profile image

Andrew has a keen interest in all aspects of poetry and writes extensively on the subject. His poems are published online and in print.

A young Dylan Thomas
A young Dylan Thomas | Source

Dylan Thomas and The Force That Through The Green Fuse

This analysis of The Force That Through the Green Fuse will help both student and interested reader and give greater understanding of one of Dylan Thomas's best known poems.

When you consider the influences that helped shape the poetry of Dylan Thomas you begin to understand why some enthusiasts call him a religious Romantic. William Blake, Gerard Manley Hopkins, John Donne, D.H.Lawrence- the young Welshman knew their work and confessed in a letter to being 'in the path of Blake'.

There's no doubt he wrote some of the most intensely lyrical poetry of the 20th century. What most people don't know is that over half of it was created before he'd reached the age of 21.

As a sickly child he spent many hours at home in Swansea, Wales, near the sea, his mother regularly reading passages to him from the Bible, another great influence.

The poem you're about to be guided through was finished in late 1933 and included in his first published book, in 1934, plainly titled 18 Poems.

How did the poet create his poems? Dylan Thomas explains in a letter he wrote to a friend:

'I make one image - though make is not the right word; I let, perhaps, an image be made emotionally in me and then apply it to what intellectual and critical forces I possess - let it breed another, let that image contradict the first, make of the third image bred out of the other two together, a fourth contradictory image, and let them all, within my imposed formal limits, conflict.'

Lead In To Analysis

This is a short poem with a tight structure. There are four stanzas each with 5 lines and a final couplet rounding off the poem, 22 lines long.

Although iambic pentameter is dominant - 5 stresses per line - the third line in all four stanzas is exceptionally short.

Reading this poem slowly, straight through, three, four or five times, is recommended. It's so densely packed with rich imagery you have to work your way carefully into and out of each scene. And the language is textured, full of assonance and ambiguity.

Dylan Thomas loved William Blake's poetry. A direct influence can be seen with Blake's poem The Sick Rose:

O rose, thou art sick:

The invisible worm

That flies in the night

In the howling storm,

Has found out thy bed

Of crimson joy,

And his dark secret love

Does thy life destroy.

The force that through the green fuse

The force that through the green fuse drives the flower

Drives my green age; that blasts the roots of trees

Is my destroyer.

And I am dumb to tell the crooked rose

My youth is bent by the same wintry fever.

The force that drives the water through the rocks

Drives my red blood; that dries the mouthing streams

Turns mine to wax.

And I am dumb to mouth unto my veins

How at the mountain spring the same mouth sucks.

The hand that whirls the water in the pool

Stirs the quicksand; that ropes the blowing wind

Hauls my shroud sail.

And I am dumb to tell the hanging man

How of my clay is made the hangman’s lime.

The lips of time leech to the fountain head;

Love drips and gathers, but the fallen blood

Shall calm her sores.

And I am dumb to tell a weather’s wind

How time has ticked a heaven round the stars.

And I am dumb to tell the lover’s tomb

How at my sheet goes the same crooked worm.

Stanza by Stanza Analysis of The Force That Through The Green Fuse

Stanza 1

This strong opening line is a statement that immediately connects nature and humankind - the same energy apparent in such a delicate plant as a flower is also present in us. We are one and the same because of this force, which brings both life and destruction.

'And I am dumb'.....suggests that the speaker is in shock because of this revelation. The fate of the rose is the same for each and every person. The tree could be the tree of life, the rose a symbol of love.

Look at the four words in the first line: force, through, fuse and flower. There are melodic tones running through an impulse of power. It's as if the season of spring is suddenly exploding into action.

green fuse - this is the stem of the flower, the detonation that sparks off an explosion.

Stanza 2

The speaker introduces the element of water and equates it to red blood being driven around the body. That same driving force can also solidify blood into wax - this is the life and death theme again repeated.

Understanding how this force works within the cycle of life and death is beyond the speaker's grasp. The first 3 lines provide a statement, the 4th and 5th lines repeat a kind of refrain.

The imagery is vivid. Water, rock, mountain streams and springs; blood, wax, veins and mouth.

mouth unto - the verb to mouth is to move the lips as if saying and unto is an archaic word that means to. Unto is used frequently in certain translations of the bible.

Stanza 3

If the first two stanzas were influenced by Blake and Hopkins, this third stanza has a direct link to the Book of John (5:4) in the Bible.

'At certain times an angel of the Lord would go down into the pool and stir up the water..'

This pool was at Bethesda. The first person to enter the pool after the angelic stirrings could be healed.

In contrast this same hand is responsible for stirring deadly quicksand, in which souls may perish. Again it is life and death we're dealing with, opposite ends of the spectrum. The speaker then takes us out to sea where ropes, wind and shroud sails conjure up an image of the final voyage.

Lines four and five repeat the speaker's silent confirmation And I am dumb. The hanging man could be Christ on the cross, or the speaker's incorruptible spirit body. Unlike the clay, the corporeal, which will decay, the hangman's lime quickening the whole process.

Hangman's lime - in former times after certain criminals were hung, their bodies would be buried and covered with lime, quicklime, a chemical that speeds up the decomposition process.

Stanza 4

The imagery in this last stanza is both moving and inspirational. The speaker's vision widens and we are taken out through time and into the cosmos.

The lips of time suggests an intimate kiss; the fountain head is the original source - of Time or Love or Healing? Love is dying slowly, or is the blood of those who have died the healing balm, able to revive Love?

As the world turns and human life and love turns with it, the winds of change cannot be predicted. Heaven on earth will always be related to time, the process of growth and decay, spirit and matter.

lips of time leech - this short phrase makes me think of a kiss and the idea of exploitation. Is leech used as a verb; is time sucking blood or energy from the fountainhead, the source?

End Couplet

We've come full circle and reached the lover's tomb, where words are superfluous perhaps. Death is beautiful, decay inevitable, time the healer and destroyer. The crooked worm could represent evil, or pure decay, or the twisted notions we all hold on the subject of love.

You could ask - Where are the three preceding lines of stanza five?

The force, the force, the hand, the lips......?

This poem does have plenty of ambiguous imagery, food for thought, but it's power lies in the evocative language building up with repeated refrains. It takes us from the grave to the stars, from birth to death, from the tomb to the fuse. The mysterious universal force drives everything on.

Overall Impression

This poem is both overwhelming and inspiring. Image after image gather until you feel like you're in a romantic's gallery curated by William Blake, sponsored by the Church of Hopkins.

I found the iambic pentameter a little plodding but the figurative language with its biblical undertones more than makes up.

The end couplet is a puzzle. Is this an unfinished fifth verse? Interesting that the poet felt he had to end with a death and the crooked worm, not a heaven and a sky full of stars.

Overall a mysterious poem beautifully formed. The force that drives the music through a poem...

Richard Burton reads The Force that through the green fuse.


100 essential Modern Poems, Ivan Dee, Joseph Parisi, 2005

Norton Anthology, Norton, 2005

© 2014 Andrew Spacey


Submit a Comment
  • chef-de-jour profile imageAUTHOR

    Andrew Spacey 

    6 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    Thank you for the visit and comment Colleen. Yes, Dylan Thomas was a very special wordsmith.

  • Colleen Swan profile image

    Colleen Swan 

    6 years ago from County Durham

    A nice article about a great writer, and such a tragic end.

  • chef-de-jour profile imageAUTHOR

    Andrew Spacey 

    6 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    Thank you for the visit and comment, much appreciated Alun. I'm really glad you got something out of this analysis and that it helped you gain a bit of understanding of a very special poem.

  • Greensleeves Hubs profile image

    Greensleeves Hubs 

    6 years ago from Essex, UK

    Andrew, I've never really 'got' poetry. Although I can appreciate the beauty of forming words into evocative and beautiful phrases, I often fail to grasp the intent behind the poem, and the symbolism of the phraseology. I can read a supposedly classic poem, but then I find myself thinking dismissively 'What was that all about?' So it would be with this poem.

    So it's really nice to see this clinical analysis of Dylan Thomas's poem, an interpretation of the meaning behind the words. Only through such analysis could poetry or classical literature be made comprehensible to many who may then come to appreciate it.

    And I agree with MJennifer - 'what a profound joy to find such a solid literary analysis here on HP'. Voted up accordingly. Alun

  • MJennifer profile image

    Marcy J. Miller 

    6 years ago from Arizona

    You may well have inspired me to add some lit-crit to my own hubs. Perhaps it will be Byron's Darkness … or Eliot's Prufrock … or some of the WWI poets. Those are some of my own "swimmers." Now see what you may have started? So … thanks again.

    Here in the desert, our green fuse has already burnt to brown -- but we have an invasion of bees thanks to the madly blossoming palo verde. All will be yellow here for a couple more weeks, and then brown until the seasonal summer rains. In just a few days, the annual "it's going to be a terrible year for wildfires" worries will return. It's a different world than Yorkshire!

    Back to work. Best wishes! -- Mj

  • chef-de-jour profile imageAUTHOR

    Andrew Spacey 

    6 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    There are many poems that have been swimming around in my head for decades, some from my college days, others from classic volumes I've read at leisure. Having the time now to actually look at some of these creations in greater depth is really enjoyable. I never thought I'd get into dissecting poems - I used to prefer reading them as an organic whole - but now I've changed! Analysis is justified because it gives me a better understanding of the construction! And I concentrate more on the reading once I learn how everything is put together. Is it like using binoculars to get closer to a beautiful bird you've only ever seen at a distance? Something like that.

    Thank you for the visit and comment. Take care out there in the Arizona desert. Here in north England the green fuse is well lit!

  • MJennifer profile image

    Marcy J. Miller 

    6 years ago from Arizona

    Andrew, what a profound joy to find such a solid literary analysis here on HP. I often wonder about the current state of affairs of the arts and whether or not the great poets are still relevant to contemporary culture (that, by the way, is not an indictment of the great poets but rather of today's reality-show and mediocrity culture). I suppose a large part of that is that I'm no longer immersed in academia as I once was -- and my interaction with others these days is, sadly, lacking in literary value. It is discouraging. I miss it greatly.

    Reading your excellent hub on Thomas' Force has been a great pleasure and reading it twice has been the best gift I'm giving myself today.

    Best -- Mj

  • chef-de-jour profile imageAUTHOR

    Andrew Spacey 

    6 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

    Graham, many thanks for the response and votes. This poem is so full of rich imagery it's more like a word painting! I know the Welsh are natural singers - they're not bad with the words too. I appreciate your time and input.

  • old albion profile image

    Graham Lee 

    6 years ago from Lancashire. England.

    Hi Chef. A truly in depth analysis. Your research shines like a beacon.

    Voted up and all.



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