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Plot Summary of 'The Lion and the Jewel'
Set in the Yoruba village of Ilujinle, Nigeria, 'The Lion and the Jewel' is a light comedy play revolving around four main characters: Baroka, the elderly chief of Illunjire; Lankule, a teacher; Sidi, the belle of the village; and Sadiku, the eldest wife of Baroka.
The interaction and confrontation among the main characters posits an African village entangled in a tug-of-war between modern enthusiasts and traditional adherents. Those who have subscribed to modern ideals want to modernise their village, and if possible, erase all forms of traditional beliefs and practices existent in the village. On the other hand, another group, mostly composed of older people, are against encroachment of modernity in their village.
Ironically, and additionally, the playwright depicts an African village whose villagers want to have both of the same world - a section of the villagers against all that entails modernity yet attracted to some aspects of it, and another section that have embraced all that constitutes modernity yet don't want to give up some of their village's traditions.
Lakunle, 23, is a young man who has subscribed to modern culture. He is educated, is impressed by modern technological innovation, and is attracted to modern lifestyle. He represents the younger generation who distaste their African traditions in favour of western culture. Even so, his belief about the status of women in the society, and attraction to a Yoruba traditional practice - polygammy - depicts a young man who has embraced modern ideals yet holds on to some of the traditional beliefs and practices existent in his village.
On the other hand, Baroka, 62, is a traditionalist who is against his village being influenced by modern way-of-life. He uses his authority and craftiness nature to stop Lakunle, the modernist, and the ministry of transportation, from streamlining the village. Despite his opposition to his village being mordenised, he's attracted by a modern innovation, stamping machine.
Sidi is a young girl who is against anything entailing modern way-of-life. She's happy remaining a traditionalist. However, she's attracted to an aspect of modernity - magazine. She is curious, and yearning, to have a look at the magazine containing images of her, as promised by the Lagos man, and which, as stated by the Lagos man, will announce her intriguing beauty to the world. Sidi represents the young people who uphold their tribe's or village's traditions but are attracted to some elements of modernity.
Both Lakunle and Baroka are eyeing Sidi. Lakunle entices Sidi in a gentlemanly manner (western-style) while Baroka uses slyness, and eventually, deflowers her. In the end, Sidi accepts to become Baroka's wife.
Baroka's victory in marrying Sidi displays the triumph of tradition over modernity. In her journal article, 'Tradition vs. Modernity: Wole Soyinka's The Lion and the Jewel,' Ashli Watts notes,
"The overall plot of the play, Lakunle and Baroka's fight for Sidi's love, displays another confrontation between tradition and modernity. Between the two of them, Sidi has to choose between having a modern or a traditional marriage. Lakunle's refusal to accept tradition causes modernity to falter...His choice for modernity leaves the door open for Baroka to enter. Knowing the rules of tradition and using Sidi's ego against her, Baroka knows that if he can seduce Sidi, she will not have a choice in marrying him because she will no longer be a maid. This is the battle which causes tradition to triumph over modernity."
Baroka is depicted in the play as a lion whereas Sidi is portrayed as a jewel. It's a story of a lion, Baroka, the chief of Ilujinle village, on a mission to claim a jewel, Sidi, the belle of the village, as his latest wife. Despite Sidi's refusal to be married to Baroka, the Bale succeeds in having the young beautiful girl as his wife.
The employment of symbolism in the construction of the title of the play sketches a continent that's divided between two camps - modernists and traditionalists.
The ending of the play displays the playwright's satisfaction Africa hasn't lost its identity, that is, fully influenced by Western culture.
The Symbolic Meaning of the Lion and the Jewel in Relation to Baroka and Sidi
a) The Lion
A lion, when hunting individually, has a success rate of 17-19% in catching a prey. It's low hunting success rate is noted in Baroka. Not all women have fallen prey to Baroka's desire to have them as either his wives or concubines. Even so, he has managed to 'own' a sizeable number of them; the latest being Sidi. Lakunle is envious of Baroka seeing that the old man has a considerable number of women in his palace as either his concubines or wives.
A lion radiates a sense of authority evidenced in its majestic walk, and the holding high of its head. Other characteristics that have earned this wild cat the title as the king of the jungle are its mane which symbolises a crown, and its roar. Its roar, which can be heard over 15 miles, causes animals to scurry for their safety, and is a means of alerting its pride of its approach. In the play, Baroka exudes authority as the chief of Ilujinle village, a position he inherited from his father through the patriarchal system existent in the village. Baroka is always accompanied by a wrestler who acts as his bodyguard symbolising the position he holds in the village. The young people, including Sidi, halt dancing the role-play act of the 'Lost Traveller,' and kneel to pay respect to Baroka who has approached them - an indication of the royalty title he holds. Lakunle, upon seeing Baroka, tries to make a slow exit but returns when the Bale and the young people call his name, and bows to the Chief.
Another trait of a lion that's exhibited by Baroka is its strength, both physically and sexually. His muscular figure is brought to light when he asks Sadiku what makes Sidi think he's an old man that she can't accept him to be her husband. He asks her,
"Did I not at the festival of Rain, defeat the men in the long-tossing match? Do I not still with the most fearless ones hunt the leopard and the boa at night and save the farmers' goats from further harm?... Do any of my wives report a failing in my manliness? The strength of them all still wearies long before the lion does!"
On the other hand,
b) A Jewel
Is an ornament adorned by women on their necks to compliment their beauty. In the play, Sidi is described as a 'very' beautiful young woman.
Her beauty comes into prominence when images of her are published in a Lagos-based magazine. She asks her friends whether they've seen the magazine that'll expose her beauty to the world.
"...Did you see the book? Had he the book that would bestow upon me beauty beyond the dreams of a goddess? For so he said. The book which would announce this beauty to the world."
Baroka is jealous of Sidi because of her rising fame owing to her commanding beauty. The fact Baroka's image, a small one, is displayed "in a little corner somewhere in the book, and even that corner he shares with one of the village latrines," makes the Bale more jealous, and eager to claim Sidi as his youngest wife. The First Girl reveals to Sidi,
"The Bale is jealous, but he pretends to be proud of you. And when this man (referring to the Stranger - the Lagos man) tells him how famous you are in the capital (that is, in Lagos), he pretends to be pleased, saying how much honour and fame you have brought to the village."
One of the disadvantageous nature of a gem is that it lacks a lively form. Women in pre-colonial Africa were treated majorly as property than partners in a marriage. The contrast between Lakunle and Baroka is apparent. Lakunle views a wife as a companion; not a property. However, he, similar to Baroka, has a low opinion of women. On the other hand, Baroka views women as tools of pleasure and servitude.
He is the elderly chief of Ilujinle village; having inherited the political rulership from his father.
He is a cunning man. When Sadiku approaches Sidi in an attempt to convince her to become Baroka's favourite wife, Sidi remarks,
"...Do you think that I was only born yesterday? The tales of Baroka's little suppers, I know it all. Tell your lord that Sidi does not sup with married men..." She asks Sadiku if she can deny that "every woman who has supped with him one night, becomes his wife or concubine the next day."
Lakunle adds to Sidi's comment there's a reason why Baroka is known as the 'fox.' According to Wikipedia, a fox, as depicted in the folklore of many cultures, is a cunning or trickery character. His foxiness is seen when he deceives his eldest wife, Sadiku, he has lost his manhood. Sadiku, taking the bait, spreads Baroka's impotence to Sidi. Egoistical of her beauty, and proud that her fame has outdone Baroka's popularity, Sidi takes upon herself to head to Baroka's palace to deride him. In a turn of events, the old man defiles her. Having been deflowered, she runs away from his house and reveals to Sadiku and Lakunle, who are waiting for her, they're all fooled.
He is a polygamist with several wives and concubines under his belt. Feasting on the images of Sidi on a copy of the Lagos-based magazine, he sets himself on a mission to have another wife to add to the many he has. From his polygamous and concubinage life, Baroka, 62, has sired 63 children. There's the likelihood that Sidi wouldn't be the last woman he'd accumulate as his latest wife.
Even though Baroka is a traditionalist, he's making use of a modern invention, the stamp machine, which he employs in seducing Sidi.
Lankule, 22, is an educated young African man who has embraced western values, and seeks to modernise his village of Ilunjire. He wants his village to attain the same economic and technological status as the capital city of Nigeria, Lagos. He distastes the village’s traditions which he terms as a ‘savage custom, barbaric, out-dated, rejected, denounced, accursed, excommunicated, archaic, degrading, humiliating, unspeakable, redundant, retrogressive, remarkable and unpalatable.’
Lankule is puffed up in arrogance owing to his attainment of formal education. Despite his attainment of formal education, Lankule's interpretation of the western texts he's read has led him to make erroneous statements about the status of women. He tells Sidi that he won't allow her to drive him into an argument because she's a smaller brain compared to his. When asked what makes him utter such an arrogant statement, he defends himself as not the one who has said that. The scientists, he asserts, have proven women are a weaker sex. The 'assumed' fact is indicated in the books he has in his possession, he tells her.
His utterance on the inferiority of women stems from a lack of a balanced interpretation of western literature or lacking the necessary skills in analyzing the texts he has read. This implies Lakunle is semi-educated, that is, partly educated. A semi-educated person, according to the Urban Dictionary, is an individual who has "achieved a certain level of education and then decided they are better than those who have not been so fortunate." A semi-literate person, as stated by the same dictionary, can be singled out, as noticed in Lakunle, "by the rather unsavoury and ignorant views expressed by this supposedly educated individual."
He has a wrong impression of what modernity is. He tells Sadiku after Sidi leaves them to mock the Bale following the revelation of the Chief's impotency,
"Within a year or two, I swear, this town shall see a transformation... We'll burn the forest, cut the trees then plant a modern park for lovers. We'll print newspapers every day with pictures of seductive girls. The world will judge our progress by the girls that win beauty contests..."
Even though Lakunle considers himself progressive, he is enticed by some aspects of Yoruba traditions. For instance, he is envious of the many women Baroka has. He muses on his polygamous lifestyle and wishes he would have led that kind of life.
"...concubines...ah, yes...all those concubines. Baroka has such a selective eye, none suits him but the best...Yes, one must grant him that. Ah, I sometimes wish I led his kind of life. Such luscious bosoms make his nightly pillow. I am sure he keeps a timetable just as I do at school. The only way to ensure fair play. He just is healthy to keep going as he does. I don't know what the women see in him...No! I don't envy him!"
He backtracks from having wished he led that lifestyle by telling himself he'll stick to one woman - Sidi.
He's a witty character. He has some sense of humour. He uses synonymous words to describe the backwardness of his village's tradition: 'a savage custom, barbaric, out-dated, rejected, denounced, accursed, excommunicated, archaic, degrading, humiliating, unspeakable, redundant, retrogressive, remarkable, and unpalatable.' When asked by Sidi whether the bag (his mouth) is empty (has run out of words), and why he's stopped, Lakunle replies,
"I own only the Shorter Companion Dictionary, but I have ordered The Longer One - you wait!"
She is a very beautiful girl going by the praises poured upon her by her friends, and the Stranger. Sidi asks the First Girl if she's has seen the magazine after being notified the Stranger - the Lagos man - has returned with the magazine which contains images of her (other than those of the village, and the Bale) as he'd promised. She asks the First Girl,
"Did you see the book? Had he the precious book that would bestow upon me beauty beyond the dreams of a goddess? For so he said. The book which would announce this beauty to the world..."
The Third Girl replies the Stranger had indeed brought the magazine. However, she tells Sidi, "the Bale is still feasting his eyes on the images." She praises Sidi's beauty as seen in the magazine.
"Oh, Sidi, he (referring to the Stranger) was right. You are beautiful. On the cover of the book is an image of you from the top of the head to the stomach. And in the middle leaves, from the beginning of one leaf right across to the end of another, is one of you from head to toe..."
Despite her beauty, she is naive. Even though she knows Baroka's cunningness nature, she hasn't spared herself some time to factor in Baroka's statement about his impotence. Instead, she rushes to the Bale's palace to mock him. Departing from the chief's palace, she runs towards Sadiku and Lakunle who have been waiting for her. She tells them they're all fooled. Baroka had tricked Sadiku, knowing Sadiku wouldn't bear to keep it a secret.
Taking advantage of her innocence, Baroka deflowers the young girl. Consequently, Sidi opts to become Baroka's wife; not because she loves him but to preserve her reputation in the village. She'd told Lakunle she wouldn't accept to be married without her brideprice having been paid because word would spread in the village she's not a maid (virgin). Lakunle, or another man, wouldn't pay for her brideprice when they learn she's not a virgin. She covers the shame by accepting to become Baroka's wife.
Some scholars state the Yoruba tradition doesn't permit a woman to be married to another man if she's been seduced by someone else. In relation to this Yoruba law, Sidi couldn't be married by Lakunle, or another man, because she'd already been seduced by another man, Baroka. In his journal article, 'Women under Patriarchy: A Postcolonial Feminist Critique of Wole Soyinka's The Lion and the Jewel,' Adhikary P. R, states,
"Sidi becomes ready to marry an old man because of her tradition which does not permit a girl to marry another person after being seduced by one. In this respect, she forgives the rapist rather than taking any legal action against him."
Similar to Baroka, she's a traditionalist. She doesn't subscribe to Lakunle's idea of what constitutes a modern woman. She tells him to go to those places where women would understand him if he told them of his plans with which he oppresses her daily. Also, Sidi is against Lakunle's thought of marrying her without paying her bride price. She doesn't want the villagers to think negatively of her as an immoral person. As per her statement, a woman in the Yoruba village woild be considered an immoral person if she is married without her brideprice having paid.
She is flirtatious. Having been told by Sadiku of the Bale's impotence, Sidi is desirous to deride him. Not only does she want to toy with the old man for her own amusement, but also wants to witness his physical reaction which, she believes, would fall short of his former energetic body because of his current physical condition, impotency, caused, presumably, by his old age. She pleads with Sadiku to let her go to the Bale's palace. She tells her,
"Oh such an idea is running in my head. Let me to the palace for this supper he promised me. Sadiku, what a way to mock the devil. I shall ask for forgiveness for my hasty words...No need to change my answers and consent to be his bride - he might suspect you've told me. But I shall ask a month to think about it...
Oh Sadiku let me go. I long to see him thwarted, to watch his longing, his twitching hands which this time cannot rush to loosen his trouser cords."
Sadiku is the eldest wife of Baroka. She has remained faithful to her husband, Baroka, since the day Baroka claimed her as his wife. This, Baroka reveals to Sidi when the young girl had gone to the chief's palace to make fun of his loss of manhood. He tells Sidi that his senior wife has been a faithful lizard - a factual statement, but also said in a pretentious way to mean Sadiku wouldn't reveal to others about her husband's lack of bedroom vitality.
Similar to her husband, and Sidi, she is a traditionalist. However, unlike the other two who are attracted to some elements of the modern culture, she's fully devoted to her village's traditions.
She is a simple-minded elderly woman. Joyous at the revelation of Baroka's impotence, she informs Sidi of the revelation. Similar to Sidi, she hasn't spared some time to think through what Baroka had told her to keep as a secret between the two of them. She believes what he told her at face value as factual which later cancels her celebration of her, and other wives, of having triumphed over the Bale.
She is illiterate. This is seen when Lankule chides her for allowing Sidi to head to Baroka’s palace to taunt him.
“This is my plan, you withered face and I shall start by teaching you. From now on you shall attend my school and take your place with twelve-year-olds. For though you’re nearly seventy, your mind is simple and unformed. Have you no shame at your age, you neither read nor write nor think? You spend your days as a senior wife, collecting brides for Baroka. And now because you've sucked him dry, you send my Sidi to his shame.”
Lakunle rebukes her for using her time to perform 'foolish' tasks of finding brides for the Bale instead of using that time to gain the necessary formal education. Her illiteracy, according to Lakunle, has put her at a disadvantage as she is unable to use her brain to logically reason things out. If she'd received the formal education, she'd have seen the fallacy of searching for Baroka young women to marry, or to be his concubines.
- Traditions and Customs
- Status of Women
- Tradition vs. Modernity
1. Traditions and Customs
The debate on whether brideprice should be banned is a contentious issue in Africa and non-African countries that are still practising it.
Lankule, the young African man who has embraced western culture, considers the traditional customs in his village as barbaric and savage. As a modernist, he's on a mission to streamline the village by doing away with every aspect of Yoruba tradition in his village, and usher in the elements of modernity. Even though he loves Sidi, he doesn’t want to pay her brideprice as a prerequisite to marrying her. He tells Sidi that paying the brideprice, also known as bridewealth, is the same as buying a heifer off the market stall. Paying the brideprice, he reasons, signifies purchasing her as a commodity since he'd part with a certain amount of money and/or items in exchange for her.
In the Yoruba village, a brideprice acts as a stamp a woman hasn't been touched by a man. Sidi stresses to Lakunle she'll accept to be married to him at that moment or any day as long as he pays her brideprice. She tells him that if he marries her without paying her bridewealth, she'll become a laughingstock in the village. Word will spread in the village she's married without a brideprice because she's not a virgin.
Similar to bridewealth, the debate on prohibition of the continuation of polygamy hasn't been warmly received by the majority of men, and a fewer percentage of women, in Africa.
A traditionalist, Baroka is happy with continuing his village's tradition of marrying as many wives as he could. Not only has he immersed himself with wives, but he also has concubines to boast about. The Yoruba tradition on polygammy hasn't limited men in the number of women they should marry.
Despite having many wives and mistresses, Baroka's thirst for more women hasn't been satisfied the reason he's eyeing Sidi. A study of the play shows that Baroka is benefitting in three ways from amassing himself with many women as either his wives or concubines. Firstly, to gratify his sexual pleasure, and secondly, the luxury of being served as he wishes.
An instant of his appetite for more women to gratify his sexual desires is when he eyes Sidi; a young girl who has risen to prominence because of her beauty. Looking at the copy of a magazine containing Sidi's images, he reflects that it has been long since he last married his latest wife, Ailatu - 5 months ago. Sidi, having the knowledge of Baroka's thirst for young female blood seeks Sadiku's permission to let her go and ridicule Baroka. Once in his palace, she'll act as if she doesn't know of Baroka's failing of his manhood. She tells Sadiku,
"...Oh Sadiku let me go. I long to see him thwarted, to watch his longing, his twitching hands which this time cannot rush to loosen his trouser cords."
Baroka uses Sadiku to convince young women to become his wives. Lakunle criticizes Sadiku for spending her days looking for women to be Baroka's wives. In reality, Baroka, known for his slyness, uses Sadiku to convince women to be his wives. He lies to Sidi that his senior wife always mistakes his good gesture e.g. asking for a lady's health or how she's doing as a sign he wants that girl to be his wife. Another instance showing Baroka's enjoymeny of using women for his own comfort is the case of his youngest wife, Ailatu, whom he assigns the task of plucking out hairs from his armpit.
Outside the play, the major reason given for men's thirst for polygamous lifestyle is to satisfy their sexual thirst. Nonetheless, the Afropolitan disagrees with this view. They state,
"The truth is that polygamy was to do with status and wealth. The more wives a man had the more his wealth grew. Why? Because it was women and their children who worked the land. That is also why, contrary to popular belief, monogamy was equally common in pre-colonial Africa if not by choice."
For a moment, Lakunle desires the polygamous lifestyle of Baroka. When he comes to his senses, he vows to himself he'll stand by the modern value of having only one wife.
c) Wife Inheritance
In modern Africa, wife-inheritance is rarely practised unlike in the pre-colonial era.
In the play, wife inheritance is a component of Yoruba tradition. In this instance, a man is required to marry the youngest wife of his deceased father. Baroka inherited his father's favourite (youngest) wife - Sadiku - following his death. This is noted in Sadiku dancing around the Ogun tree - joyous at Baroka having lost his manhood. She dances around the tree, chanting in an excited voice,
"... I was there when it happened to your father, the great Okiki. I did for him, I, the youngest and freshest of the wives. I killed him with my strength..."
According to Wikipedia, the main purpose of inheriting someone else's wife was a
"means for the widow to have someone to support her and her children financially, and to keep her late husband's wealth within the family bloodline. At the time it was initiated, women were responsible for the house chores and men were the providers, therefore if the woman lost her husband, she would have no one to provide for the remaining family. Because her in-laws would not want someone outside of the family's bloodline to inherit her late husband's estate, she was required to marry within the family."
The practice is declining in Africa owing to negativities associated with it e.g. it renders a widow powerless to choose for herself who to be married to, or whether she wants to get married again.
d) Songs and Dances
Songs and dances have played, and continue to play, important roles in the African continent. Some of the functions of songs and dances are: to entertain people, to retell a story or convey a message, and to celebrate an occasion.
In the 'Morning' section of the play, Sidi comes up with an idea that they should dance the dance of the 'Lost Traveller.' She assigns several of the youths to play a particular role e.g. four girls to act as the four wheels of the car the Stranger was driving, and a young man as a snake. She assigns Lakunle the role of the Stranger, but Lakunle doesn't want anything to do with it as he calls it a childish game. However, Sidi tells him,
"You are dressed like him
You look like him
You speak his tongue
You think like him
You're just as clumsy
In your Lagos ways -
You'll do for him!"
Lakunle still refuses to participate in the role-play which involves dancing, miming, and talking. The other young people join Sidi in chanting the above words while dancing around him. This impels Lakunle to accept to take the role of the Stranger. Herein, chanting has acted as a vehicle of persuasion, and to some extent, an irritability, which forces Lakunle to join in the role-play act. Chant, as defined by Oxford Languages is a "repeated rhythmic phrase, typically one shouted or sung in unison by a crowd," or as defined by Merriam-Webster Dictionary, a "rhythmic monotonous utterance or song."
Lakunle dances as he heads to his car. He sits on an imaginary chair and ignites an imaginary engine. The young girls representing the wheels dance with their knees and hands touching the ground while moving around the stage.
The dance of the 'Lost Traveller' incorporates singing, dancing, miming and beating of drums. Mime, as defined by Merriam-Webster Dictionary is "to act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without words." The dance narrates the story of how the Stranger, the Lagos man, chanced upon Sidi, and her village, Ilunjire.
Singing and dancing is also seen when Sadiku dances around the Ogun tree, with the carved figure of the Bale placed in front of the tree. While dancing, she chants, "Take warning, my masters, we'll scotch you in the end."
Sidi who has been watching in utter amazement from a distance approaches her. She thinks the old woman has gone mad. Sidi is joyous when Sadiku discloses to her of the Bale's impotence. She joins Sadiku in celebrating women's victory over men. Sadiku isn't only joyous about herself but also joyful for the wives of Baroka for having caused the Bale to lose his manhood.
2. Status of Women
In the play, women have been portrayed as man's property, an instrument of man's sexual gratification, a servitude to man's biddings, and inferior to men.
Lakunle reproaches Sadiku for spending her days collecting brides for Baroka. This, he thinks, is a result of the elderly woman not having passed through the formal education system. However, it isn't that Sadiku is happy in engaging in the matchmaking activity. The reality is that her tradition has forced her to do her husband's biddings. In his journal article, 'Social Picture in the Lion and the Jewel,' Lorelly Cicom says,
"Another custom of Yoruba tradition is a significant one. Sadiku, the veteran representative of the tradition, woos young girls to marry her husband and it is her responsibility to persuade girls to marry Baroka. The Yoruba society emphasizes that 'the wives have to obey and do furnish all sorts of his desire.' It is settled in the minds of the women in the society."
Baroka is sexually starved. Despite his old age, 62, Baroka isn't sexually satisfied by the women he's accumulated to himself - wives and concubines. When Sidi, a young woman, comes into prominence in the village, thanks to the magazine that announced her beauty to the world, she, unknowingly, becomes a prey to the lustful eyes of the Bale. Sidi, knowledgeable about Baroka's thirst for fresh young blood, begs Sadiku to let her pay Baroka a visit with the intention of deriding him. She desires to witness Baroka's longing to sleep with her, a young fresh blood, but using the occasion to deny him his sexual urges.
"...Oh Sadiku let me go. I long to see him thwarted, to watch his longing, his twitching hands which this time cannot rush to loosen his trouser cords."
Seducing a young female, particularly those conceived as most beautiful, and being able to have her as one's wife, boosted a man's image in the African pre-colonial era. This attitude - showing off, and earning praises from fellow men in having seduced a beautiful young woman - is also evident in modern Africa, and non-African countries. The act itself elavates a man's status in the society, or in the world, of having conquered in 'owning' rather than being in a relationship with a beautiful woman as a wife. Baroka having succeeded in marrying, if not the most beautiful girl in the village, one of the most beautiful girls in the village, attracted envy from other men such as Lakunle; a sign of the man's prowess in seduction.
The women in the village are treated as a weaker sex. Inferior to men. Having smaller brains than men. It'd have been expected that Lakunle, a modern man, would have treated women as equal to men. He'd impressed on Sidi what a modern civilized marriage entails - eating together, and walking together, which was an unheard thing in the Ilujinle village, and pre-colonial Africa. Partly, he can be faulted for considering women as having smaller brains to men due to his semi-illiteracy. And partly, he can't be faulted. He might have misinterpreted the western texts he read. But there is also the possibility the western texts he read, particularly scientific literature, did infer women have a smaller brain compared to men. This may have validated his view on women as a weaker sex from the belief held by his village, and which was ingrained in his mind from a young age.
Lakunle assumes Sidi can't engage him in arguments which she is incapable to comprehend or reason out. Adult or sensible talks, so it was assumed in the African community, was reserved for men. Women weren't involved in decision-making in their homes, and in the making of laws and rules to guide a tribe or community. This belief is still prevalent in post-colonial Africa.
Lakunle can't be wholly faulted for having a low opinion of women. In self-defense, Lakunle stated the statement he uttered was gathered from the 'western' books he'd read. Partly, he can be faulted because as an educated man he should have cross-referenced the texts to be certain of their claim. On the other hand, Lakunle can't be faulted because western literature, particularly, romance novels, including 'purposely' scientific findings depict women as cheap and inferior to men.
In her article, 'The 'female' brain: Why damaging myths about women and science keep coming back in new forms,' Gina Rippon states,
"The view that women are inferior to men has taken many different forms over the years. In the 19th century, a patriarchal anxiety emerged that exposure to the demands of scientific education would damage women's vulnerable biology. In 1886, William Withers Moore, then president of the British Medical Association, warned of the dangers of overeducating women as they could develop disorder he called "anorexia scholastica", which made women immoral, insane and asexual."
In an article titled, 'Why Men Thought Women Weren't Made to Vote,' Marina Koren states that at the turn of the 20th century, there was the belief among academics, doctors and scientists that women shouldn't vote because "they were, quite literally, not made for it." She says that according to the leading theory of that time "mental exertion could jeopardize reproductive health."
"According to the mainstream science of the time, "Women simply had inferior brains, which made them unsuited to the rigors of voting," says Cheryl Jorgensen Earp, a professor at the University of Lynchbury... "Anti-suffrage cartoons poked fun at women's reasoning ability...which showed the interior of a woman's head filled only with letters, puppies, hats, chocolates, and the faces of admiring young men.""
Lastly, media has the capability to impress certain ideologies on what constitutes men and women in young people's minds which they'll carry as a true representation of the respective genders. Consequently, in their adulthood stage, the impression that was implanted in their young mind will guide their reflection of themselves, and the opposite sex. A study carried out by Common Sense found out that,
"Media reinforce the idea that masculine traits and behaviors are more valued than feminine traits and behaviors, and boys who consume these media messages are more likely to exhibit masculine behaviors and beliefs."
Also, "Girls are taught that their bodies exist to be objectified, sexualized, and consumed by others. Teens who are heavier media users are more likely to believe that women are partially responsible for their own sexual assaults."
Surbhi Malhotra states in her journal article titled, 'Resisting Patriarchy and Reformulating Matriarchy: An Analysis of Wole Soyinka's The Lion and the Jewel,"
"A fairly prevalent perception of the women across cultures has framed them as matter and as such subordinate. Their physical beauty, role in the procreative process and use as objects of pleasure and sexual satisfaction have thrown their other faculties into the background. Culture role models, as they have percolated down the ages, have emphasized this, depriving the women of agency."
Patrice C. Akogbeto and Albert O. Koukpossi in relation to the gender differences exhibited in the play state in their journal article, 'Gender Issues in the Lion and the Jewel by Wole Soyinka: A Linguistics-Oriented Analysis from a Systematic Functional Grammar and Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective,'
"The result of the investigation in the light of trasitivity and Critical Discourse Analysis shows that Soyinka, consciously or unconsciously has represented male characters as strong, powerful and metaphorically as a lion, a symbol of irresistible power. They are also portrayed as initiator, doer of something, and commander in chief, the king while their female counterparts (Sidi, Sadiku) are represented as goals and/or beneficiaries of men's actions and associated with processes of sensing and of emotions."
3. Tradition vs. Modernity
This is the central theme in the play.
Lakunle, a young modernist man, wants to transform his village to attain the status of a modern town. He wants to marry Sidi but is against the idea of paying her brideprice. To him, paying the bridewealth would amount to purchasing her as a good thereby legally transforming her as a property of his. She'd be no different to a slave. His mode of dressing is modern in appearance though his fashion taste is a bit weird. He discourages Sidi from wearing the traditional clothes. To him, she doesn't appear womanly. He distastes the traditional clothe she wears because they expose her shoulders and the upper part of her chest. He desires her to dress in modern attire which is appealing.
On the other hand, Baroka is a traditionalist. He sticks to his Yoruba tradition exemplified by his polygamous lifestyle. Baroka isn't the kind of a person to entice a woman, go through the dating stage, and propose to her. These acts are modern. As seen in the play, Baroka lures the young innocent girl, and deflowers her as a means of claiming her. He knows the girl won't have a choice but to marry him. Not only does the Yoruba tradition forbid her to be married to a man who hasn't approached her, but also the fact she doesn't want to stake her reputation as an immoral woman impels her to accept to be the Bale's latest wife.
Lakunle is repelled by his village's tradition terming them as savage and barbaric. Not only does he want to streamline his village, but also to eradicate all aspects of the Yoruba traditions and customs from being ever practised. Even so, Lakunle, momentarily, is enticed by the polygamous lifestyle of Baroka.
Notwithstanding Baroka has succeeded in preventing civilization from knocking at the village's door, some aspects of western civilization have spread their tentacles in the village. For instance, the same man who is against his village being modernised is attracted to a western invention - stamping machine. He uses the stamp machine he owns a as a source of revenue, and to seduce Sidi.
Sidi, another traditionalist, is exceedingly excited at seeing her beauty published in a magazine, and consequently, gaining a spotlight not only in the village but also beyond the walls of the village. In addition, the idea proposed by Baroka of imprinting her images on the village's stamps increases her joy. It's evident, being a young traditionalist, she's attracted to some elements of modernity.
It's apparent from the ending of the play the playwright is against some aspects of modern culture and Yoruba tradition. This implies, he appreciates some elements of modern culture and his Yoruba tradition as exhibited through the interactions and confrontations among the three main characters in the play - Baroka, Sidi and Lakunle.
Through the play, the playwright, Soyinka, voices his concern on Africa reception of modern culture, in its full package, particularly among the youth, at the expense of their African traditions. The continent has lost most of its traditional roots as noted by Chigozie Obioma, author of 'The Fishermen' and 'An Orchestra of Minority.'
In his article titled, 'African has been failed by westernisation. It must cast off its subservience,' he laments,
"...But this is becoming Africa's reality. Increasingly, our elites tell us that the way of the west is "modern" and "civilised", echoing the early colonialists who dismissed our civilisations as "barbaric", "archaic", and "uncivilised" to instill theirs."
Similar to Lakunle,
"... the African elite class largely insists that Africa is not western enough, and is trying to drag the continent, still grappling with western modernism, into the west's evolving postmodernist regime.
On another note, inspite of Africa having been influenced to a greater degree by western culture, some elements of the continent's traditions and customs (both beneficial and harmful) are still practised in African. This implies that, overall, the West hasn't been 'fully' successful in influencing Africans from continuing their traditions as noted by V. Jeya Sandhi and R. Selvam in their journal article, 'Cultural Catastrophe in The Lion and the Jewel.'
"... Ultimately, the play is on the surface plane portraying the tribal life and its confrontation with the culture of the West. The playwright reiterates upon the idea that the West has not made any deep impact on African culture and the tradition in the society is typical with all its merits and demerits."
Structure & Summary of the Play
The events in 'The Lion and the Jewel,' occur in one day. The scenes in the play are divided into three parts:
Lankule is teaching arithmetic times when he notices Sidi through the classroom’s window carrying a pail of water on her head. He rushes out of the class and to the opposite side. He offers to help Sidi lower the bucket but Sidi refuses. He seizes it but some water spills on him.
Lankule tells Sidi that she must stop carrying heavy loads on her head. The effect is her neck will shrink which he likens to squashed drawings of his pupils. He also complains of Sidi’s traditional way of wearing that exposes her shoulders and outline of her breasts.
Sidi has had enough of Lankule that she asks if she can take the pail. However, Lankule refuses asking her to first marry him. Sidi replies she has no problem with that. She can marry him on any day as long as he pays her bride price. Lankule is adamant he won't pay the brideprice and Sidi insists she won't allow to be married without her brideprice having been paid as she'll become a laughingstock in the village.
Lankule offers the reason he can’t pay the brideprice which he likens to buying a heifer off the market stalls. He describes to Sidi the married life of civilized people. He kisses her but Sidi is repelled by that behaviour terming it unclean.
As they are talking, they hear a crowd of youth and drummers. Sidi demands Lankule to give her the bucket or else the people will jeer at her.
The girls feed Sidi with information about the lost traveller - a man from another world who speaks in a foreign accent. Sidi enquires if the stranger has returned with the magazine he had promised; a magazine that will announce her beauty to the world.
The girls tell her the Lagos man returned with the book (magazine) and her images appear on the cover and middle leaves (pages) of the book. She learns the Bale of the village (Baroka) also appears somewhere in the book but shares his image with the village’s latrine.
They dance the dance of the 'Lost Traveller.' Sidi assigns the young people a role to play in the dance that will retell how the Lagos man got lost and found himself in the village of Illunjire.
The stranger was traveling somewhere when his car broke down. He restarted it but it failed. He climbed out of the car, checked the tyres and climbed in. He ignited the engine but the car didn’t give in. He picked up his camera and helmet and took a swig from his flask of whisky before putting it into his pocket. He began the trek to find a nearby village.
He heard a girl singing somewhere from the bush. He shook his head, drank his whisky again convinced he was suffering from sun-stroke. He threw the empty bottle. He heard a scream and torrents of abusive words. He tiptoed to where the female’s voice was coming from. What he saw made him unhitch his camera. Not focusing where he was stepping on as he tried to find a good position to take several pictures of the girl who was bathing in a pool of water; he plunged into the water. The young woman screamed and ran to the village with a part of her cloth covering her. The stranger followed a little later wringing out the water from his clothes. The stranger was hauled off to the town centre by an irate mob.
Baroka, the chief of Illunjire sympathized with the stranger. He besieged the villagers not to kill him. He ordered dry clothes for him and a feast in his honour. He captured several pictures of the party and Sidi who was dancing.
Sidi is engrossed in the pictures of herself in the magazine. Following behind is Lankule who’s carrying a bundle of firewood for Sidi. Sadiku meets them on the road leading to and from the village's town.
Sadiku asks Sidi to be Baroka’s wife. Sidi asks Sadiku why Baroka is requesting for her hand after her images are published in the magazine. Why didn’t he ask her to be his wife before her beauty was exposed to the world? Since she has refused to become Baroka’s wife, Sadiku requests her to accept Baroka’s supper invitation at his house to celebrate the fame she's has brought to the village. Sidi tells Sadiku that she wasn’t born the previous day that she isn't conversant with Baroka’s tricks.
It is at this point Lankule reveals to Sidi the other side of Baroka. He narrates how Baroka foiled the Public Works attempt to build a railway line through Illunjire.
At his palace, Baroka is lying on the bed while his youngest wife, Ailatu, is pulling out hairs from his armpit. She asks Baroka how she’s fairing on the task. Baroka tells her she’s being over-gentle with the pull. She tells him she will improve but Baroka tells her she shouldn’t bother about it because he intends to marry another young woman. Ailatu becomes angry. She plucks the hairs violently. Baroka orders her out of the room when Sadiku enters.
Baroka asks if she’s brought a balm because of the pain he’s feeling under his armpit. Sadiku tells him that Sidi has refused both of his proposals. She considers him old and she can’t sap with married men. Baroka is astonished to be called old. He recounts to Sadiku his youth life and how brave and strong he was. Nevertheless, he reveals to Sadiku a secret he hopes she won’t disclose to anybody. He tells her he can no longer function in bed. Sadiku is astonished to hear that. Baroka warns her not to tell anybody.
Sidi is standing by the classroom window, admiring her images on the magazine. She watches Sadiku in astonishment who is oblivious of her presence. Sadiku places a curved figure of the Bale in front of the ‘Odun’ tree. She dances around the tree, chanting “Take warning, my masters, we’ll scotch you in the end.”
Sidi enquires why she is behaving insanely. Sadiku reveals to Sidi the secret. Sidi leaps in the air, happy to hear the good news. She exclaims, “We won! We won! Hurray for womankind!” They don’t recognize Lankule who has joined their presence. They dance around the tree chanting “Take warning, my masters, we’ll scotch you in the end.”
Sidi mentions to Sadiku that she wants to pay Baroka a visit. Her intention is to poke fun at Baroka’s impotency. Lankule pleads with her not to go but Sidi tells her as long as she doesn’t reveal to Baroka of the secret, she can go and ridicule Baroka.
She finds Baroka wrestling with his left man (warrior/bodyguard). Baroka asks her why she has arrived at his bedroom unannounced. She replies she didn’t find anybody at the entrance to his bedroom. Baroka laments at this intrusion.
After the wrestling match, Sidi pretends she’s repentant for the words she uttered – Baroka is old and she can’t sap with married men. She makes fun of Baroka indirectly. She tells him that maybe the man who wants to marry her can’t sire children. She says to him, “Maybe the children are plagued with shyness and refuse to come into the world.”
Baroka reveals to Sidi of a stamping machine he owns. He tells Sidi the stamps will contain her images which will announce to the world her beauty. Baroka groans how people talk ill of him and how his office task is tiresome. A moment later Sidi leans on Baroka’s shoulder.
Lankule wonders why Sidi is late. It is in the evening and Sidi hasn’t returned. He thinks something bad must have happened to her.
Sidi who had been running throws herself to the ground against the tree and sobs violently. Sadiku kneels besides her and asks her what the problem is. She pushes her away. She also tells Lankule not to touch her. She tells Sadiku that Baroka had lied to her.
Suddenly, she leaves. Lankule requests Sadiku to find out where she has gone. She returns with the news Sidi is packing her things and oiling herself as a bride does before her wedding.
Sidi, accompanied by a crowd and musicians hands Lankule the magazine that contains her images. Sidi reveals to Lankule she is heading to Baroka’s place. She asks Sadiku to bless her.
Questions & Answers
Question: Did Baroka pay the bride price in the play "The Lion and the Jewel"?
Answer: Baroka didn't pay the bride price. Lankule wanted to marry Sidi without paying the bride price. However, Sidi told him that she didn't want to be a laughingstock (to be laughed) in the village. People would say she wasn't a virgin.
After Baroka deflowered/defiled Sidi, Lankule jumped at the opportunity. Since Sidi wasn't virgin, there was need for him to pay the dowry.
Thus, Baroka never paid the bride price because Sidi was no longer a virgin.
Question: Did Baroka had sex with Sidi?
Answer: Yes. The evidence is that she leaned on Baroka's shoulder. Another evidence is that Lankule was happy that he was no longer required to pay a bride price for Sidi. Knowing Sidi is no longer a virgin, he jumped at that opportunity. A man is not required to pay the bride price for a girl who isn't a virgin.
Lankule tells her, "Dear Sidi, we shall forget the past. This great misfortune touches not the treasury of my love. But you will agree, it is only fair that we forget the bride-price totally since you no longer can be called a maid."
Question: What is the importance of the bride price in The Lion and Jewel?
Answer: Lankule wanted to marry Sidi without paying the bride prize. However, Sidi said that she won't accept to become a laughingstock in the village that she was married without the dowry having been paid because she wasn't a virgin.
In the play, the playwright has highlighted the reason why the bride price is highly regarded in the village. A girl whose bride price has been paid is a testament that she's a virgin. Thus, the importance of bride price in the Illunjire village is to signify that a girl is a virgin. She hasn't been defiled or deflowered.
Question: What is the significance of marriage in the play "The Lion and the Jewel"?
Answer: In the play, Lankule symbolizes western or modern culture while Baroka symbolizes the traditional way-of-life. When Sidi accepts to be married to Baroka, it signifies that tradition is preferred to modern culture. Through the play, the playwright shows that even though modern life has crept in the village of Illunjire, the villagers distaste the modern life preferring their tradition.
Another thing to consider is through the marriage, Baroka not only asserts his authority as a powerful person (chief) but also proves that old men are wiser than younger men and women. Baroka managed to silence Sidi's ever-increasing popularity. He felt she was threatening his influence in the village. As a crafty person, he managed to accomplish his mission of silencing Sidi's increasing influence in the village.
Question: How was Lakunle's true love for Sidi proved after her return from Baroka's house?
Answer: Lankule loves Sidi but isn't willing to pay the bride price. He thinks it's barbaric since it would be like buying her thus becoming his property.
When Lankule learns that Sidi has been deflowered, first of all, he becomes angry before a thought pops up in his mind. He won't have to pay a bride price. This acts as a proof Lankule loves Sidi. Again, he thinks Sidi wants to get married to him very soon. He wonders why she's in a hurry only to learn she's heading to Baroka's house.
Question: According to the play titled 'The Lion and The Jewel' in which way did the stranger contribute in the play?
Answer: The stranger offered a glimpse of Baroka's weakness despite his old age and the authority he hold in the village as the chief.
Sidi's rising influence in her village and beyond is a result of the stranger taking photographs of her in various postures and getting published in a magazine in Lagos. Her photos are published in three-full cover pages. That of Baroka appeared in a small section of a page of the magazine close to the toilet.
Baroka knew her influence due to her beauty as expressed in the magazine would threaten his authoritative influence in the village. He sought to diminish her influence because he didn't want to be rivaled.
Also, the stranger portrayed how backward the Illunjire village was in terms of modern development. They had never seen a motor vehicle, a motorcycle or even a camera. They called them names they were accustomed to e.g. calling the motor car the stranger was driving on as a horse. This further explains how Baroka has contributed to lack of development in the village.
Question: What is the significance of The Lion and The Jewel in this modern time?
Answer: The play is significant in our modern time because:
1. There is still conflict between traditional practices and modernity. Dowry price is still effective in modern Africa. Some of us feel the dowry has no place in the modern world but there are those who insist it is a right practice that should be continued. Another consideration is polygamy. It is still practiced in Africa.
2. The lion has never ceased chasing after the Jewel for its own selfish reasons. We see in modern time, old people who are married and have children are still chasing after young women and defiling them for their own selfish desires or wants
3. Lastly, there are politicians and/or officials who hold a government position who are against development and are corrupt.
Question: What does the Odan tree symbolize?
Answer: It symbolizes authority. It is a place where social services are located e.g. schools and the market. A chief's office is usually situated at such a spot.
When Sidi, Lankule and other young people were acting the coming of the stranger to the village, Baroka was sitting near the Odan tree signifying his authoritative location.
Question: Which other titles can be given to the drama?
Answer: A different title can be 'The Chief and The Beautiful Daughter of Illunjire' or 'The Cunning Fox and The Jewel.'
Question: What is Sadiku's motive for gossiping about Baroka's impotence to Sidi in the play "The Lion and the Jewel?"
Answer: It was due to Baroka's appetite for young flesh blood (young women). As the eldest wife of Baroka, she didn't feel loved it wanted due to her old age.
Baroka was known to seduce young women. He would use Sadiku to convince young women whom Baroka's eyes fell on to convince them to accept Baroka's invitation to visit him or get married to him. It was dirty work that she did.
This is the main reason for rejoicing at Baroka's impotence together with Sidi.
Question: Sadiku is to blame for the turn of events in the lion and the jewel. What is your view?
Answer: In my opinion, Sadiku is partly to be blamed for the turn of events in the book. She rejoiced in the fact her husband, Baroka was impotent. She couldn't contain her joy by gossiping this fact, which we later learn was a lie from Baroka, to Sidi.
Sidi saw an opportunity of mocking Baroka, indirectly, pertaining to his impotence not realizing Baroka deceived his elder wife, Sadiku that he's impotent.
If Sadiku had kept quiet about it, Sidi would not have been deflowered. She would not have ended as Baroka's next wife.
As noted above, I can't fully blame her for the turn of events. Sidi is also to be blamed. She knew Baroka was cunning. Before the incident of Sidi ending up in Baroka's arms, she had told Sadiku that she knew Baroka very well. She knew every woman who visited Baroka at his place would end up as a wife or concubine. If she knew Baroka's cunning nature, why did she go to his place to mock him? Wasn't she slanderous? Didn't she enjoy demeaning people? Wasn't it as a result of her pride because she was the most beautiful girl in the village?
Question: Who are the main characters in the play, The Lion and The Jewel?
Answer: The main characters in the play are: Baroka, Sadiku, Sidi and Lankule.
Question: What happened to Baroka's first wife after marrying Sidi in the play: "The Lion and the Jewel"?
Answer: She still remained the wife of Baroka. In traditional polygamous families, a man wasn't required to divorce the eldest wife or some wives after marrying another woman. Of course, in the modern world a man can divorce the eldest wife and remain with the younger wives.
Before marrying Sidi, Baroka had two wives - Sidi the eldest and Favourite (her nickname) the youngest. Baroka just added Sidi in his list of wives.
The intention of Baroka marrying Sidi is not because she loved her but that she's was a threat to his authoritative power as the chief of Illunjire.
Lankule told Sadiku that she's is foolish by carrying out Baroka's request in convincing young women to get married to him. Also Sidi told Sadiku that she knows any woman who goes to Baroka's place either comes out of the place a concubine or a wife. Thus, there is a possibility Baroka has more than three wives.
Question: What is the reason why the play "The Lion and the Jewel", is written in the form of a
Answer: What is the purpose of comedy? It is to amuse. It is to provide some form of laughter. To ease tension.
Why do playwrights employ the element of comedy in their play? It is known behind a human lurks some evil intentions. Thus, a writer employs comedy in their writing to amuse people but with the intention of exposing vices or corrupt activities of individual e.g. Baroka.
For instance, I tell you that Jane drinks five cups of tea, a whole load of bread, a plate of stew at one go. I have exaggerated, amused or made you laugh but at the same time I have exposed the greediness of Jane.
Question: Is Sadiku a double dealer or a naïve faithful?
Answer: She is a double dealer. She knew very well her husband was using her to approach young girls her husband's eyes had fallen upon. Even though Lankule told her that she is used by Baroka, it is evident that when Baroka told her that he is impotent; she told Sidi. Her victorious dance around the tree while proclaiming men should watch out signifies she was happy to learn the impotence of Baroka. She couldn't have done this if she was naive.
Question: What makes the play "The Lion and The Jewel" a satirical text?
Answer: The satirical nature of the book is the unfolding of the events in the book.
We anticipated Sidi would be married to Lankule and not Baroka whom she despised.
Baroka lied to his eldest wife, Sadiku that he was impotent. Sadiku, happy at the good news of her husband's impotence rushes to tell Sidi.
Sidi doesn't think twice despite knowing the cunning nature of Baroka. She decides to visit Baroka with the intention of mocking his impotency.
What happens? Her mission to ridicule Baroka turns into mourning. Baroka has deflowered her.
Satire is the use of humor, sarcasm, irony, or ridicule with the intent of showing fallacy or vices committed by an individual, society, or government.
Which fallacy or vice was being criticized or disproved? The fallacy of Sadiku, a gossiper, and Sidi, a proud girl.
In the end, the writer points out that gossiping and being proud are vices that aren't acceptable in the society.
Question: What are the benefits of the play 'The Lion and The Jewel'?
Answer: 1. The play creates a picture of how the modern culture is at odd with traditional life. They never merge as companions but as enemies. They can never be united. Lankule has embraced modern life which cannot be said of Sidi. While Lankule is against paying dowry but Sidi insists if he wants to marry her, he should pay for it.
2. It shows how cunning, clever and wise old people are. You might ridicule them but you can't beat them at how much they know and the much they've learned in their years. Sidi thought she could ridicule Baroka not knowing that she was a trapped mice. Baroka knew how she would respond and had prepared how he would take advantage of her pride mixed with innocence.
3. It shows the extreme sides of modern culture versus tradition. Both of them have negative sides thus we should embrace the positive sides.
4. Vices have no place in the society. Pride, gossip, selfishness, corruption etc don't benefit individuals and society at large. We should embrace development that will be beneficial but not detrimental.
© 2019 Alianess Benny Njuguna
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on August 18, 2020:
Thank you, Sam for your feedback.
Sam on August 17, 2020:
This is extremely awesome. Thank you so much.
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on July 21, 2020:
@Adam, that is true.
Adam on July 21, 2020:
The Play Its Very Iteresting To Society
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on July 06, 2020:
@Eliya, I'm glad to be of service to you. Thanks for the blessings and good health. I also wish you the same.
Eliya Sinkalla on July 06, 2020:
Thanks for ur coparation God bress u and i wish u will have the extenal life.I wish good day and i wish all the best
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on July 01, 2020:
@Mary, thank you for your feedback.
mary beauty on July 01, 2020:
Thanks so much for this education
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on June 17, 2020:
@Shazy, thank you for your comment. I agree, this is one of the best books I have read.
shazy on June 17, 2020:
this was the good book
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on May 28, 2020:
Thank you, Abdu. I am indebted by your blessings, and encouraged to work hard to produce other works relayed to this one. May the Almighty bless you too.
Abdu Yusuph on May 27, 2020:
May the almighty God grant you a healthy life so we will be able to read more of your wonderful and helpful work like this.
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on May 03, 2020:
Thank you, Beatrice. I'm glad you found it helpful.
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on May 03, 2020:
Thank you Joshua for your appreciation.
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on May 03, 2020:
Thank you, Adom. I hope through this, it will enable students appreciate literature and know how to analyze books.
beatrice on May 03, 2020:
thank u the lesson
Joshua on April 27, 2020:
Wow tanks a lot
Adom clinton on April 27, 2020:
This is good .It will motivate we the students in other to get more understanding about literature.
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on February 27, 2020:
Thank you. I appreciate your feedback.
Gifty on February 26, 2020:
Thanks for the drama very interesting
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on February 02, 2020:
Thank you, Abigail. The play is indeed an interesting read.
Abigail Awuku on February 01, 2020:
it's very interesting
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on January 22, 2020:
Thank you Franc.
frank muyango on January 22, 2020:
its so good
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on December 01, 2019:
True, Lamim. It's one of the best plays ever written and quite comic and full of suspense.
LAMIM VANDY BO COMMERCIAL SENIOR SECODARY SCHOOL on November 30, 2019:
The play is very intresting thank to the author
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on November 30, 2019:
@Abubakarr, I concur with you that's it's one of the best plays ever written.
Alianess Benny Njuguna (author) from Nairobi, Kenya on November 30, 2019:
Yes, Emmanuel. It's one of the best plays I have ever read.
Abubakarr barrie on November 30, 2019:
One of the best plays very interesting
Emmanuel on November 30, 2019:
Very nice drama