The Battle Of Hastings:1066

Updated on May 22, 2016

The Bayeux Tapestry

A scene from the Bayeux Tapestry depicting Harold Godwinson being struck in the eye by an Norman arrow.
A scene from the Bayeux Tapestry depicting Harold Godwinson being struck in the eye by an Norman arrow. | Source

A Full Length Battle Of Hastings Documentary From The BBC

Introduction

In traditional accounts Harold Godwinson’s reputation was blackened as an oath breaker, while others viewed William as the villain. It is probably safe to say that both of these remarkably able and ruthless men had their good and bad sides. William was the illegitimate son of the Duke of Normandy and he had to defend his position as Duke, from 1035 onwards, against all comers and by the time he wished to invade England had carved out the most powerful duchy in France and north-western Europe, reducing both Brittany and Maine to vassal states. His influence was also predominant in Paris, where he dominated the young King Philip, and he had created a crucial ally in Flanders by marrying Matilda, the daughter of Duke Baldwin IV.

William’s claim to the English throne was very tenuous and lacked solid legal foundations. William had forced his rival, Harold Godwinson, in 1064 to swear an oath to leave Edward the Confessor’s throne to him. But Harold had no intention of honouring an oath forced upon him through blackmail and threats. As the Earl of Wessex, vice-regent under Edward since 1064, the elderly King’s brother in law, and with undoubted ability and good character, no man had a stronger or more legitimate claim to the throne of England. As a consequence when Edward died on the 5th January 1066, Harold was crowned in Westminster Abbey.

Stamford Bridge

A painting of the battle of Stamford Bridge showing Norwegian King Harold Hardrada being hit in the neck with an arrow.
A painting of the battle of Stamford Bridge showing Norwegian King Harold Hardrada being hit in the neck with an arrow. | Source

Commemorating Stamford Bridge

A plaque commemorating the battle located in Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire.
A plaque commemorating the battle located in Stamford Bridge, Yorkshire. | Source

Stamford Bridge

Harold was no fool and he knew that the ruthlessly ambitious William would use his ‘breaking’ of the ‘oath’ as a spurious excuse to invade. Until May there was no threat of invasion but during the early summer William unleashed an ambitious naval building programme to create an armada of 500 ships to carry his 6000 strong army (of Normans, Bretons, French and Flemings) across the Channel.

In response Harold mobilised his 4000 strong Royal Guard, known by their Scandinavian name of huscarls, and the territorial Saxon militia, the fyrd. The fyrd could, in theory and given time, resources and money, mobilise 15,000-20,000 men but during the summer of 1066 it probably numbered no more than 4000. Harold strung out his army of 8000 men along the south coast waiting for the Normans. Harold ordered the fyrd to be disbanded on the 8th September so that these men could return to their farms and gather in the all-important harvest. Unfortunately Harold had acted precipitously since news arrived that his brother, Earl Tostig, had joined forces with King Harald Hardrada of Norway and had invaded northern England. As Harold gathered his men and rushed north, the Saxon army of the north, led by the Earl of Northumbria were defeated on the 20th September at Fulford Gate. Five days later Harold surprised and annihilated the Norwegian invaders, slaying Tostig and Harald in the process, at Stamford Bridge.

A Full Length Documentary On William The Conqueror

William's Invasion

Back in France, William had been kept in Normandy by contrary winds. It was only on the 12th September that his armada could sail to St. Valery on the Somme River from where he intended to invade England. It was only a short day’s sailing across the Channel to England from this small port. The winds proved fickle and it was not until the 27th September that a southerly wind allowed William’s fleet to set sail northwards. He made landfall at Pevensey Bay the following morning and immediately set about gathering supplies, erecting his wooden forts (portable ones brought from Normandy in sections) and plundering the surrounding countryside for intelligence, food and fodder for his horses.

News that William had finally landed reached Harold at York on the 1st October amidst celebrations following Stamford Bridge. Harold rushed south picking up the fyrd and other troops along the way back to London. He left the capital on the 11th October heading south with an army of 6000-7000 troops. Many of his men rode to the battle on horses but would fight on foot. It was late in the afternoon on the 13th October that Harold reached Senlac Ridge, a location that he had, during the summer’s idleness, chosen as a possible battleground. His choice was based on his experience fighting the Welsh in 1064 and his familiarity with the Hastings region.

Senlac was a gently sloped ridge with a marsh area to the south around the Asten brook with its western and eastern flanks protected by deep ravines covered by thick brushwood. An even steeper ridge protected the northern side and would thus prevent the Normans attacking Harold’s army in the rear. William was rapidly informed about Harold’s movement and the arrival of his army. As the Saxons had arrived late in the day they would opt to rest and then make a lightning attack in the morning. But William would himself make the first move. His men were roused little after five in the morning and by 6 am the Normans were marching northwards to face Harold’s host. Before they set off William spoke to them telling them ‘You fight not merely for victory but also for survival.’

William’s claim may seem melodramatic but it was the naked truth; if they failed to defeat the Saxons on hostile English soil then they would probably not escape home to Normandy alive. William divided his army into three divisions that marched off with the Bretons as the vanguard, followed by the Franco-Flemish troops and then finally William leading his own Normans. William had chosen as the assembly point the Blackhorse Hill, on the Hastings to London road, where the Bretons arrived by 7:30 am. Here, out of sight of the Saxons, William left his baggage train and ordered his men to put on their chain mail hauberk armour which they had slung across the back of their horses. Unfortunately William put his hauberk on back to front, viewed by his superstitious men as a bad omen, but one that the cynical William simply laughed off. The Norman army marched north to take up position opposite the Saxons.

The Battlefield Today

The battlefield at Hastings from the north side.
The battlefield at Hastings from the north side. | Source

The Flemish Contingent

As well as Normans, William's army was bolstered by men hailing from Brittany (Bretons) and Flanders (Flemish).
As well as Normans, William's army was bolstered by men hailing from Brittany (Bretons) and Flanders (Flemish). | Source

Dispositions

William remained on a small knoll out of the way under the Papal banner and his own Norman leopard standards. From this position he could give orders and had a good view of the battlefield. He could observe how the Bretons under Count Alan of Brittany followed the Asten brook to take up position opposite Harold’s right flank. On William’s left, Count Eustace of Boulogne led his French and Flemish mercenaries to the bottom of Senlac Ridge facing the Saxon left. In the middle now stood the largest and most formidable of the divisions: William’s own Normans with auxiliaries from Anjou and Main. The archers and crossbowmen were at the front, then came the more heavily armed infantry and finally William’s mounted men-at-arms.

For his part, Harold had been aware that the invaders were on the move since 8 am when scouts reported that the Normans had left Blackhorse Hill. If the weather had been wetter, forcing William to postpone his attack for a few crucial hours, Harold might have had time to erect proper defences atop Senlac Ridge but there was no rain and the ground was firm. Harold’s army was roused and began to deploy along the ridge in a shield wall that stretched for 600 yards from the Asten brook to the junction of the roads to Hastings and Seddlescombe. The Saxon phalanx was 10 ranks deep with 2 feet of frontage for each of his warriors meaning that he had about 6300 men under his command. As William had placed his strongest division in the centre, so Harold followed suit, placing his more experienced huscarls in the centre. He placed his lighter armed and armoured men in the fyrd on the flanks, reinforced by a line of sharpened wooden stakes in front.

Reenacting The Battle

The Battle Begins

The 14th October, the Feast of St. Calixtus, dawned with brightening skies, a thin cloud cover and no indication of rain. 44 year old Harold faced 38 year old William. They were both gifted and experienced commanders in their prime leading two of the best armies in Western Europe, whose morale was superb: the Normans because of the prospect of conquest and loot, the Saxons because of the need to defend their homeland and their recent spectacular victory at Stamford Bridge. The Normans, who would have to make the first move, were 150 yards from, and 50 feet below, the Saxon shield wall. The Bretons were the least experienced of William’s troops and the weak link in his army. Harold’s equivalent were the fyrd and he trusted his shield wall to hold back the onrush of Norman cavalry, it was the first time a predominantly cavalry army was fighting infantry in this fashion. The outcome would decide the nature of medieval warfare thereafter.

Sharp trumpet blasts at 9am announced the beginning of the battle as William’s three divisions advanced up the slope of Senlac Ridge. The archers at the front showered the Saxons with arrows but to little effect- these either overshot their intended target or got lodged in the shield wall. The Saxon response with javelins, spears and axes proved far more effective against the onrushing Normans. As they had the gentler slope, the jittery Bretons were the first to smash into the shield wall and be repelled by the fierce resistance of the Saxons. Unnerved by this and the failure of the archers’ fire to make any impact upon the shield wall, the Bretons retreated by 10:30am. The retreat turned into a rout when the undisciplined fyrd militia left the safety of the shield wall to pursue the fleeing Bretons.

William's Attack

From his vantage point, William saw what was happening and with a curse he gathered part of the advancing Norman cavalry to assist the hard pressed Bretons. Riding into the fyrd with a charge of armoured knights, the Saxons were taken by surprise and, as lightly armoured infantry on open ground, they were cut down to the last man. William’s timely and ferocious cavalry charge had saved his army from disaster. Undoubtedly morale, especially among the defeated Bretons, was low. William recalled his other two divisions, halted for half an hour to regroup for another attack. This time the advance would be slower and more deliberate with the cavalry at the helm supported by archers and infantry following behind. William, taking personal charge, began the second attack at 11am. As the ground was slippery from the previous attack and littered with dead men and horses, progress was slow and hesitant.

Waves of attacks were launched against the shield wall for two hours. The Normans managed to make a few, small holes in the line but Harold and his commanders, including his brothers Gyrth (Earl of East Anglia) and Leofwine (Earl of Kent), steadied their men, plugged the gaps and showered the enemy with missiles. Harold’s Fighting Men standard and the Dragon Pennant of Wessex had been placed at the centre of the Saxon lines to encourage the defenders.

Near-Rout

Finally, by 1 pm, even the tough Flemish and French troops had had enough; they broke and began to flee from the ridge. Their commander Eustace grabbed the Papal standard, rallied his fleeing men and admonished them to return to the fight. William had already lost his Spanish charger and was fighting on foot when a rumour reached him that he was dead. Eustace gave the Duke a horse to mount and show himself to his men. William tore off his helmet so that his troops could recognise him and shouted: ‘Look at me well. I am still alive and by the grace of God shall yet prove victor!’ In reality William was losing the battle and he stared defeat in the face. Should the Saxons hold their line indefinitely then he would have been forced to retreat back to Hastings and return across the English Channel.

At 2 pm William called his men and returned them to his own lines below the ridge to re-group, rest and feed his hungry men. Harold used this respite to shorten his thinning line since Saxon losses, whatever the Normans may have thought, had been considerable and Harold was worried that he would run out of men to plug the ever rising number of holes in the line. But at least his men were more rested than the Normans who faced an ever more debris-ridden and cluttered slope as they prepared for a renewed attack.

Having lost a quarter of his army, or around 1800-1900 men, in five hours of almost continuous fighting, as well as a horrendous number of horses, cut down by the axe wielding Saxons, William saw that many of his men at arms were now fighting on foot. He decided that the whole army would attack in a single formation of all arms combined.

The third and final attack saw the entire army advance with archers at the back, from around 3pm, at a slow pace. It took the Normans an agonising half hour to reach the Saxon line. William had ordered the archers to shoot as high as possible while the infantry, dismounted knights and still mounted cavalry gave their utmost in attacking the shield wall. Finally the shield wall began to waver, break in places and then come apart under the Norman onslaught. Once a hole had been created in the wall the Norman cavalry poured through and, with their lances, swords and spears tore at the soft underbelly of the Saxon army. After 4 pm the breach became unstoppable and the fighting degenerated into group actions and hand to hand combat. This fighting went on until 5:30pm with undiminished ferocity as men fought for their lives. Then the fyrd began to retreat, fleeing into the woods while the huscarls fought on until they were overwhelmed and killed. A large group rallied around Harold’s standard as William joined his men on the ridge and had his third and final horse killed under him. Harold led his men with customary tenacity and courage, setting a personal example for his huscarls. But there were not enough of them to fight back the Normans. Gyrth and Leofwine, leading their own huscarls, were killed.

The final straw was the death of Harold himself. He was cut down by the Normans leading his few remaining huscarls. As darkness closed in on the battlefield, small groups of Saxons continued fighting until they could slip away into the surrounding countryside. They rallied and ambushed the pursuing Normans at Oakwood Gill, a small stream north of Senlac Ridge, and managed to cut down Eustace of Boulogne. That was small consolation for the death of Harold.

A Norman Monument To Harold

Battle Abbey was built on the site of the battle by the Normans. In the foreground is a plaque dedicated to Harold, which incidentally was erected on the site where he supposedly fell.
Battle Abbey was built on the site of the battle by the Normans. In the foreground is a plaque dedicated to Harold, which incidentally was erected on the site where he supposedly fell. | Source

Aftermath

Both sides had lost more than 2000 men, the Normans well over a third of their army. For William, it was a triumph against the odds that paved the way for him being crowned as King of England on the 25th December 1066. The Saxons would continue to resist their Norman invaders for decades after their defeat at Hastings, but were eventually subdued.

Questions & Answers

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment

      • profile image

        zoetropo 

        4 months ago

        Thank you James for a delightfully evocative article, based I gather on Norman accounts such as William of Poitiers’ (WP).

        Much has been learnt in the five years since it was published here. WP’s reliability has been questioned. For one thing, he was in Normandy when the battle occurred. Secondly, as Duke William’s chaplain he exaggerates the Duke’s prowess. Thirdly, his writings betray a deep-seated prejudice against Brittany: in one passage he rails against the prevalence of privately owned dairy farms instead of large estates manned by serfs, against the freedom of Breton men and women to marry as they please, and against the shockingly large number of armed men throughout the Duchy. We’d see these as signs of a prosperous country that valued personal liberty and was well-prepared to defend itself, but WP saw only a material and moral danger to the established feudal order.

        The notion, due to Norman propagandists, that Duke William had subjugated Brittany is entirely fanciful. The campaign of 1064 was an attempt to quell the rising threat posed by Duke Conan II of Brittany, William’s cousin, who had legitimate claims to Normandy, Anjou and England. In this William was allied with his uncle Count Eudon, whom Conan had replaced as Duke. Conan was besieging Dol, a key fortress inside Eudon’s domain. In combination, William and Eudon were able to drive Conan away, and if the Bayeux Tapestry is to be believed, compel Conan to cede control of the town of Dinan.

        However, Conan was undeterred. By late 1066, he had built an army strong enough to challenge his neighbours on their own turf. While William was in England, Conan attacked the border fortresses of northern Anjou, which had withstood everything William had been able to throw at them. Against Conan’s might, they swiftly fell. Then he turned northwards towards Maine and the road to Normandy. At Chateau Gontier, on 11 December 1066, Conan fell suddenly ill and died, it was said from poison administered via fresh riding gloves.

        Roger of Montgomery was defending Normandy, both he and his wife Mabel of Belleme were notorious poisoners, and the poisoned riding glove was an old trick of Roger’s father’s, so I’m inclined to blame them rather than Duke William who was far away and otherwise engaged.

        The BT tells an altogether different story of the battle of Hastings. It shows the Normans retreating as they hear the rumour of William’s death, only to be rallied by Bishop Odo of Bayeux before Eustace of Boulogne pointed out William on a fresh mount. (William rode to battle on a chestnut, but was now on a black horse.)

        So far, that’s almost the standard Norman account, but preceding this the BT shows the Breton cavalry, not the Normans, assailing Earls Leofwine and Gyrth, with Alan Rufus personally confronting Gyrth.

        This is important because the Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, a poetic account of the battle commissioned by the family of the Count of Ponthieu, whose soldiers had been in the forefront of the assault on King Harold, describes the dismounted William being attacked by Earl Gyrth. Supposedly William defeated Gyrth in single combat.

        However, Domesday Book tells us not only that William and Alan divided most of Gyrth’s manors between them but also that the most valuable of these went to very minor barons such as the soldier that the BT shows stabbing Gyrth in the back with the point of a sword. I suspect these were the survivors of William’s bodyguard, desperate in his defence.

        The way the BT tells us, it was the distraction caused by the charge through English ranks by Alan and his men, most of whom and their horses were slain in the effort, that saved William. Surely this was the event that Wace of Jersey was referring to when he wrote that “Alan and his men caused the English great damage”.

        We know from Orderic Vitalis that Alan Rufus was subsequently appointed captain of the royal household knights and that his fame was great throughout France.

        Alan is a very interesting character. He retained English men (and women) as lords in preference to Normans, won the love of Harold’s daughter Gunhildr, allied with the English to defeat a countrywide Norman baronial rebellion in 1088, and built an English fleet and army for the invasion of Normandy in 1091.

        The reverse Conquest was so popular that crowds lined the Norman roads to cheer it on. King Philip I of France was so alarmed that he urgently pleaded to Pope Urban II who intervened in person to negotiate peace.

        In 1089 Alan’s brother Count Stephen of Treguier opened the first English Parliament, at York.

        Alan innovated castle and abbey design, built the great market and port of Boston which grew to rival London, and obtained a free trade agreement for all his tenants and employees that remained law into the reign of Charles I.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much ata! I very much appreciate your kind words!!

      • ata1515 profile image

        ata1515 

        5 years ago from Buffalo, New York.

        Great job getting the Hub of the day! It's nice to see a history hub getting the front page, especially from one of our most talented writers!

        Great article too. Hastings changed the entire world, like a ripple flowing out from England.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        No problem at all, glad to have been of help to you. You must be having a whale of time studying the early Medieval Period. Thanks for popping by.

      • mudpiemagnet profile image

        mudpiemagnet 

        5 years ago

        Thanks for the terrific article and the documentary link. We are studying this period of history presently, and this has been really helpful.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Hi Chuck, thanks for popping by. It's interesting how certain dates become etched in the collective memory of a nation. As a Brit, of course 1066 is among them, but there's also 1215- the signing of the Magna Carta, 1415- Agincourt, 1588- the Spanish Armada, 1805- Trafalgar, 1815- Waterloo, 1940- Battle of Britain. There's loads of more of course, but those are the ones that spring to mind.

        Thanks for the follow and the fan mail! Appreciate it!

      • Chuck profile image

        Chuck Nugent 

        5 years ago from Tucson, Arizona

        While I am an American, my Father instilled an interest in history in me when I was first learning to read. When I became a teenager he had taken and interest in the historian and writer Thomas B. Costain and frequently talked about Costain's series of books on medieval English history which, while non-fiction, read like novels.

        I read some of the Costain books my Father had and from these and other books along with two college courses in English history made me familiar with the battle of Hastings. Mention 1066 and I instantly think of the Battle of Hastings just as 1492 is the discovery by Columbus and 1776 is American independence.

        You have written a great Hub which is a very readable and informative account of the Battle of Hastings. Thanks!

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much, yes it does make me feel good to know that a history hub has been recognised by the HP staff. Hopefully more of us will gain the recognition that we deserve.

      • UnnamedHarald profile image

        David Hunt 

        5 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa

        Congratulations, JKenny! A history hub getting "Hub of the Day" warms the cockles of all us history hubbers' hearts. Truthfully, this is a great piece and you certainly earned the accolade. Just think how different England, Britain, Europe and the world might be if William had been defeated in that close-run battle. Great job, James.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Oh cool, thanks for that.

      • TravelinJack profile image

        Jack Baumann 

        5 years ago from St. Louis, Missouri

        Basically the traditional account of the Normans using only the kike shield is over represented

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Hi Travelin Jack, thanks for popping by. Wow, that certainly sounds interesting. How did it go?

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much Lisa.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much, appreciate you taking the time to drop by.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Interesting to hear that you've seen the Bayeux tapestry. I remember reading recently that a group of ladies in France actually managed to complete the tapestry- 1000 years after it was started. Thanks for popping by.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much Teresa, really appreciate it!

      • TravelinJack profile image

        Jack Baumann 

        5 years ago from St. Louis, Missouri

        Great hub! Love the outline, info, and pictures. I actually just had a seminar at Cardiff University debating the different usages and significance of the kike vs the round shields.

      • Lisa A Kessler profile image

        Lisa 

        5 years ago from Los Angeles, California

        It's a outstanding history hub. It seems like you've spent a plenty of time to write this hub.

      • profile image

        khmohsin 

        5 years ago

        JKenny, You have done the great work, I really love to read about real history. Your hub is so interesting, thanks for sharing your priceless knowledge.

      • Teresa Coppens profile image

        Teresa Coppens 

        5 years ago from Ontario, Canada

        Very detailed and yet interesting article. You have such an engaging way of writing James that draws the reader into your hubs! Congratulations on hub of the day. It is so very well deserved!

      • mperrottet profile image

        Margaret Perrottet 

        5 years ago from San Antonio, FL

        I saw the bayeux tapestry while staying in the little town of bayeux. It was so interesting, as is this excellent hub. Congratulations on Hub of the Day. I'm glad to see one of your hubs win this since you write such well researched and well written hubs. Voted up and interesting.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much, appreciate it.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much Zia, really appreciate it.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much Dana, nice to hear from you again. :)

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Yes I agree, it just goes to show how the smallest of factors can have the biggest of consequences for the future. Makes you wonder what kind of place England would be today if it had remained under Saxon rule.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much- yes I think so too, although I have to say that it was a total surprise.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much.

      • aziza786 profile image

        Zia Uddin 

        5 years ago from Birmingham

        This piece of history has always been one of my favorites. Interesting to see that Harold defeated the Norwegians at Stamford Bridge. Lot of other interesting information also. Great work, voted up and keep it up.

      • DanaTeresa profile image

        Dana Strang 

        5 years ago from Ohio

        Congrats on your hub of the day! I have no idea why, but this was one of my favorite battles to learn about in school. This is a nice treatment of it. Always a pleasure to read your articles. :)

      • Music-and-Art-45 profile image

        Music-and-Art-45 

        5 years ago from USA, Illinois

        This is a great hub of the day. The Battle of Hastings was fascinating. I think Harold wore his men out from the previous Stamford Bridge battle and then covering the large distance between that and Hastings. If Stamford Bridge hadn't happened I believe the outcome at Hastings may have been different since Harold was winning until the end, where his army seems to have tired out. Voting up and sharing.

      • ParadigmEnacted profile image

        ParadigmEnacted 

        5 years ago

        This is already very well documented.

      • Kathleen Cochran profile image

        Kathleen Cochran 

        5 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia

        Very interesting - especially as an HOD. Nice to see some history win this prize. Congrats!

      • Asp52 profile image

        Andrew Stewart 

        5 years ago from England

        Great hub and excellent research. A deserving hub of the day, I have voted up and intend to share. Thank you

      • James-wolve profile image

        Tijani Achamlal 

        5 years ago from Morocco

        Congrats .It is a very interesting and fascinating. Well-written.Thanks for this information.Up

      • Tom Schumacher profile image

        Tom Schumacher 

        5 years ago from Huntington Beach, CA

        Well written! This part of history is always fascinating to learn more about. Thumbs up.

      • CMHypno profile image

        CMHypno 

        5 years ago from Other Side of the Sun

        Congrats on your Hub of the Day! Very well deserved, you write excellent and interesting history hubs.

      • CZCZCZ profile image

        CZCZCZ 

        5 years ago from Oregon

        Very interesting hub. Lots of great information and love all the videos and pictures that are included.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much NMLady, appreciate you taking the time to stop by and comment.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much wabash annie. Really appreciate it.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much Eddy.

      • NMLady profile image

        NMLady 

        5 years ago from New Mexico & Arizona

        A nice read. Well written to the timeline and very understandable. History is such a wonderful story! Voted up.

      • wabash annie profile image

        wabash annie 

        5 years ago from Colorado Front Range

        Appreciate your very informative article. I have always believed that Harold should have remained king, however.

      • Eiddwen profile image

        Eiddwen 

        5 years ago from Wales

        What a wonderful history lesson;I vote up,across and share all around.

        Eddy.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Very true Mazzy, in fact the 'English' Monarchy continued to speak French for several centuries after the Norman victory. Meaning that, effectively a French Royal Family ruled over a Saxon population. Thanks for popping by.

      • Mazzy Bolero profile image

        Mazzy Bolero 

        5 years ago from the U.K.

        Thanks for giving us such a full account. The world would be a very different place if the Normans had lost. Most people don't even realize that Harold was the last English king who was actually English!

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much scarytaff.

      • scarytaff profile image

        Derek James 

        5 years ago from South Wales

        Very well researched and an excellent read. Well done JKenny. Voted up and interesting.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much Chris.

      • JKenny profile imageAUTHOR

        James Kenny 

        5 years ago from Birmingham, England

        Thank you very much Torri, I really appreciate you taking the time to read and comment.

      • christopheranton profile image

        Christopher Antony Meade 

        5 years ago from Gillingham Kent. United Kingdom

        Well told James. It was a very close run thing as well.

      • torrilynn profile image

        torrilynn 

        5 years ago

        jkenny, i really love the history that you have included in your article. its seems to me to be very accurate and very informative. thanks. voted up.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)