The Effect Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales Had on History

Updated on November 23, 2018
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Angela is an avid reader who studied English Literature in college. She has a passion for the written word and loves literature.

Canterbury Tales is set on a pilgrimage of many.
Canterbury Tales is set on a pilgrimage of many. | Source

Geoffrey Chaucer is one of the most noted writers of the fourteenth century. Though Chaucer wrote many things, mostly poetry, his greatest work was the extensive Canterbury Tales. It began as a listing of people on a pilgrimage to Canterbury and then continued with each person telling a tale or story along the way. He details each person’s occupation, personality, and clothing with historical accuracy and societal perspective. Due to this, Canterbury Tales has become an important English collection of writings that all historians should be familiar with, because Chaucer's works give great insight into the fourteenth century’s reflections of social change, religious controversies, and gender expectations.

Photo of Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer was born into the Middle Class, but was very aware of all the classes.
Geoffrey Chaucer was born into the Middle Class, but was very aware of all the classes. | Source

Chaucer's Background

Chaucer was born into Great Britain’s middle class in or around 1343 but then placed in an aristocratic home as a page. This allowed Chaucer to understand the affairs of upper class-and middle-class, as well as their relationship to the lower-class. Because of this, he had the ability to uniquely write about those in all social ranks with humor and accuracy, while also reflecting the society’s changes. He was also very well educated, which was not typical of his era. Especially having been born into the middle-class.

The Canterbury Tales is set up so that each pilgrim tells a story on the way to Canterbury. Although he started it around 1387, he did not finish it before his death in the 1400s. Although unfinished, many of the tales were complete and remains one of the world's greatest writings of all time.

From the beginning of Canterbury Tales, he shows how the younger generation was beginning to reject the old way of life. For instance, in the General Prologue, he defines the knight as a “true, perfect, noble,” knight. Then Chaucer contrasts the knight to the knight’s son, who is following in his father’s footsteps. Though he is training for the same profession, he focuses on such issues as singing and poetry, rather than heroism and integrity as his father did. This reflected the change historians will see from the medieval idea of knighthood to a society that is more similar to modern times. This also shows how literature and poetry would become an important aspect of England’s society during this time, further reflecting the changes in knighthood. Knighting lost much of its importance in England during the century before this was written and its idea of chivalry.

Characters of the Canterbury Tales

The Canterbury Tales was of a very mixed group of people, which is why it is a good source of knowledge about the time period then.
The Canterbury Tales was of a very mixed group of people, which is why it is a good source of knowledge about the time period then. | Source

Representative of Role Changing within Society

Not only does Canterbury Tales reflect the way in which societies roles were changing within the elite, but also the ideas regarding religion during the fourteenth century. Canterbury Tales is about a pilgrimage. This in and of itself addresses the importance of religion to England’s society during this time. Jestice defines pilgrimages as a journey that Christians took to the tomb of a Saint. Many of those on this pilgrimage were members of the clergy. This gives the modern historian a better understanding of how those who worked within the church were viewed and also what was valued within these men and women during this time.

Robin, the Miller, with the bagpipe

Robin, the miller was one character from the Canterbury Tales.
Robin, the miller was one character from the Canterbury Tales. | Source

Chaucer's View of Religion

Chaucer’s kindest depiction was that of the parson. The parson was considered to be the ideal clergyman during medieval times. He was holy in his thought, intelligent, as well as visited with the sick and tried to bring souls to God. These attributes ascribed to the parson shows the historian what was valued most within the clergy during the fourteenth century. On the other hand, Chaucer denounces many of the clergymen, which reveals that even in the fourteenth century there was hypocrisy within the church. For instance, the monk was considered reckless. Though recklessness is not sinful, the fact that Chaucer relayed this information about the monk as a negative trait reveals that during this time, a clergyman was expected to be prudent and level-headed. Chaucer also felt it was important to describe his sleeves as being fur-lined. This was significant because Chaucer was revealing that the monk was more in love with money than with God. Through this description, Chaucer suggests that not all the “men of faith” were as pious as the parson was described.

Immediately after the description of the monk, Chaucer writes about a nun. Her description not only reflects how the religious figures of that time would have been viewed but also women in general. The nun was very sensitive and cried easily; even if she were to see, “a (mouse) caught in a trappe.” This reveals that even within the fourteenth century, women were viewed much like they are today, as being the more emotional sex. Though much like the monk, she too, was caught up in money, for she wore a “brooch of gold.” Nuns, just like all clergymen, were expected to reject such ideas of being wealthy. This again indicates that not all people of faith were as virtuous as expected, revealing to the historian possible negative feelings from laypeople towards the clergy.

A Woman from the Canterbury Tales

Chaucer had a very modern view of woman and woman's rights.
Chaucer had a very modern view of woman and woman's rights. | Source

Early Feminism Ideas

Through Chaucer’s images, the historian can see how the views of women were beginning to transform during the fourteenth century. This change would eventually cause England to shift away from being a completely patriarchal society. The Norton Anthology points out that there were many anti-feminist writings that the medieval church fostered. Women during this period were expected to be wholesome and submissive to their husbands. Chaucer had written a character in order to oppose these writings.

His first hint to this change is during the General Prologue as he writes about the Wife of Bath. She has had five husbands plus extra-marital affairs in her youth. Though this was not accepted during medieval times, Chaucer’s mentioning of such a woman shows that England’s society began to shift in the way they viewed sexuality. This shows that sex was no longer something that only men sought. Though Chaucer did not intend for a historian to believe that this was common; he did want to show that there were women who had affairs as well as men.

Chaucer further represents this shift, when it is the Wife of Bath’s turn to share a story. During her story, she conveys her feelings towards who should rule a house. Being a very feminist woman, she felt that responsibility should lie with the wife. This idea during the medieval time period would have been considered outrageous. Though, the fact that she was able to tell this story, presents the idea that a woman was able to more openly share their thoughts, without complete denunciation. Also, it reflected that women were beginning to have their own identities with at least minimal influence in society.

Though Chaucer was merely one man, and could only reflect his beliefs and ideas, his writings in Canterbury Tales is an important work to continue to be studied today. Through his fictional analysis of people from all areas of society, it better educates the historian during this time frame. Canterbury Tales not only reflects the ways in which the fourteenth century was evolving, but it also was setting the stage for what England would become, and eventually the United States. Therefore, The Canterbury Tales should be considered an important historical document.

Works Cited

Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Canterbury Tales." In The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages, by Afred, Simpson, James David, 218-315. New York: Norton and Company, 2006.

David, Alfred, and James Simpson. The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages. Eighth. Vol. A. New York: Norton and Company, 2006.

Jestice, Phillis G. Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004.

Questions & Answers

  • How many pilgrims traveled with Geoffrey Chaucer in The Canterbury Tales?

    This is a very hard question to answer, as the story is inconsistent. You will get answers anywhere from between 29 and 34 pilgrims. The story starts with Chaucer and the host, and then 29 others join. Some say 29 because Chaucer says 29 join. Others say 30 because they join him. Others say 31, because they say he was referring to them joining him and the host. If you read the list of people, it lists 30 people, not 29, which brings the total up to 32. Later a Canon and his Yeoman join, which brings the total up two more. Depending on what total you first came up with, it means that the final total for the pilgrimage is between 31-34. I believe the best answer is 33. Chaucer (1) + the host (1) + 29 more (29) + the canon and his Yeoman (2) = 33. Although as you can see the true total is up for debate.

© 2010 Angela Michelle Schultz


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    • profile image


      15 months ago

      he is just too great 👍.

    • wordswithlove profile image

      Neetu M 

      5 years ago from USA

      Angela, I read Chaucer about 30 years ago and I still remember the wife of Bath and the strong character she exhibits. Thank you for reminding me of her, of Chaucer and oh, medieval English it is written in! :)

    • profile image


      5 years ago

      Chaucer takes a prominent place among the writers ,the characters in the Canterbury tales represent only fourteen century but they are also representing twenty first century.I am an oriental boy.Iam accompanying these characters every now and then.I pay tribute to Chaucer that he has portrayed these characters in fourteen century.

    • profile image


      5 years ago

      CHAUCer deserves 1st place among all writers up to the present. i hardly read abt him b4 bt nw i undrestood hw genius he was. hatts off.

    • angela_michelle profile imageAUTHOR

      Angela Michelle Schultz 

      7 years ago from United States

      Thank you, I quite enjoy them myself. I should read them again.

    • EuroCafeAuLait profile image

      Anastasia Kingsley 

      7 years ago from Croatia, Europe

      Hi Angela Michelle!

      The Canterbury Tales made a huge impact on me as well, and it was something I returned to after college to read and then later listen to on CD during my daily commute to revisit the wonderful - you guessed it! - wife of Bath. Voted up up up and across across across....

    • angela_michelle profile imageAUTHOR

      Angela Michelle Schultz 

      8 years ago from United States

      Yes it is :)

    • Shahid Bukhari profile image

      Shahid Bukhari 

      8 years ago from My Awareness in Being.

      Thanks for correcting, what I always thought was Titled

      a "Prologue" or, "Ode, to Canterbury Tales ..."

      Its, some heck of a difficulte writinge ya se.

    • angela_michelle profile imageAUTHOR

      Angela Michelle Schultz 

      8 years ago from United States

      I had just as much trouble finding this information as yourself. Good luck! Hence why this article is so much shorter than many of my other articles.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      i am a student and my teacher assinged me to do a report on geoffrey chaucer and i am supposed to find his contributions and stuff and i cant find it!!!! but hes a gr8 person anyway :)

    • angela_michelle profile imageAUTHOR

      Angela Michelle Schultz 

      9 years ago from United States

      Oh goodie, it's reciprocal! LOL. I do find the subject very fascinating. I on occasion add to this hub. A sentence here, a sentence there.

    • Trish_M profile image

      Tricia Mason 

      9 years ago from The English Midlands

      Very interesting!

      It's a fascinating subject, I think.

      I have added a link to my hub, angela_michelle ~ and thank you for referencing mine :)

    • angela_michelle profile imageAUTHOR

      Angela Michelle Schultz 

      9 years ago from United States

      Rabbit, very interesting, I did not realize that. I guess if I would have thought about it, I would have assumed as much. I'm not sure if he was defending women or not, but I do sincerely believe he had a strong respect for women, and a good sense of humor.

    • profile image


      9 years ago

      Jus to add a bit:It was only recently that the literary works of Chaucer became a feminist critique. During the Middle Ages literature was never expected to be analyzed from the woman’s perspective, nor did writers make special efforts to represent women, or their womanhood. However, in the Canterbury Tales through the marriage theme there were elements suggesting that Chaucer did highlight some of the plights felt by the women in the Medieval Ages, but were his highlights strong enough to say he were defending women?

    • angela_michelle profile imageAUTHOR

      Angela Michelle Schultz 

      9 years ago from United States

      Thanks, I really like his work!

    • iantoPF profile image

      Peter Freeman 

      9 years ago from Pen-Bre, Cymru/Wales

      A great introduction to Chaucer and a well thought out analysis of his views. Excellent work.

    • angela_michelle profile imageAUTHOR

      Angela Michelle Schultz 

      9 years ago from United States

      Thank you so much!

    • changtian profile image


      9 years ago




    • angela_michelle profile imageAUTHOR

      Angela Michelle Schultz 

      9 years ago from United States

      Oh I agree! :) I think Chaucer had a definite understanding of the power and influence of woman despite his era!

    • habee profile image

      Holle Abee 

      9 years ago from Georgia

      Chaucer was a genius! My favorite CT character has always been the wife of Bath. She's a hoot!


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