Captain George Lowther's Pirate Code Articles


Who was George Lowther?

George Lowther was a captain who was an active pirate from 1721 to 1723. In 1721, before he was elected captain, he was the first mate on a slave ship named Gambia Castle. He sailed under captain Charles Russel. Lowther and his crewmates became frustrated after being docked on the coast of Gambia, Africa awaited a cargo of slaves for several months. Many of the men were suffering from dysentery, malaria, or scurvy and wanted to leave. They secretly boarded the ship leaving the captain on shore. Once they escaped, the crew elected Lowther as their new captain and decided to become pirates as it was more profitable and free!

With a new mission, the ship was renamed Delivery. They then wrote up a list of rules, which are often referred to as the Articles or Code of Conduct. One reason, why the articles that George Lowther wrote are often noted, is because it is one of the few articles written by a pirate captain that historians still have today.

He was a very active and "successful" pirate terrorizing the Caribbeans and Grand Cayman Islands. His days as a pirate ended when they decided to dock to repair the ship on the shore of Blanquilla Island in what is currently part of Venezuela and were spotted by a merchant ship. This caused Lowther and his crew to scatter. Although Lowther was never accounted for, many suspect he may have shot himself to avoid imprisonment by his captors.


The Pirate Code Articles as set by George Lowther (reworded with modern language)

  • The Captain is to have two full Shares. The master gets one and a half share; the doctor, gunner, mate, and boatswain receive one and a quarter share.
  • If a person is found guilty of any unlawful weapon, of striking or abusing another shall receive the punishment that the Captain or majority finds fit.
  • Any person who is found to be guilty of cowardice during a moment of engagement shall receive the punishment that the Captain or majority feels is appropriate.
  • If a person is found in possession of gold, jewels, silver, etc. Originally found on board of any prize (ship they have plundered) that is in the value of more than a piece of eight and does not hand over to the Quarter-Master within 24 hours, they shall suffer from a punishment set by the Captain or majority.
  • A person that is found guilty of gaming or defrauding another up to a shilling, will sustain a punishment that the Captain or majority finds fit.
  • If a person loses a limb during an engagement (battle) then they will receive one hundred and fifty pounds sterling and will be allowed to remain with the Company as long as he finds fit.
  • Good quarters will be given when called for.
  • The man who sees a sail first, will receive the best pistol or small-arm on board.

What is a Pirate Code?

The code of conduct, which is notoriously known as the Pirate Code or Rules of the Sea, was a necessary document that captains wrote in order to rule their crew. Many movies and books will mock the pirate code showing pirates who do not honor the code, but the truth is that it was used and often followed better than on board non-pirate ships. Many chose the pirate life because they wanted to be treated better than they were when they had previously worked on naval and merchant ships. Many were tired of being abused by their harsh commanders.

All pirates in order to join the crew had to "go on the account," which meant they signed the articles and declared membership and loyalty to a particular group of pirates. This contract was binding and if betrayed was punished harshly.


What Do Pirate Codes Say?

Pirate codes declared many rules that the captain wanted to establish while aboard their ship. First and foremost it declared who was voted Captain. Piracy usually was more democratic than most other ships, and the crew often voted on who should be in charge. They also often decided together what the punishment would be of a wayward pirate. Some of the rules set forth included:

Forbidden Activities:

  • No gambling (They did not want there to be fighting on deck; therefore, asked that any gambling be done while on land.)
  • There was to be no hiding any gains you may have found from captain or crew, some even requested no secrets be kept from the crew. Keeping secrets was often punished by marooning.
  • The rules surrounding the consumption of alcohol, to prevent drunken displays that would cause strife among the crew.
  • Many captains requested that no women or boys were to be on the ship. Some felt women were bad luck to the crew. Others may have wanted to keep the romance off the deck.
  • No fighting to occur on deck, all quarrels were to end on shore.
  • Some would even request no smoking on board without a cap to the pipe and even carrying of candles, in fear of setting fires.


  • Rules were set upon how much each crew-mate should receive after a plunder.
  • They would also have a set compensation for loss of limbs, some would even set value based on what limb was lost. The surgeon on board may even make "prosthetic limbs" out of wood found on board, which would make the pirate more comfortable while on the ship. This is why pirates are often viewed as having a hook hand or peg leg.
  • Members on board are allowed their own provisions such as clothes and a place to sleep.


  • Rules were set forth stating how and who gets to decide on a punishment if there are any rule breakers.
  • Punishments included marooning and lashing. Walking the plank was more folklore and most likely not actually ever used.

Battle Rules:

  • Strict adherence regarding upkeep of weaponry was expected, to prevent loss of life during a battle.
  • Parlay was a real code that temporarily protected someone on an enemy ship until the audience of the enemy captain was present.

As rules in any type of life, these were meant for the protection of all those on board. Very few Pirate Codes have been found, fortunately historians were lucky enough to still have Captain Lowther's original articles.

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© 2013 Angela Michelle

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Comments 8 comments

Perspycacious profile image

Perspycacious 23 months ago from Today's America and The World Beyond

The lawless had codes too. Does that mean there is hope for ISIS? Hardly I suspect. Fine Hub. Happy Thanksgiving to you and yours.

DzyMsLizzy profile image

DzyMsLizzy 3 years ago from Oakley, CA

Well done, and most interesting.

As far as the "scattering" of Lowther and his crew--more speculation as to whether the "threat" from the merchant ship might possibly have been that the former captain of the "Gambia Castle" might have found passage thereon, and recognized his old ship?

Voted up and interesting.

MJennifer profile image

MJennifer 3 years ago from Arizona

Pirate etiquette: what a great concept! The rules make sense and show that Captan Lowther had some good management savvy. Very interesting!

Congratulations on HOTD, too !

Best -- MJ

Thamus profile image

Thamus 3 years ago from Everywhere

"... like they say, 'there is no honor among thieves'."

"They" do not say any such thing – quite the opposite in fact. The common idiom states that "there is honor among thieves", which makes more sense since it observes that even among society's outlaws, there are rules and codes that make their lives easier when dealing with each other. The Italian mafia had particularly strong and formal codes of honor, as indeed did the pirate ships.

Buildreps profile image

Buildreps 3 years ago from Europe

Great article that appeals to the imagination! Your writing skills are awesome. I read your story twice. I don't understand the end of George Lowthers short career: "...what is currently part of Venezuela and were spotted by a merchant ship. This caused Lowther and his crew to scatter." What was so threatening about a merchant ship? Or did the merchants "betray" the location of the ship under repair?

angela_michelle profile image

angela_michelle 3 years ago from United States Author

They were actually a lot more civil often on board than the merchant ships, that is why the pirate life was often sought after.

teaches12345 profile image

teaches12345 3 years ago

I learned much from your sharing on pirate rules. I find it funny that they banned gambling from the ship, seems to be too decent a rule for a pirate.

Eric Calderwood profile image

Eric Calderwood 3 years ago from USA

Very informative hub. It's funny how we romanticize pirates in movies and stories. After all, they were thieves and murderers. George Lowther may have had a code, but it was just rules for him and his fellow criminals. And, like they say, "there is no honor among thieves."

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    Angela Michelle (angela_michelle)942 Followers
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    Angela loves history and feels it is essential to our future to know the past. Without it, we as a country are destined to repeat the past.

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