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Captain George Lowther's Pirate Code Articles

Angela loves history and feels it is essential to our future to know the past—or else we're destined to repeat it.


Who Was George Lowther?

Captain George Lowther pirated the seas from 1721 to 1723. In 1721, before becoming a captain, he sailed as the first mate under captain Charles Russel on a slave ship named Gambia Castle. Lowther and his crewmates became frustrated after being docked awaiting a cargo of enslaved people on the coast of Gambia in Africa. Many men aboard the ship suffered from dysentery, malaria, and scurvy. After several months of waiting, they secretly boarded the ship, leaving the captain onshore.

Once they escaped, the crew elected Lowther as their new captain. Wanting a more prosperous and free life, they decided to venture the seas as pirates. With a new mission, they renamed the ship Delivery. As was a custom for pirates, they wrote up a new list of rules, referred to as the Articles or Code of Conduct. George Lowther's articles have been priceless for historians, as they are one of the few documents from pirates that are still around today.

Lowther was a very active and "successful" pirate terrorizing the Caribbeans and Grand Cayman Islands. His days as a pirate ended when they decided to dock to repair the ship. While on the shore of Blanquilla Island, currently part of Venezuela, they were spotted by a merchant ship, causing George and his crew to scatter. Lowther was never accounted for, although many historians suspect he may have shot himself to avoid imprisonment by his captors.


The Pirate Code Articles As Set by George Lowther (reworded with modern language)

  • The Captain is to have two full Shares. The master gets one and a half share; the doctor, gunner, mate, and boatswain receive one and a quarter share.
  • If a person is found guilty of any unlawful weapon, of striking or abusing another shall receive the punishment that the Captain or majority finds fit.
  • Any person who is found to be guilty of cowardice during a moment of engagement shall receive the punishment that the Captain or majority feels is appropriate.
  • If a person is found in possession of gold, jewels, silver, etc. Originally found on board of any prize (ship they have plundered) that is in the value of more than a piece of eight and does not hand over to the Quarter-Master within 24 hours, they shall suffer from a punishment set by the Captain or majority.
  • A person that is found guilty of gaming or defrauding another up to a shilling, will sustain a punishment that the Captain or majority finds fit.
  • If a person loses a limb during an engagement (battle) then they will receive one hundred and fifty pounds sterling and will be allowed to remain with the Company as long as he finds fit.
  • Good quarters will be given when called for.
  • The man who sees a sail first, will receive the best pistol or small-arm on board.

What Is a Pirate Code?

The code of conduct, notoriously known as the Pirate Code or Rules of the Sea, was a necessary document that captains wrote to rule their crew. Many movies and books will mock the pirate code showing pirates who do not honor the code, but the truth is that it was used and often followed better than onboard non-pirate ships. Many chose the pirate life because they wanted to be treated better than when they had previously worked on naval and merchant ships. Many were tired of being abused by their harsh commanders.

To join the crew, all pirates had to "go on the account," which meant they signed the articles and declared membership and loyalty to a particular group of pirates. This contract was binding and, if betrayed, was punished harshly.


What Do Pirate Codes Say?

Pirate codes declared many rules that the captain wanted to establish while aboard their ship. First and foremost, it reported who the captain was. Piracy usually was more democratic than most other ships, and the crew often voted on who should be in charge. They also often decided together what the punishment of a wayward pirate was. Some of the rules set forth included:

Forbidden Activities:

  • No gambling (They did not want there to be fighting on deck; therefore, gambling was only allowed on land.)
  • There was to be no hiding any gains you may have found from the captain or crew. Some even requested there to be no secrets from the crew. Keeping secrets was often punished by marooning.
  • Rules surrounding the consumption of alcohol prevented drunken displays that would cause strife among the crew.
  • Many captains requested that no women or boys be on the ship. Some felt women were bad luck to the crew. Others may have wanted to keep the romance off the deck.
  • No fighting was to occur on deck. All quarrels were to end onshore.
  • Some would even request no smoking onboard without a cap to the pipe and carrying candles in fear of setting fires.


  • There were rules regarding how much each crew-mate should receive after a plunder.
  • They would also have a set compensation for loss of limbs. Some would even set values based on what limb was lost. The surgeon on board may even make "prosthetic limbs" out of wood found on board, which would make the pirate more comfortable while on the ship. Because prosthesis was common, hook hands and peg legs are often in depictions of pirates.
  • Members on board are allowed their own provisions, such as clothes and a place to sleep.


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Read More From Owlcation

  • Rules were set forth, stating how and who gets to decide on a penalty if there are any rule breakers.
  • Punishments included marooning and lashing. Walking the plank was more folklore and most likely not ever used.

Battle Rules:

  • There was strict adherence regarding the upkeep of weaponry to prevent loss of life during a battle.
  • Parlay was an actual code that temporarily protected someone on an enemy ship until the audience of the enemy captain was present.

As for rules in any life, these were for the protection of all those on board. Very few Pirate Codes have been found. Fortunately, historians were lucky enough to still have Captain Lowther's original articles.


© 2013 Angela Michelle Schultz


Demas W Jasper from Today's America and The World Beyond on November 26, 2014:

The lawless had codes too. Does that mean there is hope for ISIS? Hardly I suspect. Fine Hub. Happy Thanksgiving to you and yours.

Liz Elias from Oakley, CA on September 29, 2013:

Well done, and most interesting.

As far as the "scattering" of Lowther and his crew--more speculation as to whether the "threat" from the merchant ship might possibly have been that the former captain of the "Gambia Castle" might have found passage thereon, and recognized his old ship?

Voted up and interesting.

Marcy J. Miller from Arizona on September 29, 2013:

Pirate etiquette: what a great concept! The rules make sense and show that Captan Lowther had some good management savvy. Very interesting!

Congratulations on HOTD, too !

Best -- MJ

Thamus from Everywhere on September 29, 2013:

"... like they say, 'there is no honor among thieves'."

"They" do not say any such thing – quite the opposite in fact. The common idiom states that "there is honor among thieves", which makes more sense since it observes that even among society's outlaws, there are rules and codes that make their lives easier when dealing with each other. The Italian mafia had particularly strong and formal codes of honor, as indeed did the pirate ships.

Buildreps from Europe on September 29, 2013:

Great article that appeals to the imagination! Your writing skills are awesome. I read your story twice. I don't understand the end of George Lowthers short career: "...what is currently part of Venezuela and were spotted by a merchant ship. This caused Lowther and his crew to scatter." What was so threatening about a merchant ship? Or did the merchants "betray" the location of the ship under repair?

Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on September 14, 2013:

They were actually a lot more civil often on board than the merchant ships, that is why the pirate life was often sought after.

Dianna Mendez on September 12, 2013:

I learned much from your sharing on pirate rules. I find it funny that they banned gambling from the ship, seems to be too decent a rule for a pirate.

Eric Calderwood from USA on September 08, 2013:

Very informative hub. It's funny how we romanticize pirates in movies and stories. After all, they were thieves and murderers. George Lowther may have had a code, but it was just rules for him and his fellow criminals. And, like they say, "there is no honor among thieves."

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