La Ciudad Blanca: The White City of Honduras
Where and What is La Mosquitia?
Similar to the Spanish word "mosquito", (yes we use the same word in English), La Mosquitia, is a large region of dense, rain forest situated in northeastern Honduras, near the Nicaraguan border. Most recently, this nearly impenetrable wilderness has been discovered to contain numerous pre-Columbian ruins. The archaeological evidence suggests a dense pattern of settlement throughout the region that may have lasted into the first years of Spanish settlement.
Presently, the region is sparsely settled. It is also home to several indigenous groups, as well as a few drug smugglers and cattle ranchers, who have removed small parcels of the forest to create places for grazing.
The Legend of the White City
“It’s not what you find, it’s what you find out.” Christopher Begley
The concept of an ancient outpost of pre-Columbian culture, called La Ciudad Blanca or the White City is nothing new to the residents of Honduras, for it has been part of the collective conscious of the Central American nation for many generations. La Ciudad Blanca is fundamental to the Pech people, an indigenous group that exists on the outskirts of the vast tract of tropical rain forest known as La Mosquitia.
It is important here to note that the so-called "Lost City" is not really a city in the traditional sense of the word. It's actually a place in the jungle that is nowhere close to urban, even though many archaeological ruins abound in the area. Moreover, it is a belief of a place, where the ancient Gods have retreated and found sanctuary. And furthermore, many believe that this place is protected by the ancient deities in such a way that any intruder or invader will be struck down, if they venture too close to the ancient settlements.
Map of Honduras
Where Is Honduras
Honduras is an impoverished Central American nation, situated between Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaraugra. The small nation should not be confused with British Honduras, which is today known as Belize and located just a short ways north of Honduras on the Caribbean Coast of Central America. Unlike most Central American nations, Honduras only has a tiny outlet to the Pacific Ocean.
In the Rain Forest
The Rio Platano Biosphere
Deep within La Mosquitia in northeastern Honduras, there is the Rio Platano (Banana river) that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. This river begins in the low mountains near the Nicaragua border and flows east to the Mosquito Coast. Several indigenous villages can be found along the slow-moving waterway, including the Pech, Tawahka, Miskito and Garífuna tribal groups. Also present are several Mesitzo communities.
What Is LIDAR?
LIDAR, which stands for Light Detection and Ranging, is a recently-developed remote sensing method that is now being employed to map the earth's surface in much greater detail than ever imagined before. Essentially, LIDAR consists of a complex instrument that sends out numerous beams of pulsed lasars and then collects the reflected light to be used later as a mapping tool. LIDAR has been successful in locating ancient Amerindian structures in dense jungles,where heavy foliage often conceals the ancient sites.
After surveying the rugged rain forest along the Rio Platano, researchers found three remote valleys filled with ancient structures. Unimaginitively, these three valleys were named T1, T2 and T3. The National Geographic exploration team first visited T!, as this place was most easily accessible from the network of rivers and lagoons that flow through the Rio Platano region.
A Crude Monkey Face?
One of the more sinister legends associated with the legendary Ciudad Blanca or Lost City of the Monkey God suggests that anyone who ventures into the "lost city" will be struck down by one of the ancient deities. Strangely enough, members of the National Geographic survey group that camped at the T1 location, were all afflicted with a nasty flesh-eating parasite, known as Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Basically, this disease is caused by a protozoan parasitie that is transmitted by sand flies from an unknown host animal to warm other blooded mammals and birds, including man.When a person is infected, persistent skin lesions develop. And if they are left untreated, the parasite attacks the mouth and nose in a most ugly way. Just about every member of the Geographic survey group developed the disease in some form, including the author Douglas Preston, who details his experience in his bestselling book, The Lost City of the Monkey God.
A Sketch of the Old Cities
Of the three sites described by Douglas Preston in the Lost City of the Monkey God, only one has been explored, so there is still a lot to learn about the region and the indigenous people, who once lived there. Still, enough information has been uncovered to suggest that the people, who inhabited this region, built beautiful temples and homes, constructed from stone, mahogany and woven tapestries.Today only the stone bases and artifacts remain, as the wood and cloth have been devoured by the jungle.
The White City or La Ciudad Blanca of Honduras
Inspired by the explorations and discoveries of Transylvania University (Kentucky) professor, Christopher Begley, a handful of archaelogists and and college professors have taken issue with the findings and methods of the National Geographic team, which included the author of The Lost City of the Monkey God. Among the most contested issues are the sensalization of the project and the sometimes cavalier attitude of the main body of researchers and scientists towards the Native groups, who live in La Mosquitia.
Professor Begley was part of the group. His travels and explorations in the region beginning around 1990, have tagged Begley, as the Indiana Jones of the Mosquito Coast.
Honduras has always been one of the poorest places in Central America and due to recent political strife, most of the country, is considered to be unsafe for travel by foreigners, especially.Westerners. The Northeast corner of the country, where La Mosquitia and the Cuidad Blanca are located is considered to be the most dangerous parts of this lush, sub-tropical nation.
Only the English-speaking Bay Islands can be placed in a category that is anywhere close to being safe, yet a few attacks on foreigners have still occurred here especially at night.
P.S. In 2012, the Peace Corp withdrew all volunteers from Honduras and as of 2018, they have yet to return.
The Lost City of the Monkey God
This non-fiction adventure story penned by Douglas Preston, details the National Geographic-sponsored discovery of numerous Native American architectural sites near the Mosquito Coast in Eastern Honduras. All the Natives are friendly, but some of the professional archaeologists and scientists are not. And the jungle environment is definitely hostile, as it contains dangerous jaguars, deadly poisonous snakes and dense clouds of sand flies that carry a nasty flesh-eating bacteria.
Despite a slightly sensational title to the book, Douglas Preston has done a remarkable job of detailing a ground-breaking jungle expedition of which he was a part. His incite into an Amerindian culture that was not quite Mayan, is well done and thorough. His reporting on the activities of the current Honduran government officials, including the president and how they have protected the site and the numerous artifacts that have been dug up from the soil is also done quite aptly.
Perhaps, the biggest surprise of reading the book is revelation of the encounter the entire expedition had with the flesh-eating disease, known scientifically as Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis. The explanation of how this disease interacts with people and how it may be in someway tied to the huge dieoffs that the Native population experienced shortly after the Spanish arrival, is most informative.
https://www.sapiens.org/archaeology/la-ciudad-blanca-indigenous-collaboration/ The Lost City That's Not Lost, Not a City, and Doesn't Need to Be Discovered
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/11/honduras-lost-cities-open-letter-national-geographic-report Archaeologists condemn National Geographic over claims of Honduran "lost cities"
https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/196/multiple=1&unique_number=217 Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve
https://www.courier-journal.com/story/news/local/2015/12/17/transylvania-university-indiana-jones--archaeologist-chris-begley/76365846/ Kentucky professor a real-life Indiana Jones
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© 2018 Harry Nielsen