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D. H. Lawrence’s "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson"

Poetry became my passion after I fell in love with Walter de la Mare's "Silver" in Mrs. Edna Pickett's sophomore English class circa 1961.

D. H. Lawrence - Passport Photo

D. H. Lawrence - Passport Photo

Introduction and Text of "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson”

D. H. Lawrence’s poem, "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson,” appears in his collection, titled Love Poems.

The collection organizes the poems into three sections: Love Poems, Dialect Poems, and The Schoolmaster. This poem, “Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson,” appears in the section, “The Schoolmaster.” This collection was published in New York by Mitchell Kinerley in 1915.

This two-stanza version of the poem is Lawrence’s final revision of the poem. Unfortunately, an earlier draft of this poem featuring six stanzas is widely disseminated on the internet, and that version is inferior to the two-stanza version.

I suggest that if you encounter the six-stanza version, please ignore it in favor of the two-stanza version, offered in this article and in the 1915 publication.

This poem contains some rimes that are scattered throughout. Likely the rimes occur rather accidentally, and do not, in fact, rise to the level of an actual "scheme."

These seemingly haphazard rimes play well in dramatizing the utter boredom of the teacher.

Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson

When will the bell ring, and end this weariness?
How long have they tugged the leash, and strained apart
My pack of unruly hounds: I cannot start
Them again on a quarry of knowledge they hate to hunt,
I can haul them and urge them no more.
No more can I endure to bear the brunt
Of the books that lie out on the desks: a full three score
Of several insults of blotted pages and scrawl
Of slovenly work that they have offered me.
I am sick, and tired more than any thrall
Upon the woodstacks working weariedly.

And shall I take
The last dear fuel and heap it on my soul
Till I rouse my will like a fire to consume
Their dross of indifference, and burn the scroll
Of their insults in punishment? - I will not!
I will not waste myself to embers for them,
Not all for them shall the fires of my life be hot,
For myself a heap of ashes of weariness, till sleep
Shall have raked the embers clear: I will keep
Some of my strength for myself, for if I should sell
It all for them, I should hate them -
- I will sit and wait for the bell.

Reading of "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson"

Commentary on "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson"

The teacher in "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson" is dramatizing the uninspired performance of his lackluster students and then vows to himself to cease torturing his own soul by wasting of his time and effort in trying to instruct them.

First Stanza: Student Dogs

When will the bell ring, and end this weariness?
How long have they tugged the leash, and strained apart
My pack of unruly hounds: I cannot start
Them again on a quarry of knowledge they hate to hunt,
I can haul them and urge them no more.
No more can I endure to bear the brunt
Of the books that lie out on the desks: a full three score
Of several insults of blotted pages and scrawl
Of slovenly work that they have offered me.
I am sick, and tired more than any thrall
Upon the woodstacks working weariedly.

The scenario described in this poem begins and ends with the teacher himself eagerly awaiting the bell that will eventually ring and end a boring, lifeless class.

The speaker compares his uninspired students to dogs that pull on the leash trying to free themselves from his instruction. They do not want to learn, and he does not want to continue trying to teach them.

This teacher comes to the conclusion that he can no longer keep up this charade of teaching and learning that is not happening. He desires to free himself from this the same cage that he deems these students so unwillingly occupy.

This teacher does not have the patience or love for the young to teach; he is weary, and he cannot empathize with these students who can muster only a lackluster performance.

He loathes facing the many papers with badly written scrawls that disgust him. His sixty charges have handed in to him "slovenly work," and he is bone tired of having to confront it.

The speaker asserts that it does him no service, but it also does not serve his students as well. The speaker declares that it does not matter, if they are able to write about what they lack interest in anyway. He finds it all pointless. He bitterly complains repeatedly about the ultimate purpose of all this activity.

Second Stanza: Unjustified Expenditure of Energy

And shall I take
The last dear fuel and heap it on my soul
Till I rouse my will like a fire to consume
Their dross of indifference, and burn the scroll
Of their insults in punishment? - I will not!
I will not waste myself to embers for them,
Not all for them shall the fires of my life be hot,
For myself a heap of ashes of weariness, till sleep
Shall have raked the embers clear: I will keep
Some of my strength for myself, for if I should sell
It all for them, I should hate them -
- I will sit and wait for the bell.

The speaker then assumes that even if he commits all of his energy of efforts to these students, he cannot justify to himself the expenditure of that energy. His very soul is being wasted in attempts to teach the unteachable. He senses that he is being insulted by the students’ lack of motivation and desire to achieve.

The speaker has determined that there is no value in struggling to impart knowledge to a bunch of seemingly braindead urchins who possess not a shred of desire to acquire an education.

This teacher proclaims his intention to stop using up his soul power in vain attempts to teach these recalcitrant unteachables. He looks fate in the eye and finds that no matter what he does, no matter what they do, it all goes down to the same nothingness.

Whether he teachers or not, it does not matter. Whether they learn or not, it does not matter.

The bored teacher likens his life to "embers" of a fire that is slowly burning out. And he insists that he will not allow himself to become a simple ash heap from burning himself out while attempting to accomplish the impossible.

If sleep will rake the embers clear, he will, instead, save his energy for more worthwhile activities that will actually enhance his life, instead of draining it of vitality. The speaker implies that as a teacher, he is obligated to assume responsibly with all his strength, but by doing so, he wastes himself on a futile mission.

Thus, he makes a vow to himself to cease this purposeless activity. Nothing he does can influence these poor souls, so why, he asks himself, should he continue to do it? Why torture himself as he tortures the undeliverable?

The speaker/teacher can no longer care, if, in fact, he ever did. He feels that the effort is not worth it. He must move on. Vaguely, he implies that teachers are born, not made. The disgruntled teacher has landed on his perfect thought.

Like the students who resist learning, he has become the teacher who will resist teaching. He will "sit and wait for the bell," just as his students are doing. If they do not want to learn, then he concludes, why should he want to teach?

He is tried of wasting his efforts on a futile activity. The battle between unwilling student and unenthusiastic teacher ends in a stalemate. The image of them both sitting and waiting for the bell to ring signals a rather sad scenario of futility.

Alliteration in Lawrence's "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson"

In the first stanza of D. H. Lawrence's "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson," the following lines contain what, upon first impression, might be considered "alliteration." The initial consonants are capitalized, bolded, and italicized for easy recognition:

Line 1: When Will the bell ring, and end this Weariness?
Lines 4 and 5: they Hate to Hunt, / I can Haul them
Lines 6 and 7: to Bear the Brunt / Of the Books
Lines 7, 8, and 9: Score / Of Several insults of blotted pages and Scrawl / Of Slovenly
Line 11: Woodstacks Working Weariedly

Despite the obvious repetition of initial consonantal sound, the poetic purpose for the use of alliteration is not fulfilled in any of those consonant groups, and therefore I suggest that true poetic alliteration is not actually employed in this poem.

Poets/writers employ "alliteration" in both poetry and prose in order to create a musically rhythmic sound. Alliterative sound renders to the flow of words a beauty which attracts the auditory nerves making the language both more enjoyable and more easily remembered.

None of this is happening in Lawrence's lines with the supposed alliteration, especially lines 4-5, 6-7, and 7-8-9, which spill over onto the next line, thus separating the alliterative group.

Rhyme vs Rime

Dr. Samuel Johnson introduced the form "rhyme" into English in the 18th century, mistakenly thinking that the term was a Greek derivative of "rhythmos." Thus, "rhyme" is an etymological error. For my explanation for using only the original form "rime," please see "Rime vs Rhyme: An Unfortunate Error."

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

Question: Which idea does D.H. Lawrence's poem, "Last Lesson" begin and end with?

Answer: Waiting for the bell to ring.

Question: Can you give two examples of the use of metaphors in D.H. Lawrence's poem, "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: 1. "pack of unruly hounds."

2. "till sleep / Shall have raked the embers clear."

Question: What is D.H. Lawrence's final decision or resolve in "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: The speaker of the poem, who is a bored and disappointed teacher, decides to just sit and wait for the bell to ring, the same as his lazy, dull-witted students. Likely, he will quit his teaching job because he feels that it is causing him to waste his time trying to teach the unteachable.

Question: Lawrence seems angry in this poem. why?

Answer: The speaker of the poem is not angry; he is weary as he announces in the opening line. He is tired of trying to teach students who lack the interest to appreciate the subject matter.

Question: In D.H. Lawrence's "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," what is the poet's final decision or resolve?

Answer: The speaker/teacher in the little drama decides to just sit and wait for the bell to ring.

Question: What concerns are shown by the poet in the poem, "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"? Do you think such situations persist in the present scenario?

Answer: There is one concern: The teacher feels that he is wasting his time trying to teach students who are unwilling to learn. If you are asking if there are teachers who feel that way now, then the answer is yes.

Question: What does the last line of stanza 1 indicate?

Answer: The speaker is reporting that he has become more tired by trying to teach this bunch of recalcitrant pupils than he would have become by chopping wood.

Question: What is the structure of the poem, "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson"?

Answer: Lawrence's "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson" is a lyric poem, structured into two versagraphs.

Question: The speaker of Lawrence's poem "Afternoon in School: the Last Lesson", uses the word "insults" twice in the poem. What does that word refer to?

Answer: The speaker is insulted by the sloppy work the students turn in because they are recalcitrant and remain too stubborn to try to learn. After giving the issue some thought, he decides he will not insult them with punishment.

Question: What is the relation between the teacher and students in the poem, "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: Likely there is great disdain between this teacher and his students. He finds them insipid at best and recalcitrant at least, as he likens them to dogs pulling on a leash.

Question: In stanza 3 of the poem " Last Lesson of the Afternoon" the speaker seems angry; why?

Answer: The speaker/teacher is not angry; he is tired of teaching students who do not want to learn. Also note that you are studying an earlier draft of the poem. The improved version that I use has only 2 stanzas.

Question: What is the simile in the poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon?

Answer: The simile in the poem is "like a fire."

Question: What is the speaker's attitude toward the students?

Answer: He ultimately feels sorry for them, but he also feels that they are so uncooperative that they fail to learn. He resents having to continue to try to teach the unteachable.

Question: In D.H. Lawrence's "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," why does the poet think of his pupils as a pack of unruly hounds?

Answer: The speaker/teacher likens his students to undisciplined dogs because like dogs the students pull on the leash of his teaching trying to free themselves from his instruction. They do not want to learn, and they do not respond appropriately to the lessons he is trying to instill in them.

Question: What is this poem, "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," about?

Answer: A teacher who is bored with his lackadaisical students.

Question: What metaphor does the poet D.H. Lawrence use in the first stanza of the poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"? With which words is this metaphor sustained?

Answer: The speaker metaphorically compares his uninspired students to dogs that pull on the leash trying to free themselves from his instruction. He uses that dog metaphor in the following lines; "How long have they tugged the leash, and strained apart / My pack of unruly hounds."

Question: In D.H. Lawrence's "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," when does the poet feel despair?

Answer: There are many adjectives to describe the teacher's state of mind-- bored, annoyed, tired of wasting his time--but "despair" is not one of them. Despair indicates hopelessness, and this teacher is not hopeless. He simply knows that his mood will be much improved after he no longer has to teach this particular class of recalcitrant, uncaring pupils.

Question: In D.H. Lawrence's "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," what is the effect of using a rhetorical question in the opening line?

Answer: The question in the opening line is used to exaggerate the speaker's displeasure at the length of time he has to wait for the bell to ring. He knows when the bell will ring, but he feigns ignorance to show how perturbed he is with what he is doing.

Question: In D.H. Lawrence's poem, "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," what does the speaker decide to do?

Answer: The speaker decides to simply sit and wait for the bell to ring, just as the students are likely doing.

Question: What is the theme of D. H. Lawrence’s "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson"?

Answer: The theme of D. H. Lawrence’s "Afternoon in School: The Last Lesson" is a teacher's complaint.

Question: In D.H. Lawrence's "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," what a sense is it applicable to the speaker's situation?

Answer: The teacher disdains his uninspired students. He feels that he cannot teach them anything, and thus he is wasting his time. He likely plans to find some occupation in which he can become a better performer.

Question: What metaphor does D.H. Lawrence use in the first stanza of "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"? With which words is this metaphor expressed?

Answer: The speaker/teacher employs a dog metaphor in the following lines; "How long have they tugged the leash, and strained apart / My pack of unruly hounds."

Question: Which idea does the poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon" begin and end with?

Answer: In the beginning of the poem, the speaker is musing on how long it seems until the bell rings. In the end, the speaker is again focusing on the bell as he has decided to just sit and wait for it.

Question: What does D. H. Lawrence mean when he says he has to 'endure the brunt of books that lie out on the desks'?

Answer: The speaker means that he has to put up with and give evaluations to, ie grades, all the poorly written, sloppy work that the stubborn students have jotted down and turned in.

Question: What impressions are formed of the students in D.H. Lawrence's poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: The students are lazy and uninterested.

Question: In D. H. Lawrence’s poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon", what does ''strained apart'' mean?

Answer: It refers to dogs pulling on a leash; they are straining to be parted from the leash and the person controlling the leash.

Question: What does the poet not want to teach his pupils anymore?

Answer: The teacher does not want to teach because the students are reluctant to learn.

Question: Does the poem "Last Lesson" by D. H. Lawrence has a rime scheme?

Answer: D. H. Lawrence’s poem, "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," contains some rimes that are scattered throughout the four movements. Likely the rimes occur rather accidentally, and do not, in fact, rise to the level of an actual "scheme." These seemingly haphazard rimes play well in dramatizing the utter boredom of the teacher.

Question: Did D. H Lawrence ever visit the USA?

Answer: Yes, he did. He lived near Taos, New Mexico.

Question: What is the teacher’s attitude towards the students in stanza 1 of D. H. Lawrence's "The Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: The teacher’s attitude is negative.

Question: What metaphor does the poet use in the first stanza of the poem? With which words is this metaphor expressed?

Answer: A dog metaphor: “How long have they tugged the leash, and strained apart / My pack of unruly hounds”

Question: What is the poem, "Last Lesson of the Afternoon", about?

Answer: The speaker/teacher in "Last Lesson of the Afternoon" is dramatizing the uninspired performance of his lackluster students and then vows to himself to cease torturing his own soul by wasting of his time and effort in trying to instruct them.

Question: What metaphor does the poet use in the first stanza of the poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: The speaker compares his uninspired students to dogs that pull on the leash trying to free themselves from his instruction.

Question: What depresses the speaker in stanza 2 if "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: The speaker then assumes that even if he commits all of his energy of efforts to these students, he cannot justify to himself the expenditure of that energy.

Question: What do you think is the purpose of the repeated question of "what" in the poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: Repetition is almost always for emphasis.

Question: What metaphor does the poet use in the first stanza of the poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"? With which words is this metaphor sustained?

Answer: The following lines display the dog metaphor: "How long have they tugged the leash, and strained apart / My pack of unruly hounds."

Question: What is the language in D.H. Lawrence's poem, "The Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: English, as employed by people of England. D.H. Lawrence is a British writer.

Question: Does the teacher quit teaching after the event's of D.H. Lawrence's poem "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: The poem does not provide a definitive answer to that question, but the battle between unwilling student and unenthusiastic teacher ends in a stalemate. The image of them both sitting and waiting for the bell to ring signals a rather sad scenario of futility.

Question: In stanza five, Lawrence says "And yet I'm supposed to care, with all my might." With reference to the notes for the poem, what does this mean?

Answer: You are referring to an earlier draft of Lawrence's poem, which he likely did not intend for publication and scrutiny. Noice that there is no "stanza 5" nor the line, "And yet I'm supposed to care, with all my might" in the version of the poem on which I commented. Nor are there any notes attached to this draft.

Therefore, I cannot address your question because it is inappropriate for commenters to focus on earlier drafts of poems that poets had improved and polished for publication.

Question: In stanza 4, the poet (remember he is a teacher) uses the word "abyss." What does he want to show about his own situation through the use of this word?

Answer: Please notice that there is no "stanza 4, nor does the term "abyss" appear in the version of the poem I use. I highly recommend that you study the version offered in my commentary; it is an improved revision and is likely the one that the poet hoped his readers would focus on.

Therefore, it is not appropriate for a commentary writer to focus on terms and issues that were filtered out of earlier drafts of the poet's work.

Question: What is the insult that the speaker refers to in stanza three?

Answer: The speaker is insulted by the sloppy work that the lazy, stubborn students hand in for homework.

Question: In D.H. Lawrence's "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," what is the speaker sick about?

Answer: The speaker is only "sick" as in the expression "sick and tired." He even says so in the line, "I am sick, and tired more than any thrall." He simply resents having to teach students whom he deems incapable of learning.

Question: In what sense is "toll" applicable to the speaker's situation?

Answer: Only that the speaker/teacher is awaiting the tolling of the bell to end class. He is wary of the students he disdains; thus he very much wants to hear that toll of the bell.

While the word "toll" does appear in an earlier draft of this poem, the poet's final draft eliminated it along with several other issues that diminished the poem's effectiveness. I recommend that you study the final version used in my commentary; it is the one the poet finally recognized as his best draft.

Question: Which idea does D.H. Lawrence's poem, "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," begin and end with?

Answer: The poem begins with the teacher anticipating the bell ringing--this is the end of class. It ends the same way-- the teacher sitting and waiting for the bell to ring. The beginning idea and ending idea are the same, anticipating of the bell ringing signaling the end of the wearisome class.

Question: Why are there only two stanzas in "Last Lesson of the Afternoon" when the one I read had six?

Answer: You have been directed to an inferior, earlier version of Lawrence's poem. The draft I use is his improved, polished, final draft.

Question: In D.H. Lawrence's "Last Lesson of the Afternoon," what metaphor does the speaker use in the opening lines of the poem? With which words is this metaphor sustained?

Answer: The speaker metaphorically compares his stubborn students to dogs that "have they tugged the leash, and strained apart / My pack of unruly hounds."

Question: A comparison is made in the first stanza of "Last Lesson of the Afternoon". What two things are compared?

Answer: First of all, please note that the draft of this poem that I used is not sectioned into stanzas. In lines 2 and 3, the speaker metaphorically compares his students to dogs.

Question: Why does the poet think of his pupils as a pack of unruly hounds?

Answer: The students defy the teacher's attempt to teach them as "unruly hounds" defy their traitors' efforts to teach them or take them for walks. As dogs tug at their leashes, the students tug at the restraints imposed by a teacher trying to teach.

Question: What is the "it" referred to in the second stanza?

Answer: The "it" in the line, "The last dear fuel and heap it on my soul," refers to "last dear fuel." And in the lines, "Some of my strength for myself, for if I should sell / It all for them," "it" refers to strength.

Question: What does "dross of indifference" mean in D.H. Lawrence's "Last Lesson of the Afternoon"?

Answer: In British English, the term "dross" refers to a type of coal that won't burn well. Thus it is considered waste or refuses material.

Let's place the phrase "dross of indifference" in context, which is a question spanning the following five lines:

1 And shall I take

2 The last dear fuel and heap it on my soul

3 Till I rouse my will like a fire to consume

4 Their dross of indifference, and burn the scroll

5 Of their insults in punishment?

Notice that the speaker begins a metaphor of burning fuel to rouse his will. He is asking if he should bother burning the fuel, using his energy, to eliminate the waste of those student's "indifference" and then insult them by punishing them. He considers this act one that would take too much of his energy, "the last dear fuel," that he possesses. And he feels that it is not worth his time and energy.

© 2015 Linda Sue Grimes

Comments

Linda Sue Grimes (author) from U.S.A. on July 24, 2017:

Jack, your claims do not hold up. The version most widely published, the one I used, is more "concentrated" possessing 5 fewer lines. That version eliminates the cliche, "it's all my aunt!" It also tightens the text by eliminating repetitive language.

The poet added "embers" for a good reason! The term expresses his feeling of a slow-dying inspiration brought on by the boredom he is absorbing from the bored students. The term "embers" actually adds polish and distillation to the verse. Not likely that the poet would have made such a grievous error as to remove it for a final draft.

The version you offer is likely an earlier version, not the final one.

Jack on July 24, 2017:

I'm pretty sure the text of the poem you have there is not Lawrence's final version of this poem. It certainly isn't the most polished. The version I am familiar with is from The New Dragon Book of Verse...

Linda Sue Grimes (author) from U.S.A. on September 26, 2016:

Suzette, congratulations on such a long career as a teacher. And thank you for your service. I also taught for a number of years in junior high, high school, and at university, but I never felt that that profession really had my heart. I taught about 20 years but not all consecutively.

I also identified with Lawrence's poem, perhaps, more than you did. I especially feel the line, "I will not waste my soul and strength for this"--that was my feeling as I retired early from the profession.

But admire your attitude greatly and think I could have achieved it if I had tried harder. Thanks for you comment. Have a great day!

Suzette Walker from Taos, NM on September 26, 2016:

I enjoyed this poem and your analysis very much. I am a retired teacher and I can relate to how he feels. But, I must say that every time I felt this way, the next day, or a particular student, would "get it" and inspire me to continue teaching. I kept teaching for 3o years and the advantages out weighed the disadvantages and I found more inspirational students than I did the lazy hounds.