Ms. Inglish has 30 years experience in medicine, psychology, STEM instruction, history, and aerospace education for USAF Civil Air Patrol.
Aborigines and Heroes
These are eight Australian and Tasmanian Aboriginals that have made a lasting impression on me with their determination to pursue reconciliation of Aborigines and Whites through government, first contact interactions, educational institutions, sports, music, fine arts, writing, and acting.
Emily Kame Kngwarreye: Fine Artist
b. 1910 - d. 1996
Emily Kame Kngwarreye was born in Alhalkere and grew up in an isolated desert town among the Aborigines. In the late 1980s she began to paint on canvas and contained the rest of her life. Previously, she had mastered batik and had worked as a livestock hand
As an artist, she worked in her remote region of Central Australia, very hot and dusty, surrounded by camp dogs. She often painted their paw prints in her works. She quickly became a Senior in the Utopian Art Movement, Utopia being her community that produced many Aboriginal artists in Australia's Northern Territory.
Emily had only a crude studio, under a piece of corrugated steel or a lean-to of tree branches. Self-taught and a primitive style painter, she had been compared to the great masters of fine arts. She painted from her experience and her own particular Dreamtime. In 1993 she won the prestigious Australian Artists Creative fellowship.
When asked to describe her mystic-looking pieces, she said that they were "everything." The style is adapted from sand and body painting used for ceremonies.
Neville Bonner: Statesman
b. 1922 - d. 1999
Although Mr. Neville Bonner completed only one year of formal education, he was elected Senator to the Federal Parliament of Australia for Queensland in 1971 and served through 1983. In this position, he strove tirelessly for reconciliation between Aboriginals and other Australians.
In 1979, Senator Bonner became one of three Australians of the Year.
Bonner worked for social reforms and civil rights as soon as he was able to do so. He had lived 16 years on the Palm Island Aboriginal Reserve as an adult. Earlier he lived under a shrub with his mother at his grandparents' house and had left as a teenager that was looking for a better life after the female heads died. In the era in which he was born, Aborigines legally had to be out of the city by sunset and back on the reserve and this was repressive.
Aborigines could not vote legally until 1967 and had not been counted in the national census up until that time.
Read More From Owlcation
Mr. Bonner crossed the Parliament floor and voted against his own party 23 times for the greater good of the people and finally became an Independent.
After serving in congress, he became a board member of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. His written works include Black Power in Australia; Equal World, Equal Share; and For the Love of Children.
We as Aboriginal people still have to fight to prove that we are straight out plain human beings, the same as everyone else. You know, I grew up, born on a government blanket under a palm tree. I lived under lantana bushes, I've seen more dinner times than I've seen dinners, I've known discrimination, I've known prejudice, I've known all of those things... but some of that is still with us... and it's got to be changed.
— Neville Bonner; A to Z Quotes; PD
Ernie Dingo: Actor
Bron in 1956, this gentleman is form the Oondamooroo tribe in Australia, Ernie Dingo's grandfather was called Dingo Jim, because his occupation was dingo hunter. The whole family decided to take Dingo as their family name.
Dingo began a professional career in the Middar Aboriginal Dance Theatre in 1978 and in television, including comedy, beginning in 1985. He is the Recipient of the Banff Television Festival special prize and the Australian Film Institute Award for 1990.
Mr. Dingo was made a Member of the Order of Australia in 1990 for his work.
Ernie Dingo's Major Films
- Tudawali, 1985
- The Fringe Dwellers, 1986
- Crocodile Dundee 2, 1988 (as Charlie)
- State of Shock, 1989
- Until the End of the World, 1991
- Blackfellas, 1993
- Mr. Electric, 1993
- Bran Nue Dae, 2010
Cathy Freeman: Athlete
b. 1973 as Catherine Astrid Salome Freeman
Track star Cathy Freeman's grandfather, Frank Fisher, had been a rugby player and this set a precedent for sports competition that she pursued with vigor and determination.
Cathy was a winner on and off the track, pursuing her dreams even though she was plagued by prejudice for her Aboriginal heritage. She had been jeered in school when she won track events against Whites. When She worked for the postal service, some people refused to let her serve them, because of her race. This was the 1980s but sounds like 1950s America. However, Freeman persevered.
Despite these racially based atrocities, Cathy pursued track and field and made the Australian Olympic Team. She won the 2000 Sydney Olympics Gold Medal in the 400-meter race and as an Aborigine, lit the Olympic Torch.
Freeman won the 100-meter race at the 1990 Commonwealth Games at about age 17 and the 200-meter race at the 1994 Commonwealth Games.
In the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympic Games, she took Silver in the 400-meter event. Cathy won World Championships for the 400-meter in 1997 and 1999. She ran again for Australia in the 2002 Commonwealth Games, winning with her team in the 4 x 400 relay. She retired in 2003 around the age of 30.
In the 2000 Sydney Olympics, Cathy ran in a blue body suit with shoes in the official Aboriginal colors as a statement. In the 1994 Commonwealth Games, she took a victory lap while carrying the Aboriginal flag over her shoulder first and later adding the Australian flag to it. Audience reaction was most positive, and she received 5000+ faxes of praise, one from the Australian Prime, Minister Paul Keating.
Freeman next ran a victory lap with the Aboriginal flag at the 1997 World Championships and in 1998, she was named Australian of the Year. At the 1999 World Championships, she took her victory lap with the Australian flag.
Cathy carried the Olympic Flame into the Stadium during the Opening Ceremonies of the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics and lit the Cauldron. She did this despite some mild protests globally from those prejudiced against Aboriginal Peoples. Freeman's successful delivery of the flame into the stadium and its final repository in the Olympic Cauldron marked the beginning of a new respect for Aborigines in Australia.
Mandawuy Yunupingu: Singer and School Principal
Lead Singer for the popular band Yothu Yindi since 1985 when he founded the group. The band combines Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal members with success and harmony. Yothu Yindi is a kinship term representing mother and child.
Mandawuy Yunupingu was the very first Australian Aboriginal to become a school principal. He was named Australian of the Year in 2007 for his efforts to reconcile Aboriginals and Whites and performed at the 2000 Sydney Olympics.
Racism is a disease in society. We're all equal. I don't care what their colour is, or religion. Just as long as they're human beings they're my buddies.
— Mandawuy Yunupingu
Oodgeroo Noonuccal: Renaissance Woman
b. 1920 - d. 1993
Oodgeroo Noonuccal used the English name Kath Walker until 1988, after she had become a successful poet, author, painter, and political activist. She became an advocate for Aboriginals.
In 1964, Oodgeroo Noonuccal published her first book of poems as "Kath Walker", calling it We Are Going. An accomplishment worthy of recognition by any woman in the turbulent 1960s and the fight for human rights and civil rights globally, Oodgeroo Noonuccal had become the first Aboriginal woman to ever be published anywhere.
I’m for all humankind, not colour gibes;
I’m international, and never mind tribes.
— Oodganoo Noonuccal in "All One Race"
Evonne Goolagong: Wimbledon Star
Goolagong was born in 1951 in Griffith, New South Wales into a family that was good at sports. At age 5, her first tennis racket was made from wood from a fruit crate. She stated at age 10 that she was going to win Wimbledon as an adult and she did - twice.
- Australian of the Year 1971
- Associated Press Female Athlete of the Year 1971
- Member of the British Empire 1972
- International Tennis Hall of Fame 1988
As an Aborigine, Goolagong was not permitted to play on tennis courts in Australia. However, someone at a court saw her staring watching games the bushes and invited her in. She was immediately discovered by two tennis coaches as she began playing well that day. Moving to Sydney, she lived and worked with her coach, Victor Edwards, in order to become a champion.
Evonne won a total of 7 Grand Slams: The Australian Open in 1974, 1975, 1976, and 1977, the French Open in 1971, and Wimbledon women's singles twice in 1971 and 1980.
Goolagong retired after 13 years in 1983 and all of her trophies are in the National Museum of Australia, Canberra, in a special exhibit.
Queen Truganini of Tasmania
Truganina (or Truganini) lived from 1803 through 1876. This Tasmanian was from the Bruny Island tribe south of Hobart. From 1803 until 1830, Whites slaughtered 5,000 Black Tasmanian Aborigines and left only 75 remaining, including this heroine.
Truganina was an aide to the explorer G. A. Robinson, known as the "Protector of Aborigines", helping him to make peaceful contact with the Tasmanians from 1830-1835.
Soon afterward, Truganina traveled with Robinson to Port Phillip to accompany him as he accepted the office of Protector in 1838. After this, she lived in Flinders Island, Oyster Bay, and Hobart, where she died in 1876.
Truganina is rumored to have had five husbands and have outlived them all, indicating a matrilineal society in which heritage is traced through the female line (similar to tracing DNA through female lines).
In the 20thcentury, anthropologists considered Truganina to be the last full-blooded Tasmanian Aboriginal alive. However, there was discovered at least one other, per Richard Overell, Monash University, Fanny Cochrane Smith, who lived from 1834-1905.
However, data in the 21st century account for a total of 10,000 Tasmanian Aborigines descended from full-blood women from the Wybalenna people and others. Additional reports of 150,000 Tasmanians include descendants from mixed marriages, according to DNA testing.
Some scientists have believed that Tasmanians were first inhabitants of Australia.
— News.Com.Au, 9/22/2016
The Tasmanian Aborigines sometimes confuse anthropologists, because they are/were different from Australian Aboriginals and certainly different from New Zealand Maoris and Papua New Guinea Natives.
The Tasmanians, now seemingly extinct in the 21st century, varied in appearance significantly from the mainland Australian Aboriginals. In fact, Tasmanians were thought to be more closely related to the Melanesians.
Considering several other human migration theories, the African group that journeyed across South Australia apparently did not cross the water to Tasmania and their genetic markers have not appeared on that island nation thus far.
Some scientists have believed that Tasmanians were first inhabitants of Australia that were forced off their land by peoples invading from the north. These northern tribes or nations were either descendants of Africans that migrated southeast across India to Oceana or they may have been southern Indian Dravidians, or an intermix of the two peoples and cultures.
During the era in which a land bridge connected Tasmania and Australia, the first Tasmanians, whatever their descent truly was, may have retreated from attacking invader peoples and gone for refuge to Tasmania.
Who the original Tasmanians were is still not fully known.
- Emily Kame Kngwarreye | Art Gallery of NSW
Working in a remote, north-west corner of the Simpson Desert, on land annexed by pastoral leases during the 1920s, Emily Kam Ngwarray became, in the final decade of her life, perhaps the most celebrated and sought after Australian artist of her time.
- Evonne Goolagong | International Tennis Hall of Fame
Evonne Goolagong was not born into tennis royalty with a gold plated racquet, fancy outfits, and private lessons at a posh country club. Furthermore, she didn’t matriculate her game with a used wooden racquet on public courts.
- Mandawuy Yunupingu AC | National Portrait Gallery
Dr. Mandawuy Yunupingu (1956–2013), singer songwriter, was the lead singer of Australia's pre-eminent Aboriginal band, Yothu Yindi. Born in Arnhem Land, Yunupingu trained as a teacher, completing his degree in 1987.
- Bonner, Neville Thomas (1922–1999) | The Biographical Dictionary of the Australian Senate
Neville Thomas Bonner, born ‘under a lone palm tree’ on 28 March 1922, at Ukerebagh Island, Tweed Heads, New South Wales, was a stockman and Aboriginal activist who believed it was in the best interest of his people to work for the Aboriginal cause.
- Oodgeroo, Noonuccal – Biography | Indigenous Australia
Oodgeroo Noonuccal (Kath Walker) (1920–1993), black rights activist, poet, environmentalist, and educator, was born Kathleen Jean Mary Ruska on 3 November 1920 at Bulimba, Brisbane, second youngest of seven children of Edward (Ted) Ruska.
- Truganini | The Companion to Tasmanian History
Truganini (Trugernanner, Trukanini, Trucanini) (1812?-76), Aboriginal woman, was the daughter of Mangana, leader of a band of the south-east tribe.
- Walker, C. (2007). Ernie Dingo. Shepparton Publishing.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2008 Patty Inglish MS
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on January 18, 2014:
@Shayne Powell -- Thanks for those suggestions! I'll do some reading and add them.
Shayne Powell on January 18, 2014:
Some great examples there... I would add Woollarawarre Bennelong, Trugaini, William Lanne, Faith Bandler and Professor Patrick Dodson to my list.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on July 18, 2012:
Thanks! I think this is important.
Mura Mura Art on July 17, 2012:
Thanks for giving recognition to the Aborigines and their diversified talents.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on March 01, 2012:
I think I need to start List Two! There are so many and we should honor them all.
William Elliott from California USA on March 01, 2012:
Hello Patty, thanks for a fascinating hub. I, like many, thought the Tasmanian Aborigines had been exterminated by British Settlers. It is good to know that this is not the case. Thank you for a great list. Thought David Gulpalil might have made it too?
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on February 27, 2012:
Yes, I like their examples a lot.
olivia on February 26, 2012:
i think that these people are so kind hearted cause of the things there've done to help there country and for sticking up for them
mr pinicity on February 22, 2012:
this is cool info
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on February 13, 2012:
I think every ethnic group has inspirational people AS WELL. Thanks for reading about these! There are many more.
Vespa Woolf from Peru, South America on February 13, 2012:
I learn so much from your hubs and this one is very inspirational. It's true what they say about the resilience and triumph of the human spirit!
gconeyhiden from Brooklyn, N.Y.C. U.S.A on January 31, 2012:
another great hub.
stars439 from Louisiana, The Magnolia and Pelican State. on December 31, 2011:
To be compared to master artists is extraordinary with simple tools. Imagine what they could do with modern tools, paints, canvas, watercolors, acrylics, and oils. They do so much with so little. Bless them. Wonderful hub. And God Bless You. And Happy New Year Precious Heart.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on December 21, 2011:
Gald to have been of help and I hope you found some other famous people!
homework!!! :P on December 21, 2011:
thank you soo much this really helped me with my layered assignment!... :) i enjoyed reading ...
keny rainbow on December 07, 2011:
there is a giant crocodile in the desert 125 miles long the bones are still there find them if u can look for yourself
keny rainbow on December 07, 2011:
i helped yothu yindi to place the corner stone for the garma and have not been there yet i hope to one day good luck mandawuy
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on November 29, 2011:
molometer - I look forward to reading it!
darcyrox4eva1 on November 29, 2011:
This is a really great website and I
Micheal from United Kingdom on November 28, 2011:
What a great hub.
I had no idea that Evonne Goolagong was an aborigine. She was a great tennis player. I don't really follow tennis but I remember she was a big hit.
Nice to see positive images of this much maligned nation.
You have inspired me to do a hub on a similar group that are now fighting for their very existence.
I want to do a good job on it, so it may be a little while coming.
Thanks for sharing your talent with us all.
htodd from United States on November 26, 2011:
I was not aware of that ..Thanks
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on November 19, 2011:
That's something new to me, Robert. Thanks!
Robert Denis on November 19, 2011:
The most important and at the same time the most neglected fact about the Australian Aboriginals of Australia is that they have been shown by DNA evidence to be the descendents of the lost tribes of Israel, namely the tribe of Reuben. They also traveled to South America in Ancient times. a good website about this is israelite dot net.
emma cotter on September 15, 2011:
this site was awesome thanks it realy hrlped
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on September 12, 2011:
Thanks for all the comments!
@Anthony R. - There are many more individuals that are well known, too - check the library! Best wishes.
Anthony Ramirez on September 10, 2011:
Who ever made this is a life saver this will Help me with my project on the Aboriginals of Australia
moviecast on August 22, 2011:
I like what you have written your posts are well arranged and beautiful, congratulations!
the coach on July 30, 2011:
Earnie should have whacked twice as hard ,and two times more.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on July 07, 2011:
ping - Do you have someone in mind?- I'd be glad to add more.
pingu. on July 07, 2011:
know of one during early colonisation?
Ben Zoltak from Lake Mills, Jefferson County, Wisconsin USA on June 22, 2011:
A tremendous ode to the tribal people of Australia and Tasmanian love it. Great success despite adversity tales, I especially was drawn to artist Emily Kame Kngwarreye and her corrugated steel studio.
Someone on June 04, 2011:
jackavc, i get the feeling Ernie Dingo punching someone in the face might be some kind of repercussion of being part of the stolen generation.
Also the pressures of being a celebrity.
Larry Fields from Northern California on June 02, 2011:
Speaking of Aborigines, let's not forget the unintentional scientific contribution of Mungo Man, from New South Wales. An amazingly well-preserved snippet of the mitochondrial DNA in his 40,000-year-old remains, which is considerably different from mDNA found in any modern people, pushed back (or at least should have pushed back) the date for the Mitochondrial Eve of all anatomically modern humans.
Unfortunately the Nobel Committee does not award posthumous prizes. :-)
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on May 31, 2011:
Thanks for reporting in here as a full-blooded Tasmanian, proving the group is not yet extinct, and thanks for your information. The most major DNA tracking effort globally is a group led by IBM, The Smithsonian Institution, and National Geographic, but they are obviously far from covering all groups.
Thanks again for your stories. The first-person testimonies like this are very valuable.
Palawah on May 31, 2011:
Re: Tasmanian Aboriginal people
Not sure what DNA tests you are referring too?? I certainly haven't had one. And Im not extinct.
Truganina story is amazing. She was not the only Aboriginal person to accompany Robinson in Tasmania or Victoria. Robinson was not all he seemed to be. I understand he was awarded a 'trophy' by the white settlers for removing Aboriginal people from the mainland Tasmania. I understand that one of the well respected Aboriginal leaders - Mannalagena thought that he was negotiating a land settlement in assisting Robinson.
Truganini travelled with other Tasmanian Aboriginal people to Melbourne with Robinson. There was a conflict with white settlers. It is thought that they saw what was happening in Victoria, and tried to engage in 'war' and to engage Aboriginal people in Victoria in fighting the white settlers. However, Truganini and the other Tasmanian men were arrested. Truganini escaped execution, but the 2 Aboriginal men with her were the first men to be hung at Melbourne gaol.
My mother tells me there were many Tasmanian Aboriginal people in early Melbourne. Many Aboriginal people in Victorian know that they are descendents of Aboriginal people from Tasmania.
Eiddwen from Wales on May 04, 2011:
This was on a subject that I wasn't to clued up on and it was a real gem.
I vote it up and I also look forward to reading more of your hubs.
NICHOL@$ :) on March 23, 2011:
COOL IT REALY HELPED
aleida_77 from Los Angeles on March 07, 2011:
Excellent job. I don't know much about the Australian and Tasmanian Aboriginals and found the article very informative.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on January 29, 2011:
O wow, yes the Aborigines did light fires and I remember seeing a brief shot of them in "The Right Stuff" as well. Thanks marisue.
Emma - Thanks a lot for that additional information.
jackavc - Seems actors everywhere are punching people out. Too much attnetion, perhaps. Thanks for the comment.
jackavc from Australia on January 28, 2011:
Nice list. Although Ernie Dingo is not what i would call great. he is currently up on assult charges for punching a young boy in Katherine N.T
Celsey on November 08, 2010:
this page has helped me heaps with my homework... thanks!!! :)
Emma Silver on November 03, 2010:
There is a great exhibition at the Queenland Museum in South Bank, Brisbane. It is a wall of photos of inspirational Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including a short biography of each. I think that exhibition is permanent.
marisuewrites from USA on October 25, 2010:
So many unsung heroes in the world...thanks for the research and telling of their stories. I've been fascinated by the Aboriginies ever since the 60's and 70's -- didn't they help by lighting big fires when Apollo 13 was coming back to earth damaged? Anyway, they are an 'specially strong people!
kazeemjames01 on August 19, 2010:
Very interesting and amusing. Well done.
Alison Graham from UK on July 21, 2010:
Your hub has inspired me to find out more as the only two on the list I had heard of are Evonne Goolagong and Cathy Freeman. Thanks for a great read.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on June 30, 2010:
saltymick on June 30, 2010:
Great hub. Could I add to your list Albert Namatjira (1902-1959), outstanding indigenous artist, and Lionel Rose MBE - first Aboriginal World Boxing Champion (Bantam weight 1968).
Homeworkedup on June 17, 2010:
this is really helpful for my assignment:) thankyou
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on June 01, 2010:
I think a complete book of tributes is in order. First I'll see if one is published already an dif so, I'll post a link in this article. I've always found Australia fascinating and want to know more.
platinumOwl4 on June 01, 2010:
This is hands down one of the best articles I have ever read about the aborigines. I love it, I hope you write more.
DNA Testing Centers on February 10, 2010:
It is wonderful to go through the success stories of these Aboriginal people. I think this is too motivating to read out their journey to success.
Greenheart from Cambridge on February 07, 2010:
Great to see this hub,Patty
I agree with your last comment!
There must be an equivalent hub for the American Indians
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on August 09, 2009:
And there are many others that are well accomplished! I am ashamed of the tendency for other populations to have denigrated the first peoples of our great continents for so long.
Em on August 08, 2009:
all this wonderful people as our roll models
Alex on August 04, 2009:
as an Aboriginal myself reading about these successful people I'm very inspired and they now motivate me to persue and reach my dream which one day I'd love to be a successful professional dancer. God bless to the successful Aboriginals you guys are an inspiration to all of us Aboriginals in Australia and we are very thankful and proud:) thank you so much
paly on July 21, 2009:
can you help me with a take i have to say aboyt a fomous aboriginal
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on August 29, 2008:
Try the hall of public records (may be called something else) in Melbourne, access a UK geneological site online (likely will require a paid membership), and contact the Victorial Poastal Service Office to ask about thei records. There sould also be some bulletin boards online for discussing Australian geneological research.
David Wellington on August 28, 2008:
Hello, I am trying to find information on a family of Aboringinal descent by the name of Wellington. As far as I know my great great grandfather was from around the Melbourne area and was educated in England and was successful with postal delivery in rural Victoria.
hi five on May 31, 2008:
this is awesome
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on April 15, 2008:
Thanks for the comments, msms. I don't think we ourselves can know all the details form the beginning of time, because we weren't there. But I intend to keep at it. :)
msms on April 15, 2008:
Dear Patty Inglish, MS
Nice way of remembering the real people of land. They need some one like you to write and research about them. You have done A very welcome work. Thanks
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on April 13, 2008:
Hello Graceful Guardian and Mr. Marmalade! Thanks vey much for visiting. I knew about only a few of these famous people, and started looking for more. I was simply awestruck by their circumstances and accomplishments.
I probably won't stop studying all this my whole life, and am receiving good info and leads from great Hubbers too! Best wishes to you all.
MrMarmalade from Sydney on April 13, 2008:
A magic hub.
I always find it amazing when some one can find or extol on a subject right under one own radar.
Tha names you have mentioned are household names in Australia. (Or they should Be)
Thank you for giving me thepportunity to rethink your Heroes
Graceful Guardian on April 12, 2008:
Why Patty,You are a gift,people should know this.
Graceful Guardian on April 12, 2008:
Please do not ever stop your creative writing for the Aboriginal Peoples of the world.We need you to keep Shining the light on us!Love and Appreciation to you.
Patty Inglish MS (author) from USA and Asgardia, the First Space Nation on April 12, 2008:
Thanks for the link; I'll enjoy reading about more great people. Hope others do as well. :)
Inspirepub from Sydney, Australia on April 12, 2008:
There are a huge range of successful Aboriginal people, often unsung.
The Deadly Awards (deadly means "really good" in the modern Aboriginal community) are held every year in Sydney.