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Who vs. Whom

When should you use "who" and when should you use "whom" in a sentence?

There is a simple trick to knowing the difference between who and whom. All you have to do is answer your question or restate the sentence using "he" or "him". This trick also works with whoever and whomever!

he = who/whoever

him = whom/whomever


Whom is never used as the subject of a verb. It is the object form of a pronoun.


Who is always used as the subject of the verb.

Examples of "whom"

  • For whom did you vote?

I voted for him. Therefore, whom is correct.

  • With whom do you sail?

I sail with him. Therefore, whom is correct.

  • Whom should I ask about the discount?

You should ask him about the discount.

  • You may go with whomever you choose.

I want to go with him.

Examples of "who"

  • Who went to the circus?

He went to the circus. Therefore, who is correct.

  • We all know who won the game for the team.

He won the game for the team, Therefore, who is correct.

  • Corie knows who made the cake.

He made the cake. Therefore, who is correct.

  • Whoever said that you couldn't dance?

He said that I couldn't dance.

Questions & Answers

Question: Which is correct: Who is available or whom is available?

Answer: It is correct to say, Who is available because the answer is, he/she is available. He/She = who Him/Her = whom

Thoughts, Comments, Questions?

Will on March 08, 2014:

So I picked my daughter up the other day from daycare. My daughter told me "her hit me!" Pointing vigorously at the young

lady the teacher announced "Actually darling it's she hit me." For some reason I agree with my daughter! Am I wrong in proper English grammar?

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on November 08, 2012:

Herman, that sentence sounds fine. :)

herman on November 08, 2012:

is it correct to say 'your support will help me end the year on a high note?'

pbot on February 15, 2012:

Times are changing. Proper English has not always been proper and will continue to change over time. This is evident with the rise of texting.

Kristen on January 11, 2012:

Thank you for your explanation and examples!

For some reason I can't get my brain to retain any of the actual grammatical terms and definitions that help explain which 'version' of a word to use. Even still I am oddly obsessive about using words correctly. I won't even use the word if I think I could be wrong.

Your tip for proper use of these two words is perfect for me! I believe it's actually the first I've read that I fully understood. I love words and so I greatly appreciate this information! I can't wait to confidently use 'whom' in conversation now since I've always avoided it or unfortunately spoken incorrectly.

MaxGax on October 24, 2011:

Your sentence sounds like a poor translation from German. You can't simply have "the" all on its own. Here are some alternatives.

The person from whom I sought help has let me down.

The person whose help I was seeking has let me down.

The person who I was hoping would help me has let me down.

sharon on October 23, 2011:

Please check if this sentence is grammatically correct.

Checking to see if whom is used correctly.

The from whom I looked for help has failed me.

Lisa on September 24, 2011:

My little girl said "I made him" talking about a girl.She is 3 years when will she use the correct terminology-her?

Elizabeth on August 22, 2011:

What about when to use "who" or "and who"?

MaxGax on March 18, 2011:

In the interesting example "The person who I thought was the senator turned out to be a television newscaster." "who" is actually the subject of "was the senator". The verb "think" is a verb of interpolation. You can prove this with the sentence "The person whom I held to be the senator turned out to be a television newscaster."

im so confused! on March 01, 2011:

help me i don't get it at all!

rubigenous on February 12, 2011:

Oh, so sad that it's (it has) been published here for almost 2 years without correction.

'Jerry' noted: "My gosh! "It's" means it is or its was! "Its" is the possessive case."

Jerry! Please note that the apostrophe version is a contraction of 'it is' or 'it has', not 'it was'.

Or, as I like to tell people:

It's "it's" when it isn't "its". :-)

(Quantum Physics meets English Grammar :-)


Awesome on February 01, 2011:


I like grammar

Fred on January 10, 2011:

Hi Ralph. you are so wrong about your comment regarding Spanish "No hay que ensenar orthographia en las escuelas..." Let me tell you that I studied Spanish grammar since grade 3 until grade 11 (9 years), and believe me that many people never learned it. Spanish is not different than in English in terms of grammar and it is not as easy as many people think. I would say that for Spanish speakers English pronunciation is more difficult than English grammar, and for English speakers learning Spanish is the opposite: easier to pronounce, more difficult in terms of grammar.

Mr. Fastidious on December 11, 2010:

Isn't "Who am I?" kind of like a predicate nominative rather than an accusative? And if StuartJ still thinks "her hit he" is ever going to find its way into everyday conversation through usage, after 4 years of reflection on the matter, I'm going to get on his case.

Mr. Fastidious on December 11, 2010:

Tell Ralph that "ph" changes to "f" for Spanish spelling and that the names of languages are not capitalized.

We are finally catching up to the European languages in our use of "there's" for both singular and plural, at least in spoken language. In French, German and Spanish there's only one word or expression. "There are" must be too long or cumbersome and therefore "there's" is more efficient.

As for the 'who vs whom' rule, it seems very stilted if we use whom to replace a direct object, as in "Whom do you love?" However, it just sounds intelligent to say, "To whom do I have the pleasure of speaking?" instead of, "Whom am I speaking to?" Besides, a preposition is something we should never end a sentence with. As for Bo Diddly, he didn't know or care diddly about grammar, but whom cares?

cuong & ny on September 09, 2010:

as was asked before, is this question correct: "who did you vote for?"

Jose M. Blanco on July 23, 2010:

Michelle, it seems extreme, a bit too "descriptivist" for my tastes, to say that "English is really whatever is commonly used." Over the long run, yes. But in practical terms, teachers, editors, etc. must serve work as a conservative, "prescriptivist" force in language.

Steff on July 22, 2010:

Please, no "s" on the word anyway.

Since when is it "anyway"? It's never anywhos, anyhows??

Michelle on July 04, 2010:

To correct anub (sorry) -

If you are going by the he/him rule, it would be 'Whom am I?', as 'whom' is replacing 'me' (both in accusative case - object).

HOWEVER, Lydia, you have brought up a good point - 'Whom am I?' sounds odd. And it is odd. It is therefore ungrammatical. Along with the fact that so many native English speakers have to ask how to use it, this shows that it is not a natural, instinctive part of the grammar. In fact it is governed by something called a 'Grammatical Virus' - something extra to the grammar that we are told to say, but for which the rules don't always work. There is a good article on this called "The who/whom puzzle" for any linguists.

Also, it is interesting that there were no replies by the author to the very relevant points that English is really whatever is commonly used. Furthermore, in most situations 'who' can be used equally well as 'whom', so you really don't need to bother with it.

I do personally find it annoying though when I see 'whom' used in the wrong context, so fair enough.

anub on June 26, 2010:

@Lydia, I think...:

I am myself. 'myself', in this case, is the object. Pretend the object is me instead. I am me. Who am I? I am me. I is a pronoun, like him and her. To answer 'Whom am I?', you would say 'I am I'. In this case, I'm using the second I as an object (incorrect) because that is our strategy in choosing between who & whom (using the pronouns him/her). Anyway, 'I am I' wouldn't work, so 'Who am I?' is the correct way to ask whom you are. ;D

anub on June 26, 2010:

"Who is the newscaster?"

He is the newscaster.

"Whom is the newscaster?"

The newscaster is him.

I know the latter is wrong, but I always confuse them anyway, because I make the question/answer backwards... Could you help? x3

Lydia on December 01, 2009:

What about a question like, "who am I?" That confuses me. Could it be, "whom am I?" I don't think so but, I'm not too sure.

Ann on July 21, 2009:

From a fellow kiwi. I have just happened upon this site & immediately picked up on Jerry's post of 5 months ago (3 posts back), & had to agree with him. But I reckon you knew that already. I know that often in haste, mistakes slip in, don't they? I do it all the time, and I'm sure I have made heaps of grammatical & other errors in this post alone and will see them after I have clicked 'post comment'. I'm not an English teacher so don't really care, but still like to know basics so that I can help my children & grandchildren. See ya.

Heath on April 16, 2009:

How would you use the substitution in this case: Could you forward me the contact information of the attorney, whom you mentioned, might be able to offer pro bono legal services?

Tiffany, the commas around 'whom you mentioned' are needless - and 'whom can be left out entirely:

Could you forward me the contact information of the attorney you mentioned might be able to offer pro bono legal services?

harsha on April 03, 2009:

Good Article Robin. Hits the point directly.

Tiffani on March 24, 2009:

How would you use the substitution in this case: Could you forward me the contact information of the attorney, whom you mentioned, might be able to offer pro bono legal services?

Jerry on February 18, 2009:

The top post says:

That trick seems a bit simplified to me. What about an example like this one: "Assign that task to Whomever/Whoever is available." Here the correct answer is "whoever" because it's not the pronoun's role in the sentence as a whole that matters, but it's role in it's own clause. So "whoever" here is the subject of "is".

My gosh! "It's" means it is or its was! "Its" is the possessive case.

William F Torpey from South Valley Stream, N.Y. on January 22, 2009:

Hi Robin. I just wandered back here to brush up on my who or whom usage. I need a reminder now and then. Can't help commenting on Kathy's question. To clarify the "sentence" you offer, Kathy, it is what is called in English "illiterate."

Kathy on January 08, 2009:

Oh dear that didn't come out right.



I'm looking for clarification in the following sentence.

"She sees the parent and their children for who she knows them to be, not by who they are being."

Dan on December 23, 2008:

A big thanks for the who/whom trick. I have referenced numerous grammar texts on this subject, but found that the level of detail in such reference manuals was impeding my ability to comprehend the actual rules regarding the usage of who vs whom.

Thanks to this hub, I can now properly use who/whom in my entrance essay that is a required portion of my application to graduate school. Who would've thunked it? ( or is it whom would have thunked it???) Well, back to the hub for further study....

Cuong on November 01, 2008:

So comparing to whom's example, is it wrong to say "Who did you vote for?" It still sounds good, doesn't it?

IGHOR on October 27, 2008:



IGHOR on October 27, 2008:


Juan on October 09, 2008:

I have a doubt, is it correct the following frase? I do not know with whom I should speak

Thank you for your help

Ralph Deeds from Birmingham, Michigan on April 10, 2008:

One of the most frequent mistakes. I still have trouble with it after looking it up many times!

William F Torpey from South Valley Stream, N.Y. on April 10, 2008:

Thanks for the cute who/whom trick. I always have trouble with these tricky English constructions even after I look them up in a reference book -- or now on the computer. I don't know about you, but speaking grammatically correct English often sounds stilted when I'm speaking to my friends and "associates" (an example of stilted language.) In my opinion, changes in language must be made over a relatively long period of time if we expect to communicate effectively.

Dennis Clark on April 02, 2008:

I rarely see the word "enable" used these days. "Allow" is overwhelmingly used instead, even in the news media. Has constant misuse changed the gammar rules for allow and enable?


Matt on March 31, 2008:

So is Bo Diddley right when he asks "Who Do You Love?"

Or should he have said "Whom do you love?"

topstuff on March 30, 2008:

For whom did you vote.i often use only whom rather than who.Is it wrong. i will come again to check the reply.One more thing, see this sentence ..From where you bought this book.Where did you buy this book.what's the difference. thanks

CMH on March 13, 2008:


What about when the subject is plural rather than singular? Example: They supported the fundraiser. So would the correct conversion to who/whom be, "who supported the fundraiser?" How dies that work? Any tips would be helpful. Thanks for your site.


ny on March 09, 2008:

can i use " Who did you vote for?" ?

Raj on February 13, 2008:

In response to the reality that the proper use of grammar is declining to the point of blurring the distinctions, I can't help but quote Churchill:

"That is something up with which I will not put!"

Alec on January 08, 2008:


It's the second one. "He had been previously uncommunicative." You are replacing the who with he, not client liasons with him.

lori on January 07, 2008:

Maby I am making this more difficult than it really is but it the following sentence:

I Advanced communications with client liaisons who had previously been uncommunicative.

Would the question be:

"I advanced communications with him?" -OR-

"He had been previously uncommunicative?"

in order to figure out if who or whom should be used? It is critical that I get this correct, as I am using this sentence in my resume!

Ashok Rajagopalan from Chennai on December 24, 2007:

I think, 'Whom does that refer to?' or 'To whom does that refer?' are both right. But you have to say 'whom' not 'who.'

Andy on December 23, 2007:

Would it be incorrect to say, "Who is that referring to?" or do you need always have to say, "To whom is that referring?"?

Jordan Q on December 06, 2007:

Actually, StuartJ, "Her hit he" means that the boy hit the girl. Since we have these cases, it means we are free to change word order around in poetry and what have you. Of course, such flipping of the usual syntax is rare, but, even in modern English, "Her hit he" and "He hit her" do mean the same thing, not different things. And of course, even in modern English, "Her hit he" and "She hit him" do really mean different things. In the latter, as we would agree, the girl is doing the hitting, and in the former, it is the boy, not the girl, who is laying the smack down.

If we eliminated cases we wouldn't necessarily have problems with ambiguity, but we would lose some of the freedom we have with where we want to place words in a sentence.

mj on November 07, 2007:

Read "The Mother Tongue" by Bill Bryson. It's a really great history lesson on the English language, and, as one comment already pointed out, it correctly addresses the fact that the English language continues to evolve. Many arbitrary grammatical rules are just that - arbirtrary.

Judy on November 05, 2007:

I think "whom to call list" is grammatically accurate but when one googles, one finds just as many, if not more, instances where people use 'who to call list' . Does this mean the latter is now the norm and therefore acceptable usage?

Ponta on November 04, 2007:

Oh thank you so much for this clarification piece. The who/whom thing has been killing my lately, and I'm glad to see that there is such an easy trick to remembering which one to use. This is yet another step in perfecting my grammar! :)

Ashok Rajagopalan from Chennai on October 19, 2007:

I learnt the usage of who/whom not only from the hub, but also from the comments. Good show, friends!

vaidy19 from Chennai, India on October 19, 2007:

What a coincidence! I just posted a Hub on WHOM before I chanced to read your Hubs. Before I read all your Hubs at leisure, I thought I would acknowledge your Hub and say Hello. I am just a few weeks in here, and only today beginning to get a few Hubs done. I appreciate your effort, for it is a service to many. Keep it up! I am a professional writer specialising in Corporate Communication. I have just begun to put together ome short stories and little poems.

jerezano on October 14, 2007:

Hello robin: You aaked: >>I learned many of the English rules from studying Spanish. I wonder if those who speak more than one language are more aware of grammar in their native tongue. What do you think? I'd love to hear your thoughts.

Quit wondering. You are definitely right. When I started learning Spanish and then teaching English I found that learning Spanish not only makes one more aware of how we use English but also why we use it the way we do. And Grammar is nothing more than an explanation of how the majority of us use English or Spanish or French. Grammar is not a set of rules, it is a compendium of what the majority of us are speaking


Matt Prater on September 14, 2007:

Good contribution.

In response to some of the comments, let me say that I believe that language is a means to an end. If enough people use a word incorrectly, it is no longer incorrect to use that word as such. If someone knows an obscure rule, and seeks to employ that rule only for the sake of propagation of the rule, while a majority does not use that rule, it is that person who is wrong, imho.



reash on September 14, 2007:


Great hub. I like hubs that are giving away knowledge to other hubbers. It is sad that people nowadays don't care about their grammar. You should create more hubs like this.

graff on July 24, 2007:

hi, I think this is a nice way to learn English. But you should add an example like this one:

"The man who/whom you met was my brother" In this sentence, if you want a formal sentence you shod say whom. However, they are both correct.

Kowgirl on July 19, 2007:

Which is used with they or them, like in this part of a sentence whoever/whomever they may be? This is great. I too have a hubpage about misused words. Was just about to add this (who, whom) to my hubpage when I saw yours. Great way to teach the kids, just keep it simple so they can understand..

Clive on July 08, 2007:

Yes it's simplified but your little 'he,him' trick is just what my 11 year old will understand - thanks

mushi on June 19, 2007:

I'm a teacher in Japan, and your site has been helpful for when I need a quick reference, so thanks!

I've studied French, Italian, Japanese, Tibetan, and a little Nepali and Hindi. I definitely became more aware of English grammar rules after I studied more languages, but I also had an awesome English teacher my freshman year of high school, so I really owe it to both. My friends that have studied other languages also tend to have pretty good grammar, but they don't always choose to use it. You mentioned that a lot of people that are highly educated use incorrect grammar, but I think that that is more a reflection of how adaptable the English language is. I have about 4 or 5 different ways that I use English, depending on the situation. If I'm talking with friends or sending a text, I don't use "proper" English grammar, but I do recognize that my grammar is incorrect. I just don't care, and I know that my listener will understand me even if I'm lazy. My favorite thing about the English language is that there are so many variations of it. There really isn't a "proper" English language anymore. Unfortunately, countries were colonized and forced to use English, but every single country adapted it to their culture in a different way. There's different slang, there are slight variations in what is "acceptable" grammar, there are different pronunciations and spelling. But it's still undeniably English. I'm sure it's frustrating for new learners of English to have so many rules regularly broken, but, on the other hand, it means that the language is more flexible, too.

German on June 16, 2007:

Hi. Is this sentence correct?. Omar will talk about his girlfriend with whomever asks him.

With is a preposition. So whomever is ok.

Are you agree?. Thanks.

German on June 16, 2007:

Wonderful site.!!. I am learning english grammar. I fell so good that to know ypur web. Excellent.

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on May 02, 2007:

Hi Cyber Coyote,

I think you are correct about the English language being dynamic. It's no wonder second language learners have such a difficult time. I have had disagreements on a few of my topics, particularly farther vs. further. I always prefer to err on the side of being more specific and finding distinctions in meaning/spelling. Thanks for the comment!

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on April 24, 2007:

Hi Ezra,

"He turned out to be a television newscaster." He could be substituted in the sentence, so "who" is correct, e.g., the person who I thought was the senator turned out to be a television newscaster. (He/who and him/whom) Thanks!

Ezra Ginder on April 24, 2007:

How do you determine who/whom in the following sentence: The person who/whom I thought was the senator turned out to be a television newscaster? I originally thought it was whom, but now I am leaning toward who. How would you substitute he/him in this sentence?

Hank on March 28, 2007:

Thanks for your post! It's good to be broad-minded.

optimizer on March 23, 2007:

Thanks for this useful info. =)

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on February 07, 2007:

Thanks, Patricia! I'm so glad my hubs are useful. Cheers!

Patricia Kyte on February 07, 2007:

Hi Robin,

This is a great site. Your descriptions of shen to use who/whom was pointed out in our On-line English class by another student who went searching for directions. Good for her and you too!


Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on January 06, 2007:

Thanks, FreeBird! I'm glad it helped! Best wishes, Robin

FreeBird on January 06, 2007:

Thanks Robin for the useful information. I'm awful when it comes to helping my 10 year old with his Language Arts homework. I will bookmark your page for future reference. Thanks!

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on December 27, 2006:

Hi Chitra, thanks for the comment!   "Might" and "maybe" are often used interchangeably to indicate a probability or possiblility.  However, "may" or "maybe" indicates a more likely possibility than "might".  Hope this helps. ;)

chitra on December 27, 2006:

hi robin,

Your explanations are excellent.I'm inspired.My question is "How and Where to use 'Might' and 'Maybe' in a sentence?

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on October 02, 2006:

Yes! You are correct. You can use the he/him substitution for whoever and whomever as well. I'm glad you found the hub useful! Robin

Rene on October 02, 2006:

I appreciate your site, Robin. As for the "Assign that task to Whomever/Whoever is available" topic, before I read the answer, I applied the he/him theory, and it worked for that, too.

Who is available? He is.

Cyber Coyote on September 20, 2006:

Hi Robin,

It's natural to feel that "someone" is in charge of English. It is the case for some languages, but no one controls English. English is simply the language that English speaking people use. The key word is "use". If useage changes, well then English has changed -- grammar teachers not withstanding. :-) BTW, my best grammar teacher was a Sergeant who taught a course for the US Army. Seriously.

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on September 08, 2006:

Thanks for your comments StuartJ. I suppose my simplicity comes from being a teacher. I appreciate your additions to the hubs! I'm starting to get quite a bit of traffic from Yahoo. I show up in the top results for many grammar questions. I'm glad they can help.

StuartJ from Christchurch, New Zealand on September 08, 2006:

Hi Robin,

I do take your point about simplicity. If you go into too much detail about the more complicated aspects of everything you will lose your audience. I do like your hubs and I'm sure they will be useful to many people. They are very clear and readable too.

StuartJ from Christchurch, New Zealand on September 08, 2006:

Hi Ralph,

Your comment about the usage of pronouns declining to the point of "blurring the distinctions" is interesting. I believe this is true but that it is also inevitable because it is part of a major change that has taken place in the English language. Take the explanation, say, that "whom" is the objective case of "who". To someone whose native language is German, this makes a lot of sense, but to most English speakers it seems to be a purely academic distinction.

The fact is that English is no longer a case based language -- English, although it once used cases, now uses word order and prepositions to distinquish between the subject and the object, or the doer and the doee. And since nouns are no longer inflected or altered to indicate case, the different cases of pronouns are really no longer necessary. For example, if we say "Jane hit John", it is the word order, not the case of the nouns, that tells us who is the subject and who is the object. Similarly, since "She hit him", and "Her hit he", (despite the latter being bad grammar) mean the same thing, do we need the different cases of pronouns at all? I think not, and that eventually they will disappear.

Ralph Deeds from Birmingham, Michigan on September 08, 2006:

Es posible. Pero creo que todos los lenguajes cambian.

Espanol es mas regular y sencillo que Ingles. No hay que ensenar orthographia en las escuelas..

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on September 06, 2006:

Ralph, that is probably true. It's very sad. It's amazing how many highly educated people are incorrect in their grammar. Do you think this is true of those who speak other languages? I learned many of the English rules from studying Spanish. I wonder if those who speak more than one language are more aware of grammar in their native tongue. What do you think? I'd love to hear your thoughts.

Ralph Deeds from Birmingham, Michigan on September 06, 2006:

It seems to me that correct usage of pronouns is declining almost to the point of blurring the distinctions.

Robin Edmondson (author) from San Francisco on September 06, 2006:

The purpose of these hubs is to make grammar as simple as possible. I think the problem most people have with grammar is it becomes too complicated, and they give up on being correct. Good feedback, I was going to add whoever and whomever to this hub. Once again, you need to understand who and whom to understand whoever and whomever. Thanks for the comments!

StuartJ from Christchurch, New Zealand on September 06, 2006:

That trick seems a bit simplified to me. What about an example like this one:

"Assign that task to Whomever/Whoever is available."

Here the correct answer is "whoever" because it's not the pronoun's role in the sentence as a whole that matters, but it's role in it's own clause. So "whoever" here is the subject of "is".

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