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Do you know who was the first female pilot from India? Or the first female freedom fighter? Have you heard about brave women like Chand Bibi and Obavva? In modern India, women have held high offices including that of the President and Prime Minister. Not only did these women make an impact on India, but they are also some of the most influential women in history.
Find out more about these extraordinary women here. I have arranged the list alphabetically.
My List of the Top Five Indian Women Who Changed History
I have included more than 50 women on this list, but I wanted to highlight five whose achievements changed the course of history.
- Anandi Gopal Joshi: She was the first female doctor in India and the first Indian woman to obtain a medical degree in the United States.
- Indira Gandhi: She was the first and only woman to be the Prime Minister of India.
- Justice Anna Chandy: She was the first female judge in India.
- Kalpana Chawla: She was the first Indian woman in space and died tragically in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
- Mother Teresa: She dedicated her life to helping the poor and was the first woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.
1. Ahilyabai Holkar: Queen of Malwa / Indore (1725 - 1795)
- Major achievements: Queen of Malwa; philosopher queen; ideal ruler
- Why I included her on this list: After the death of her husband Khanderao Holkar, Ahilyabai Holkar became the queen of Malwa (present-day Malwa falls into western Madhya Pradesh and southeastern Rajasthan). Under her, the capital of the kingdom was Maheshwar, which is now a small town in Madhya Pradesh. Her reign lasted for 30 years and she ruled with the utmost compassion and pride. During her time, the region prospered and scaled many new heights. She is often cited as the "philosopher queen" and an "absolute ideal ruler." She even personally led armies into battle. As a tribute, Indore's domestic airport and university are named after her.
A Tribute Poem to Ahilyabai Holkar
"For thirty years her reign of peace,
The land in blessing did increase;
And she was blessed by every tongue,
By stern and gentle, old and young.
Yea, even the children at their mothers feet
Are taught such homely rhyming to repeat
"In latter days from Brahma came,
To rule our land, a noble Dame,
Kind was her heart, and bright her fame,
And Ahlya was her honoured name."
— Joanna Baillie in 1849
2. Abala Bose: Social Worker (1865 - 1951)
- Major accomplishments: Known for her efforts in the advancement of women’s education and her contribution towards the alleviation of the condition of widows
- Why I included her on this list: Abala Bose was an early feminist and frequently wrote about why women needed more education and stressed that women's minds were just as important as men's. Later in her life, she set up the Nari Shiksha Samiti, a nonprofit whose mission was to educate girls and women. She also opened a home for widows and a rehabilitation center for women.
3. Amrita Sher-Gil: Painter (1913 - 1941)
- Major achievement: Pioneer of modern Indian art
- Why I included her on this list: Amrita Sher-Gil was born in 1913 and started painting at the age of eight. She is one of the pioneers of modern Indian art and was known as India's Frida Kahlo. She died at the early age of 28, but her artwork is still praised and sold for top dollar. She received recognition with her oil painting named Young Girls in 1932.
I can only paint in India. Europe belongs to Picasso, Matisse, and Braque. India belongs only to me.
— Amrita Sher-Gil
4. Anandi Gopal Joshi: First Female Doctor (1865 - 1887)
- Major achievements: First female doctor in India and the first Indian woman to obtain a medical degree in the United States
- Why I included her on this list: Anandi died at a tender age of just 21 (just before her 22nd birthday). But before that, she became the first female physician in 1887. Her condition was deteriorating while she was in the second year of studies. Yet, she still completed her studies and returned to India. She was later diagnosed with tuberculosis, which ultimately caused her death. She opened the gates for many young Indian women who wanted to do more than devote their life to household chores.
Be grateful for challenges because...had there been no difficulties and no thorns in the way, then [each woman and] man would have been in his primitive state and no progress made in civilisation and mental culture.
— Anandi Gopal Joshi
5. Anasuya Sarabhai: Social Worker and Trade Union Leader (1885 - 1972)
- Major achievement: Trailblazer in women's labour rights
- Why I included her on this list: Anasuya Sarabhai completed her higher education at the London School of Economics. She could have settled in any foreign country and led a life of comfort. But she chose India where she helped women by advocating for labour rights. She founded the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association, India's oldest union of textile workers, in 1920, becoming the first female leader of a trade union in India. On her 132nd birthday, Google India celebrated with a doodle remembering her achievements.
One morning, I was sitting outside in the compound combing out the children’s hair when I saw a group of 15 workers passing by as if in a trance. I called them and asked them, “What’s the matter? Why do you look so listless?’ They said, “Behen, we have just finished 36 hours of work… We have worked for two nights and a day without a break, and now we are on our way home. These words filled me with horror. This was no different than the kind of slavery women faced!
— Anasuya Sarabhai
6. Arati Saha: Long-Distance Swimmer (1940 - 1994)
- Major achievements: First Indian and Asian woman to swim across the English Channel in 1959; first female sportsperson to be awarded Padma Shri—the fourth highest civilian award in India—in 1960
- Why I included her on this list: She completed this feat in 14 hours and 20 minutes in 1959. at the age of 19. The distance across the Channel is approximately 33 kilometers. Let that sink in!
7. Aruna Asaf Ali: Freedom Fighter (1909 - 1996)
- Major achievements: Female leader of the Quit India Movement and a Bharat Ratna recipient.
- Why I included her on this list: She was an active freedom fighter who came into prominence during the Quit India movement in 1942. Her hoisting the flag during the movement at the August Kranti Maidan brought her to the forefront. She became Delhi's first mayor in 1958. Later, she became the third female recipient of Bharat Ratna, receiving it posthumously in 1997.
I know where I'm going and I know the truth, and I don't have to be what you want me to be. I'm free to be what I want.
— Aruna Asaf Ali
8. Asima Chatterjee: Scientist (1917 - 2006)
- Major achievements: First female scientist in India; conducted research in organic chemistry and medicinal plants
- Why I included her on this list: Asima Chatterjee became the first female scientist in India when she received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry. She devoted her time extensively to developing anti-epileptic and anti-malarial drugs. She also wrote numerous research papers illustrating the medicinal properties of plants. Google honored her in 2017 on what would have been her 100th birthday with a doodle.
9. Begum Akhtar: Classical Singer (1914 - 1974)
- Major achievements: Mallika-e-Ghazal, Padma Bhushan recipient
- Why I included her on this list: Begum Akhtar is known as "Queen of Ghazals" in Indian classical singing circles. Most famous for ghazals, she also composed them. She is also a Padma Bhushan recipient. Her death was rather tragic. During one of the performances in Kerala, she raised the pitch of her voice as she felt that her singing had not been as good as she had wanted it to be and felt unwell. The stress she put on herself under resulted in her falling ill, and she was rushed to the hospital. Just days later, she took her last breath on October, 30th, 1974.
People don't want to listen to an imitation. If they want to listen to my style, they will go and buy my records.
— Begum Akhtar
10. Begum Hazrat Mahal: Begum of Awadh (1820 - 1879)
- Major achievements: Took control of Awadh after he husband was exiled; rebelled against the British East India Company during the Indian Mutiny of 1857
- Why I included her on this list: Mahal was shrewd and took charge of the state of affairs of Awadh after her husband was exiled to Calcutta. She and a band of supporters rebelled against the Britsh in 1857, and she was able to take control of Lucknow as well. She had planned for her son to take over Awadh, but she had to abandon those plans when the British recaptured Lucknow. She retreated to Nepal where she died in 1879.
The tongue pierces deeper than the spear.
— Begum Hazrat Mahal
11. Captain Prem Mathur: Commercial Pilot (1910 - 1992)
- Major achievements: First female commercial pilot in India; winner of the National Air Race; first British-Indian woman pilot license holder
- Why I included her on this list: Captain Mathur was rejected by eight private airlines just because she was a woman. However, she finally landed a job at Deccan Airways. In the 1940s, most women were not even allowed to venture out of their home. The patriarchal system of our society didn't help. And then there were women like Prem Mathur who were committed to making a positive change.
12. Chand Bibi: Warrior Monarch of Bijapur (1550 - 1599)
- Major achievement: Defended Ahmednagar against Mughal emperor Akbar
- Why I included her on this list: One of the bravest women of her times, she successfully defended her throne when Akbar's forces invaded. In fact, she defended her reign twice. She was unfortunately killed in the third battle by her own companions as a rumors spread that she was joining hands with the Mughals.
13. Chandramukhi Basu: India's First Female Graduate (1860 - 1944)
- Major achievement: One of the first two female graduates of the British Empire in 1882 along with Kadambini Ganguly
- Why I included her on this list: Now, this may not feel like a significant thing. But mind you, they achieved this at a time when the English ruled. Though, the English were never against women's education.
14. Cornelia Sorabji: First Female Lawyer (1866 - 1954)
- Major achievements: First female advocate in India; first woman to study law at Oxford University
- Why I included her on this list: Cornelia Sorabji was admitted to Oxford in 1892, a milestone that predates the women’s suffrage movement in Britain. Upon returning India, she helped many women with legal matters. It's been discovered that she helped nearly 600 clients over the course of her career, which is no small feat given the obstacles he had to overcome.
15. Dr. Rakhmabai: Physician and Feminist (1864 - 1955)
- Major achievement: One of the first practicing women doctors in India; part of a landmark case that ultimately resulted in the enactment of the Age of Consent Act in 1891
- Why I included her on this list: Along with Dr. Kadambini Ganguly, Dr. Rakhmabai was one of the first women to practice medicine in India after receiving her degree from the London School of Medicine for Women. She was also part of a high-profile court case after refusing to move in with her future husband's family at the tender age of 12 (her step-father supported her decision). The judge ruled in favor of her prospective husband, but she still refused. Her defiance brought about a discussion of the practice of child brides and consent. In 1891, legislation was enacted that changed the age of consent from 10 to 12 years across British India. Dr. Rakhmabai practiced medicine until her retirement in 1929.
16. Durga Bhabhi (Durgavati Devi): Revolutionary Freedom Fighter (1907 - 1999)
- Major achievements: Participated in an armed revolution against the British; famous for escaping with Bhagat Singh after Saunder's killing
- Why I included her on this list: As I write this, I am getting the shivers just thinking of her bravado. It reminds me of the movie Rang De Basanti in which Soha Ali Khan did justice to her character. Durga Bhabhi was one of just a few women who participated in an armed revolution against the British.
17. Indira Gandhi: Iron Lady of India (1917 - 1984)
- Major achievements: First and only female Prime Minister of India; first female recipient of the Bharat Ratna award
- Why I Included her on this list: Indira Gandhi served as Prime Minister from 1966-1977. She was a strong-willed, disciplined, and ruthless leader when it came to defending Indian interests. My father used to be a big fan of hers and collected various articles from newspapers and magazines. I too admire her. In my opinion, she is the most successful prime minister of India. Unfortunately, she was assassinated in 1984 by her Sikh bodyguards, in response to her storming of the Golden Temple.
There are two kinds of people, those who do the work and those who take the credit. Try to be in the first group; there is less competition there.
— Indira Gandhi
18. Ismat Chugthai: Urdu Literary Feminist (1915 - 1991)
- Major achievements: Recipient of the Ghalib award, Filmfare award (best story), and Padma Shri
- Why I included her on this list: Ismat Chugthai is considered the first Urdu writer who highlighted and wrote on female sexuality, femininity, and women rights. After tasting success in the literature world, she also wrote stories for mainstream cinema. Some of her notable films include Ziddi (1948), Aarzoo (1950), and Garam Hawa (1973).
She sat quietly in one corner of the sofa, the end of her sari drawn modestly over her hair. Like the motionless illusion of a madly spinning top, she was staring vacantly into space.
— Excerpt from "The Quilt & Other Stories" by Ismat Chughtai
19. Janaki Ammal: Scientist (1897 - 1984)
- Major Achievements: conducted research on sugarcane and eggplants (brinjal); first Indian woman with a Ph.D. in botany
- Why I included her on this list: The sugarcane juice that you had the other day might have been cultivated from the research findings of this lady. In India, she created a new kind of sugarcane which could grow well within the country, and which was considered good enough to put India on the sugarcane map. So next next time you quench your thirst with a glass of sugarcane juice, think of her.
20. Jijabai Shahaji Bhosale: Shivaji's Mother (1598-1674)
- Major achievements: Ideal mother; Rajmata
- Why I included her on this list: There are many stories of Jijabai and her upbringing of Shivaji, founder of Maratha Empire. It is her teachings that made Shivaji a warrior. Jijamata fostered Shivaji with faith, courage, and valor.
21. Justice Anna Chandy: First Female High Court Judge (1905 - 1996)
- Major achievements: First female judge in India; founded a magazine named Shrimati, which aimed to promote the cause of women’s rights
- Why I included her on this list: She achieved this feat in the pre-independence era in 1937. After independence, in 1948, she became a district court judge. After serving 11 years at that position, in 1959, she was promoted to the high court in Kerala. She wrote an autobiography, Atmakatha, that discussed her achievements and inspired future generations.
22. Mahaswetah Devi: Fiction Writer and Tribal Activist (1926-2016)
- Major achievements: Winner of the Sahitya Akademi Award (Bengali), Padma Vibhushan recipient
- Why I included her on this list: Apart from making a name for herself with short stories, poetry, novels, etc., she was also a vocal advocate for the rights of tribal people. Her major works include Hazar Churashir Maa and Aranyer Adhikar.
The only way to counter globalization is to have a plot of land in some central place, keep it covered in grass, let there be a single tree, even a wild tree. Let your son's tricycle lie there. Let some poor child come and play, let a bird come and use the tree. Small things. Small dreams.
— Mahaswetah Devi
23. Kalpana Chawla: Astronaut (1962 - 2003)
- Major achievement: First Indian woman in space
- Why I included her on this list: I remember when Kalpana made her way onto the Space Shuttle Columbia in 1997 since it was a big moment in India's history. At school, one of our assignments was to collect newspaper cutouts and write an essay on her. She, unfortunately, passed away in the infamous Columbia disaster in 2003 at the early age of 42. On that mission, she worked as a mission specialist and primary robotic arm operator.
When you look at the stars and the galaxy, you feel that you are not just from any particular piece of land, but from the solar system.
— Kalpana Chawla
24. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay: Social Activist (1903 - 1988)
- Major achievements: Padma Vibhushan recipient, received the Ramon Magsaysay award; first female candidate to run for a Legislative seat in India
- Why I included her on this list: Kamaladevi was a leader when it came to uplifting women. She did extensive work for women's rights and participated in the independence movement. Several cultural institutions in India today exist because of her vision, including the National School of Drama, Central Cottage Industries Emporium, and the Crafts Council of India.
25. Kamala Das: Poetess and Columnist (1934 - 2009)
- Major achievements: Winner of the Sahitya Akademi Award; widely read columnist
- Why I included her on this list: She moved to the limelight when she got her autobiography published. The controversial nature of the book worked to her advantage. Many of her columns in major newspapers were widely circulated. She again courted controversy when she converted to Islam at the age of 65 after criticising Hinduism.
Getting a man to love you is easy
Only be honest about your wants as
Woman. Stand nude before the glass with him
So that he sees himself the stronger one
And believes it so, and you so much more
Softer, younger, lovelier. Admit your
— Kamala Suraiyya Das
26. Kittur Chennamma: Queen of Kittur (1778 - 1829)
- Major achievements: Female warrior and patriot; led an armed rebellion against the British East India Company in 1824
- Why I included her on this list: When the British started annexing the many princely states of India, she was one of the first people who resisted it. She defended her state for quite some time but, unfortunately, troops could not sustain the continued assault. Eventually, she was captured and imprisoned until her death.
27. Lakshmi Sahgal: Freedom Fighter (1914 - 2012)
- Major achievements: Senior leader in the Indian National Army; Padma Vibhushan recipient
- Why I included her on this list: I'm sure you've seen photos of Subhash Chandra Bose and his army, which will almost include this young lady as she was Captain Lakshmi Swaminathan. Lakshmi had many roles in her life, including a doctor, revolutionary, and political candidate (she ran for President in 2002 but lost).
28. Lata Mangeshkar: Voice of the Millennium (1929 - )
- Major achievements: Most-Awarded Indian singer; Bharat Ratna recipient; Legion of Honor recipient
- Why I included her on this list: She is known all over the world for her melodious voice. Her career began in 1942 and has spanned over six and a half decades. There has never been a singer like her and never will be. She has sung thousands of songs and her versatility in singing is unquestioned.
From my experience and understanding, I believe money follows name and fame, while recognition calls for a huge amount of sacrifice. To get something, you have to lose something. That's the rule of life.
— Lata Mangeshkar
29. Laxmibai: Rani of Jhansi (1828 - 1858)
- Major achievement: Prominent personality in India's first war of Independence (1857)
- Why I included her on this list: She formed a volunteer army consisting not just of men, but also women. Her sacrifices made her an icon of the Indian Independence Movement. Read the poem below that captures the essence of her courage. Note that this is just an excerpt.
No one knew if she was Laxmi or Goddess Durga,
She was an epitome of bravery,
Her sword skills even awed the great Marathas.
— My translation from a poem by Subhadra Kumari Chauhan about Laxmi
30. Mah Laqa Chanda: Indian Poet (1768 - 1824)
- Major achievement: First female poet to have a diwan of her work, a compilation of Urdu Ghazals named Gulzar-e-Mahlaqa, published posthumously
- Why I included her on this list: Mah Laqa Chanda was one of the most influential women during her time and was an advisor to the royal court. In fact, she was the only woman to be given recognition publicly in Hyderabad State. Her work influenced many generations that came after her.
31. M. S. Subbulakshmi: Carnatic Singer (1916 - 2004)
- Major achievements: Known as the Queen of Music; the second woman to receive Bharat Ratna; first Indian musician to receive the Ramon Magsaysay award, often considered Asia's Nobel Prize
- Why I included her on this list: She dedicated her life to classical singing that showed the world the tradition of India. Former Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru regarded her as the "Queen of Music" after seeing her perform live.
Indian music is oriented solely to the end of divine communication. If I have done something in this respect entirely due to the grace of the Almighty who has chosen my humble self as a tool.
— M. S. Subbulakshmi
32. Madam Bhikaiji Cama: Freedom Fighter (1861 - 1936)
- Major achievement: Prominent leader in the independence struggle
- Why I included her on this list: Madam Cama was fierce in her approach and never batted an eye when it came to going the extra mile—so much so that she contracted the plague while helping other patients. Fortunately, she survived and continued her nationalistic activities until her death in 1936.
This flag is of Indian Independence! Behold, it is born! It has been made sacred by the blood of young Indians who sacrificed their lives. I call upon you, gentlemen to rise and salute this flag of Indian Independence. In the name of this flag, I appeal to lovers of freedom all over the world to support this flag.
— Madam Bhikaiji Cama
33. Matangini Hazra: Revolutionary Leader (1870 - 1942)
- Major achievement: Indian freedom fighter
- Why I included her on this list: The history books that you studied in school do not mention her, but until her last breath, she participated in various movements organized for attaining complete freedom. She, unfortunately, was shot dead by the British Indian police in 1942. She was affectionately known as Gandhiburi, which is Bengali for old lady Gandhi.
34. Mother Teresa: Founder of Missionaries of Charity (1910 - 1997)
- Major achievements: Known for her extensive work for the poor; Bharat Ratna recipient; first woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979
- Why I included her on this list: She dedicated her life to working for the poor people of India. She received many awards in India and elsewhere in the world. Through her Missionary of Charities organization, she personally cared for thousands of sick and dying people in Calcutta. She also worked tirelessly 24/7 to eradicate poverty and improve lives around the world. She is frequently featured on any list of "women who changed the world."
Spread love everywhere you go. Let no one ever come to you without leaving happier.
— Mother Teresa
35. Muthulakshmi Reddy: Physician and Social Reformer (1886 - 1968)
- Major achievements: First female legislator in India; Padma Bhushan recipient; first female student to be admitted to a men's college; first woman House Surgeon in the Government Maternity and Ophthalmic Hospital
- Why I included her on this list: The achievements above don't even cover all of the things Muthulakshmi Reddi accomplished during her lifetime. She was also a big activist and social reformer—she was one of the women pioneers who stood for the cause of liberating India from the British. And in 1954, she opened a hospital for cancer patients, Adyar Cancer Institute—it was only the second of its kind in India and is still a world-renowned institution today.
36. Onake Obavva: Female Warrior (18th Century)
- Major achievement: Fought the troops of Hyder Ali (Sultan of Mysore) all alone
- Why I included her on this list: The story of her single-handedly killing forces of Hyder Ali is now a part of the folklore. She killed Hyder Ali's army with a pestle when she saw them, effectively saving Chitradurga Fort from getting captured.
37. Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati: Social Reformer (1858 - 1922)
- Major achievements: Known as Pandita for her knowledge of Sanskrit at an early age; Saravasti recipient for her scholarly work by Calcutta University
- Why I included her on this list: In addition to her achievements above, she also participated in the freedom movement but was largely known for her advocacy of women's rights, especially in education and politics.
A life totally committed to God has nothing to fear, nothing to lose, nothing to regret.
— Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati
38. Rani Abbakka Chowta: Tuluva Queen (1525 - 1570s)
- Major achievements: Regarded as the first female freedom fighter of India; fearless queen
- Why I included her on this list: Before the British came to set East India company, it was the Portuguese who as well came to capture several parts of India. Queen Abakka defended her kingdom, Ullal, for more than 40 years. She was one of the earliest Indians to fight the colonial powers.
39. Rani Avantibai: Queen of Lodhi and a Freedom Fighter (1800 - 1858)
- Major achievement: Participated in the 1857 revolt; Lodhi queen
- Why I included her on this list: Avantibai became the queen when her husband fell ill. But she was more than capable of handling the affairs. She is often compared to Rani of Jhansi and Kittur Chenamma. She fought the British during the 1857 uprising for Independence.
40. Rani Durgavati: Queen of Gondwana (1524 - 1564)
- Major achievement: Queen of Gondwana
- Why I included her on this list: After her husband died, Rani Durgavati took control of Gondwana since her son was just five years old at the time. She fought off many attacks during her reign, but she was unable to defend her kingdom from the invasion of the Mughal forces. Rather than admit defeat, she killed herself on June 24, 1564. The day is known today as Balidan Diwas. In 1983, the University of Jabalpur was renamed as Rani Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya in her memory.
41. Rani Padmavati: Queen of Chittor (13th - 14th Century)
- Major achievement: Defended Rajput pride by self-immolation when Alauddin Khalji wanted to capture her
- Why I included her on this list: She is technically not Indian since she was born in Sri Lanka. However, in her time, it was all Hindustan so she was a Hindustani, of course. There are so many stories of her beauty and courage that you could write a book.
42. Rudrama Devi: Monarch Ruler of Kakatiya Dynasty (12th Century)
- Major achievement: Historically known as Maharaja, though she was a queen
- Why I included her on this list: As one of the most powerful female rulers of the Kakatiya dynasty, she saved her kingdom from many invasion attempts. She was one of the very few women to rule as monarchs in India and promoted herself as a male ruler in order to do so. History remembers her with exceptional qualities with no one coming close to her personality.
43. Razia Sultan: Queen of Delhi Sultanate (1205 - 1240)
- Major achievement: First and only female ruler of India
- Why I included her on this list: Some may disagree that she was the only female ruler of India, but she undoubtedly was the first. She ruled the Delhi Sultanate for a short period of four years. Her rule of law was overturned when she fell in love with Yakut (a slave in her kingdom). Her death still remains shrouded in mystery. There are claims of at least three places of her burial in Kaithal, Tonk, and Delhi.
44. Rukmini Devi Arundale: Indian Classical Dancer (1904 - 1986)
- Major achievements: Revived Bharatnatyam; Padma Bhushan recipient; the first woman to be nominated in Rajya Sabha
- Why I included her on this list: She is also featured in the list of the top 100 people who shaped India. Rukmini Devi also devoted time towards animal welfare and rights. She was once offered the post of President of India by Morarji Desai, but she chose dance over the highest office in India.
I can only say I did not consciously go after dance; it found me.
— Rukmini Devi Arundale
45. Sarla Thakral: First Indian Woman to Fly an Aircraft (1914 - 2008)
- Major achievements: The first woman to get her pilot license and clock more than 1000 hours of flying
- Why I included her on this list: Sarla Thakral was only 21 years old when she received her license to fly an aircraft. She was working towards getting licensed when her husband died in a plane crash. Later in life, she became a painter and designed clothes, jewelry, etc.
46. Savitribai Phule: Women's Rights Activist (1831 - 1897)
- Major achievements: Started the first girl's school with her husband; opened a care center for pregnant rape victims
- Why I included her on this list: Married at the age of nine, Savitri saw firsthand the plight of girls her age. This inspired her to start the first all women's school in 1848. She was also the first teacher at the school. She also opened a care center named Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha for pregnant rape victims and helped to deliver their children. She brought about many social reforms and changed the mindsets of many. The University of Pune is renamed after her—it's now known as Savitribai Phule Pune University.
47. Sitara Devi: Classical Dancer (1920 - 2014)
- Major achievement: Empress of Dance (Nritya Samragni); Kathak queen
- Description: She propagated the Kathak style of dancing and did shows all around the world. She also appeared in numerous movies as a dancer, including Mother India, Usha Haran, and Roti. However, she stopped performing in movies in 1957, saying they were adversely affecting her study in kathak On her 97th birthday, Google India dedicated its homepage by showing a doodle on her.
48. Sarojini Naidu: Freedom Fighter and Poet (1879 - 1949)
- Major achievements: Known as the "The Nightingale of India;" second Indian woman to be president of the Indian National Congress and the first to be appointed an Indian state governor
- Why I included her on this list: Sarojini Naidu, a close friend of Mahatma Gandhi, founded the Women's India Association in 1917. Having been the President of Indian National Congress in 1925, she participated in the freedom struggle. Two years before her death, India finally gained its independence as a sovereign nation, becoming the largest democracy in the world. She is also remembered for her books, including The Broken Wing and The Gift of India.
We want deeper sincerity of motive, a greater courage in speech and earnestness in action.
— Sarojini Naidu
49. Tarabai: Regent of Maratha Empire (1675 - 1761)
- Major achievement: Defended the Maratha empire against the Mughals
- Why I included her on this list: Tarabai led her army and successfully defended it against foreign powers. The widowed queen was brought to the forefront when her husband Rajaram Bhosle died. She was a genius strategist with immense political acumen.
50. Usha Mehta: Gandhian Freedom Fighter (1920 - 2000)
- Major achievements: Padma Vibhushan and host of the secret Congress Radio during Quit India movement.
- Why I included her on this list: She participated in the independence struggle and was jailed for six months for hosting a secret radio show, which provided information to various leaders who fought against the British. After independence, she became a lecturer at the University of Bombay. Usha Mehta advocated Gandhi's philosophy and teachings throughout her life.
51. Velu Nachiyar: Queen of Sivaganga Estate (1730 - 1796)
- Major achievement: First South Indian queen to fight against the East India Company of British
- Why I included her on this list: Aptly nicknamed Veeramangai—which translates into a brave woman—she successfully fought British by forming an alliance with nearby kings of princely states. Legend has it that the British never came back to conquer her kingdom while she ruled.
I did extensive research to write this article. Hope you like it and have discovered many new great personalities and are inspired by them.
Questions & Answers
Question: Who was the first Indian woman to win gold in the Asian Games?
Answer: Kamaljeet Sandhu was the first Indian woman to win a gold medal in the Asian Games. She achieved this in the 1970 Bangkok Asian Games when she ran a distance of 400 meters in 57.3 seconds.
© 2017 Aarav
Did I Miss Any? Who Do You Admire the Most?
Harsh Nakti on August 28, 2020:
Nice and helpful information
Ghosh on August 24, 2020:
Its a very well written article. I especially enjoyed the reasons accorded for the luminaries to be a part of the list.
Rani Rashmoni of Bengal: Her support for widow remarriage, finally helped Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Raja Ram Mohan Roy rally for the Act to be passed.
Dr,Kadambini Basu: Her medical feat is legendary. Along with her role in Indian Nationalism.
Kumari soni on August 15, 2020:
Thank you so much for this types information. Again thank you.
Purnima on July 26, 2020:
There is a mistake because Dr.Kadambini Ganguli also first female doctor
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Vijay on July 10, 2020:
Thanks for your article
I really appreciate it. Also read sachi kahaniyan
Shriya Popat on July 07, 2020:
The best part about this blog is that you have included women across history, parts of India and their fields of excellence. Very insightful article! Your hard work shows.
Ankit on June 22, 2020:
Thanks For The Above Information.
But there is one omission its Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj not shivaji so please sir edit that and thanks for the above information.
basanthi on June 08, 2020:
great article , thank you
M D Sugumaran on May 27, 2020:
Excellent information detailed description good history to be known to younger generation thanks a lot
A girl finding people to inspire her on May 04, 2020:
You should do some known people that are in India and not just legends and people we barely know about. But great info
A great girl on March 30, 2020:
Thank u very much, I am very happy to learn this information.
Dr.Bramarambha on March 07, 2020:
Ta for a great information.
Rahul Manjal on March 04, 2020:
Loved the way you have written this post....Wud love to hear more .... PLs share and update the list for new additions :)
Thanks again! SuperFab
NILESH G on February 05, 2020:
very nice information
Dipti m bapodra on November 26, 2019:
Superb information about Indian history
pooja on November 21, 2019:
every homen is great . she has the strenth to prove herself.
Ritwija Sarkar on November 08, 2019:
Tell me more about Rani Lakshmi Bai or Manikarnika in your reply. She is best in my opinion..Also Asha Bhosle should be alongside the legendary Lata Mangeshkar ji ...
Upendra on October 25, 2019:
Thanks for the info. I request you to add Hon. Savitri bai Phule, Maharashtra. Who have done a lot of work on women education and had a 1st women school in Pune.
soumya on October 04, 2019:
salute to mother teresa
Jithin prasad on September 29, 2019:
In my view Rani dugawati was the bravest queen because she challenged the mighty mugual Emperor Akbar with out any compramise.
Runu on August 29, 2019:
Great wotk sir. I was expecting Neerja Bhanot to be in the list too. She was also one of the bravest females of our country.
Vishal Mohanrao Baviskar. on August 24, 2019:
Really Great work Sir.
Kamini Jain on August 17, 2019:
Really very impressed with your research. Actually i was planning a women Empowerment Kitty. And searching about indian top females, but happy and proud to know about our history and women who really created HISTORY.
Aarav (author) from Mumbai on August 08, 2019:
@Amitava Excellent mention, thanks.
Amitava Hazra on August 07, 2019:
I am impressed by your research. You have identified many significant women ignored by common history books. But there is one omission. You left out Queen Didda of Kashmir. She became the ruler when her husband died in a hunting accident and her son was a minor. Although in her early twenties she proved to be an able ruler. She ruled with a stern but able hand. She put down rebellions and ensured that peace and law and order prevailed in her kingdom. But most importantly she thwarted all invasions so effectively that among the Islamic invaders her fort on the western border became known as the invincible fort. Her kingdom remained independent even more than a century after she passed away.
Swathi on July 28, 2019:
I'm crying when I was knowing them
Dr. Vinayek Jirafe on July 26, 2019:
Great work... your work is really appreciable. am sure you invested your time other than your daily routine. Bharat was rich with history and one would never be able to cover it completely. Kudos dear friend for the good work and exposing those worthy characters who were under the known debris.
LOG TOH KEHTE RAHENGE... YOU CARRY ON YOUR GOOD WORK AS PEOPLE LIKE US ONLY KNOW TO FIND OUT SHORT-COMINGS RATHER THAN APPRECIATING THE HARD AND SMART WORK.
Gayatri on July 22, 2019:
Thanks, i like your collection
Harshal sagar on July 12, 2019:
Thanks very much
jithinprasad on June 24, 2019:
june- 24 1964 was the "balidan diwas"of the greatest queen of medievial india RANI DURGAWATI THE GREAT.REMEMBER HER SACRIFICE FOR THE SAKE OF OUR MOTHERLAND
Prabhavati gupta on June 13, 2019:
Can u plz give some info related to prabhavati gupta
NSSReddy on April 16, 2019:
A very good collection.
Najat on March 29, 2019:
everyone do or did a great thing at his life, but sadly, people do not always realize that
aniket khatal on March 12, 2019:
Very nic but you miss one name BHIMABAI HOLKAR who first women fight against BRITISH PARLMENT
Anonymous on March 11, 2019:
Why isn't Ramabai Ranade included in the list? She did so much for women.
chandini on March 08, 2019:
You missed our savitri.Who Sacrifice her happiness for her family and spoiled her own life by herself.
Aarav (author) from Mumbai on March 07, 2019:
@Srikanth Thanks for sharing this information.
Ritwija Sarkar on March 07, 2019:
Rani Laskhmibai or Manikarnika best.can you tell me more abojt her
Srikanth on March 07, 2019:
There were many Queens in Chola dynasty who had donated / constructed temples. Sembiyan Mahadevi, Kunthavi Nachiyar, Panchavan Mahadevi etc.,.They all lived in 09th Century to 12th century. Inscrpitions can be seen in Tanjore Temple, Gangai Konda Cholapuram, Utheramerur temple
Jaishree on March 05, 2019:
very nice compilation!
Ritheka on March 05, 2019:
THE WOMENS MENTIONED ARE REALLY GREAT
WISH ALL WOMEN ADVANCE HAPPY WOMENS DAY
arati on March 04, 2019:
R MURALI KRISHNA on February 20, 2019:
y u had forget
pativratas of India
they r pearls of India
plz add them
Snehl on February 18, 2019:
So ai on February 18, 2019:
This is so amazing! Kuddos to the author!!! I will be sharing this on my feminist page on instagram and will be giving the link to this page too so that more people can read it. Great research work....
oof on February 12, 2019:
I loved all the people that u put on
S on January 23, 2019:
KRUSHNA on January 10, 2019:
you miss two names that is Jijau MASAHEB and SAVITRIBAI PHULE
Daniel J Hurst from London on January 01, 2019:
Great article but you missed Phoolan Devi. Also wasn't Mother Theresa Albanian? Though to be fair she spent her life in Calcutta.
Thilagavathy V.M. Advocate - High Court of Madras on December 28, 2018:
I praise your sincere effort to get hold of these great women of India. May u too become one of them soon though I do not know your name
Dhanya on December 27, 2018:
Thank you so much..
Khubi on December 14, 2018:
Ravindra s yadav on December 04, 2018:
Most important & helpful information.thanks.
Yashwi on November 25, 2018:
annesha on November 18, 2018:
this was a really helpful article for my project work!
Guru on November 15, 2018:
Aarav (author) from Mumbai on October 24, 2018:
Good to hear that. Thanks.
Tim Truzy from U.S.A. on October 23, 2018:
Intriguing and rewarding article. Having several friends from India, I am pleased to learn a little more about the history of the noble people there through your work. The information in your article will enhance my conversations with my friends and make our friendships even stronger.
I enjoyed this article immensely.
Much respect and admiration,
Gaurav Daniel Narula from New Delhi on October 08, 2018:
God bless you abundantly for your so called extensive research..!
Aarav (author) from Mumbai on September 18, 2018:
@Aditya Sharma Thanks for the kind words.
Aditya Sharma on September 18, 2018:
One of the most influential article I have read in recent times. I will hearty thank you for bringing these information on a single platform. Gr8 Work !!! :)
Jithin prasad on August 14, 2018:
Where is the legendary queen of india Rani Durgavati the great warrior queen of gondwana
Akhila on July 05, 2018:
Thank you so much
Sumit Mittal on June 10, 2018:
Thanks a lot
Harsha on June 09, 2018:
Absolutely not, Rani Padmavati was quite famous before "Padmavati" movie also.
For indians she was,she is n she will be a great respectable personality.
UTPALA on May 27, 2018:
i BELIEVE IT IS RANI PADMINI. THE NAME PADMAVATI HAS BECOME FAMOUS DUE TO THE MOVIE.
Aarav (author) from Mumbai on January 03, 2018:
@Natalie Thanks for the share. I loved researching this article and it was very inspirational.
Natalie Frank from Chicago, IL on January 03, 2018:
Fascinating article! I am ashamed to say before reading this the number of women listed hear that I had heard of I could count on one hand. Thanks for an educational and interesting read. I will be posting it on my Facebook page for my friends to read as well.