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11 Ways Ancient Greece Influenced Modern Society

Langston studies international politics and is interested in ancient civilizations, international politics, and geography.

Alexander Mosaic showing Alexander the Great.

Alexander Mosaic showing Alexander the Great.

The Greek Influence

The culture of Greece evolved over thousands of years, and is widely considered to be the cradle of modern Western culture. Political systems and procedures like democracy, trial by jury and lawful equality originated there.

Ancient Grecian thinkers laid the intellectual foundations of many fields of study. Whether it be astrology, mathematics, biology, engineering, medicine or linguistics, nearly all of the information we take for granted today was first discovered by the ancient Greeks.

The Greeks also established many of the standards by which identify beauty and creative value in art, including literature, music, architecture, design and the performing arts.

In short, if you live in the West, you are more like an ancient Grecian than you may realize. This article highlights some of Greece's most significant contributions to Western culture.

11 Greek Contributions to Western Civilization

  1. Democracy
  2. The Alphabet
  3. The Library
  4. The Olympics
  5. Science and Mathematics
  6. Architecture
  7. Mythology
  8. The Lighthouse
  9. Standardized Medicine
  10. Trial by Jury
  11. The Theater

1. Democracy

According to Merriam-Webster, a democracy is "a form of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation, usually involving periodic free elections."

The ancient Greeks created the world’s first democracy. Athens started out with a monarchy, advanced to an oligarchy, and then finally reached a democracy. The democratic government consisted of 6,000 assembly members, all of whom were adult male citizens, and they voted on issues throughout Athens. In order for a law to pass, the number of votes needed to be a majority. But, in order to banish or exile someone, all 6,000 votes were needed.

Today in the United States, we use a democratic system. But instead of a direct democracy, we have a representative democracy in which citizens democratically vote on who should make political decisions. This is different than ancient Greece's direct democracy, where citizens voted on the decision itself, rather than choosing people to make the decision.

2. The Alphabet

Derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, the Greek alphabet was the first alphabet in the western sense of the word, featuring distinct letters for vowels and consonants. It was developed after the Dark Ages and consisted of 24 letters ordered from alpha to omega.

The word "alphabet" actually originates from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet: alpha and beta. Many letters of our modern alphabet originated in ancient Greece, like the letters A, B, E, and O. The Greek alphabet originally had a single form for each letter, but eventually created upper and lower case letters.

The first library in the world was built in Egypt, at the time a Greek city-state after submitting to Alexander the Great's rule.

The first library in the world was built in Egypt, at the time a Greek city-state after submitting to Alexander the Great's rule.

3. The Library

The first library in the world, the Library of Alexandria, was actually built in Egypt. However, at the time Egypt was under Greek control after submitting to Alexander the Great’s rule. The Macedonians spread the Greek way of life to all of their conquered lands, including Egypt. After Alexander’s death, there was a power struggle and the Kingdom of Egypt came under the rule of Alexander’s general, Ptolemy.

Ptolemy ordered the construction of a library to contain over 700,000 scrolls of work. There was also a rule that all ships passing through the Alexandrian harbor had to declare if they had any works of science or philosophy. If they did, the work was copied and placed in the library, and the original was returned to the captain.

Because of this accumulation of knowledge, many great discoveries took place in the library. For example, it was there that Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth and drew up plans for steam power.

Today we have libraries all over the world that collectively house billions of works of art and literature. But, the first library in the world was the Library of Alexandria.

The Olympic flame for the Vancouver Winter Games (2010).

The Olympic flame for the Vancouver Winter Games (2010).

4. The Olympics

The Olympic Games lasted from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century BCE before dying out. They were so named because they started in the city of Olympia in ancient Greece. They were held every four years in honor of the king god, Zeus, and participants came from ancient Greek city-states and their colonies. Prizes for winning were fame and glory. Statues of winners were erected and sometimes winners' faces were put on coins.

Panhellenic Games

Ancient Greece also staged other sports festivals:

  • Pythian Games, held in honor of the sun god, Apollo
  • Isthmian Games, held in honor of the sea god, Poseidon
  • Nemean Games, also held in honor of Zeus

What Are the Origins of the Modern Olympic Games?

Today, we celebrate the Olympic Games in both summer and winter, continuing some of the old traditions, like olive leaf crowns, the lighting of the flame, and the opening and closing ceremonies.

The modern Olympic Games was the brainchild of Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Seeing an opportunity to bring the world together through sport, Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on June 23, 1894.

In tribute to ancient Greece, the first Olympics staged by the IOC was held in Athens during the summer of 1896. The 1896 Games brought together 14 nations and 241 athletes who competed in 43 events.

The Olympic Rings were designed by Baron Pierre de Coubertin.

The Olympic Rings were designed by Baron Pierre de Coubertin.

What Is the Meaning of the Olympic Rings?

The Olympic Rings were designed by Baron Pierre de Coubertin in 1912. The black, yellow, green and red rings against a white background were intended to represent the five participating continents: Africa, Asia, Oceania (Australia/Polynesia), America, and Europe. They were also the colors of the flags of the first group of participating countries.

Upon releasing the design, Coubertin said:

"The six colors [including the flag's white background] combined in this way reproduce the colors of every country without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the tricolor flags of France, England, the United States, Germany, Belgium, Italy and Hungary, and the yellow and red of Spain are included, as are the innovative flags of Brazil and Australia, and those of ancient Japan and modern China. This, truly, is an international emblem."

What Does the Olympic Flame Symbolize?

Another common symbol of the Olympic Games is the flame. The idea came from ancient Greece, where a sacred fire was kept burning throughout the Olympics in tribute to Hestia, Greek goddess of the hearth.

The tradition of lighting an Olympic flame was reintroduced during the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. The torch relay was then added at the Berlin Games in 1936.

5. Science and Mathematics

Along with being the birthplace of many great mathematicians, Greece was also the mother country of many famous scientists.

Archimedes

Archimedes is generally considered the greatest mathematician of all time. He anticipated modern calculus, geometrical theorems, and learned to calculate the area of geometric shapes, including the circle and sphere.

Some of Archimedes other achievements include coming up with an accurate approximation of pi and designing effective levers and pulleys. One of his famous quotes was, "Give me a lever long enough and I will move the Earth!"

Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes was a mathematician, geographer, and astronomer and the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth. He did this by comparing the altitudes of the midday sun at two different locations. He also calculated the tilt of the Earth's axis, and eventually became the chief librarian of the Library of Alexandria.

Aristarchus of Samos

Aristarchus was the first to create a heliocentric model of the universe, with the Earth revolving around the sun once a year and rotating about its axis once a day. He also placed the planets of the solar system around the sun in the right order, and thought stars were similar to other celestial bodies like the sun.

In the 16th century, Nicolaus Copernicus advocated his version of the heliocentric theory and there's some dispute as to whether he was aware of Aristarchus work 18 centuries earlier.

Hipparchus

Hipparchus is generally known as the greatest astronomer of antiquity. He developed the first models depicting the movement of the sun and the moon, and may have been the first to predict solar eclipses.

6. Architecture

The most famous example of Greek architecture is the Parthenon, a former temple located on the Acropolis. Its most distinctive feature are its many columns: seventeen on the sides and eight columns at either end, inside of which is a second row of six columns.

Today, columns are used in many public buildings, like churches and libraries. For example, there are columns throughout Washington D.C., including the U.S. Capitol, the Supreme Court Building, the Russell Senate Office Building and the Cannon House Office Building.

What Inspired Greek Architecture?

Ancient Greek architectural structures were designed with the gods in mind. Sometimes this is obvious. The Temples of Zeus, Hera, and Artemis are so named. However, both the Parthenon and Erechtheion were dedicated to the goddess Athena.

Greek design is characterized by precision, adornment, largesse, and synergy. All elements are designed to complement and relate to one another.

Because Greek structures were inspired by the gods, there is irony in the fact that most contemporary buildings mimicking Greek style are secular, government centers.

Corinthian order seen in Helsinki Lutheran Cathedral.

Corinthian order seen in Helsinki Lutheran Cathedral.

Three Orders of Classical Greek Architecture

Architectural orders are defined by column design and entablature (the ornate molding at the top of each column). In fact, through these columns you can track the aesthetic development of Greek architecture.

The three classical orders are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, each described below.

Doric

Originating on the mainland and western Greece, the Doric order is the simplest of the orders and is characterized by short, faceted columns with unembellished, round capitals (tops) and no base. The columns are the smallest of the orders and are channelled with 20 flutes.

Ionic

Originating in eastern Greece, the ionic order is characterized by long and slender fluted pillars with a large base and two opposing scrolls built into the capital. The scrolls are often engraved with an egg-and-dart motif, and the pillars feature four more flutes than Doric columns.

Corinthian

Considered the most elegant of the three orders, the Corinthian order features ornate fluted columns and capitals studded with two rows of acanthus leaves and four scrolls. The shaft of the Corinthian column has 24 flutes.

The oldest known building designed in the Corinthian order is the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, which was constructed from 335 to 334 BCE.

 The François Vase is dated to 570/560 BCE and includes numerous figures from Greek mythology, including Theseus and Achilles.

The François Vase is dated to 570/560 BCE and includes numerous figures from Greek mythology, including Theseus and Achilles.

7. Mythology

Some of the most famous myths of ancient Greece are tales of Perseus, Theseus, and of course, Hercules. The Greeks often used these myths to explain things that science couldn't prove, but today we mostly enjoy them for entertainment purposes.

Greek mythology has pervaded nearly every form of popular culture. Many Greek myths have been adapted into modern novels, movies, TV shows, video games and even brands, sometimes without people even realizing it. Some well-known instances of Greek mythology in pop culture are:

  • Disney’s Hercules
  • The bestselling novel Percy Jackson and the Olympians
  • The God of War video game franchise
  • The TV show Battlestar Galactica
  • Mary Shelley's Gothic novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus
  • The athletic brand Nike (Nike was the Greek goddess of victory)
  • The use of the term "Achilles' heel" to describe a weak spot
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, built under the rule of Ptolemy.

The Lighthouse of Alexandria, built under the rule of Ptolemy.

8. The Lighthouse

Like the first library, the first lighthouse in the world was located in the Greek-controlled Egyptian city of Alexandria. The structure was called the Lighthouse of Alexandria, or the Pharos of Alexandria. Taller than the Statue of Liberty, it was the second tallest structure of its day (only the Great Pyramid of Giza was taller).

The lighthouse had three layers:

  • A square-shaped base
  • An octagonal mid section
  • A round beacon on top

The lighthouse could be seen by fire at night, and by the smoke of the fire by day. Sadly, the lighthouse was destroyed by earthquakes, but it set the model for all future lighthouses.

9. Standardized Medicine

While medicine was practiced in Babylon, China, India, and Egypt, the Greeks were the first to create a standardized system of medicine, including diagnosis, prognosis, and medical ethics. The manner in which the medical practice is carried out today, in terms of diagnosis and sometimes of treatment, is very similar to that of the ancient Greeks. These ancient advancements in medicine were largely instituted by Hippocrates, who is often called the "father of medicine."

Hippocrates sculpture in front of Mayne Medical School, Brisbane, 2021

Hippocrates sculpture in front of Mayne Medical School, Brisbane, 2021

The Innovations of Hippocrates

Aside from theories and ethics about how physicians should practice medicine, Hippocrates made direct contributions to the application of medicine. He taught that all ailments had natural causes in a time when people believed that illnesses were punishments from the gods. Some of Hippocrates' contributions include:

Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath is a historical sworn statement by physicians in which they swear by the names of a number of healing gods to uphold specific ethical standards. These include principles such as medical confidentiality and non-maleficence (aka "do no harm").

Below is a excerpt from the full text of the Hippocratic Oath, which remains a rite of passage for some medical graduates.

"I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment, but never with a view to injury and wrong-doing. Neither will I administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a course. Similarly I will not give to a woman a pessary to cause abortion. But I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art. I will not use the knife, not even, verily, on sufferers from stone, but I will give place to such as are craftsmen therein."

Diagnosis of Medical Conditions

Hippocrates was the first medical practitioner to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic, and epidemic. He was also the first to introduce terms such as exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and convalescence.

Treatment

When it came to broken bones, hemorrhoids, and other ailments, Hippocrates and his followers came up with advanced treatments that reduced pain and sped up recovery. He employed the use of cauterization and excision to treat hemorrhoids, and in some cases these methods are still used today.

A trial by jury today functions much the same as it did in ancient Greece.

A trial by jury today functions much the same as it did in ancient Greece.

10. Trial by Jury

The citizens of ancient Athens were the first to employ trial by jury. Jurors were required to be male citizens of Athens, and a mechanism known as dikastaí ensured that no person could select jurors for their own trial.

Normal cases summoned a jury of up to 500 jurors. For more serious cases, like those involving death, up to 1,501 jurors could be summoned. With so many jurors, the unanimity rule employed in today's courts would not work, so the verdicts of ancient Athens were reached by majority. Jurors were compensated one day's wages for sitting in court.

How Does Trial by Jury Work?

A trial by jury today works much the same as it did in the time of ancient Greece. After hearing the final arguments of the defendant or their legal representative, the jury—which consists of 12 citizens in the United States—leaves the courtroom and enters deliberation.

In nearly all cases, the jury must come to a unanimous decision of either guilty or not guilty. If the jurors cannot agree on a verdict in a reasonable amount of time the result is called a hung jury, which leads to a mistrial. Thus, the case must be tried again before a new jury.

The great theater of Epidaurus, designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century BC.

The great theater of Epidaurus, designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century BC.

11. The Theater

If you've ever gone to a concert, play, or movie, you've benefited from one of the ancient Greeks' most obvious contributions to the modern world: the theater.

The word "theater" is derived from the Greek word "theatron," meaning the seating section of outdoor arenas where people watched plays. The first western theater originated in Athens, and was, like many other ancient Greek theaters, a semi-circular structure cut into a hillside capable of seating 10,000 to 20,000 people.

Theater as Physical Space

The standard Greek theater consisted of three sections: a dancing floor, a dressing room, and a scene-building area. The acoustics of the theater were one of its most important features, allowing the words of the exclusively male actors to be heard by everyone within earshot.

The ancient Greeks loved plays and each town had its own performing company which competed against companies of neighboring towns.

Theater as Art

Beside creating the physical structure of a theater, the ancient Greeks also created "theater," the art form which employs actors, stage setting and sometimes music to create a story—usually a comedy, tragedy or satyr play—in the 6th century BCE.

Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides

The first playwrights (as we use the word today) originated in Greece with men like Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. These men deserve the credit for creating theater as we know it, and have had a major impact on how storytellers throughout the ages have chosen to deliver their narratives.

The Temple of Hera, also known as "Temple E," at Castelvetrano, Sicily, Italy.

The Temple of Hera, also known as "Temple E," at Castelvetrano, Sicily, Italy.

Greek Influence

Sources and Further Reading

© 2010 Anonemuss

Comments

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The first library was built in the Assyrian capital city of Nineveh.

The first alphabet was used by Hebrew slaves in Egyptian copper mines of the Sinai Peninsula between 1800 and 1500 BC. They assigned an Egyptian hieroglyph to each Hebrew sound. As Israel left Egypt after the fall of the Middle Kingdom, they setup life in Canaan. The Phoenicians then standardized this alphabet. The Greek alphabet is Semitic in origin.

Jonathan on April 01, 2020:

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Miakim on March 04, 2020:

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Ancient Rome had a large influence on the modern world. Though it has been thousands of years since the Roman Empire flourished, we can still see evidence of it in our art, architecture, technology, literature, language, and law. From bridges and stadiums to books and the words we hear every day, the ancient Romans have left their mark on our world.

Art and Architecture

Ancient Romans have had a tremendous impact on art and architecture. We can find traces of Roman influence in forms and structures throughout the development of Western culture.

Although the Romans were heavily influenced by ancient Greece, they were able to make improvements to certain borrowed Greek designs and inventions. For example, they continued the use of columns, but the form became more decorative and less structural in Roman buildings. Ancient Romans created curved roofs and large-scale arches, which were able to support more weight than the post-and-beam construction the Greeks used. These arches served as the foundation for the massive bridges and aqueducts the Romans created. The game-loving ancients also built large amphitheaters, including the Colosseum. The sports stadiums we see today, with their oval shapes and tiered seating, derive from the basic idea the Romans developed.

The arches of the Colosseum are made out of cement, a remarkably strong building material the Romans made with what they had at hand: volcanic ash and volcanic rock. Modern scientists believe that the use of this ash is the reason that structures like the Colosseum still stand today. Roman underwater structures proved to be even sturdier. Seawater reacting with the volcanic ash created crystals that filled in the cracks in the concrete. To make a concrete this durable, modern builders must reinforce it with steel. So today, scientists study Roman concrete, hoping to match the success of the ancient master builders.

Sculptural art of the period has proven to be fairly durable, too. Romans made their statues out of marble, fashioning monuments to great human achievements and achievers. You can still see thousands of Roman artifacts today in museums all over the world.

Technology and Science

Ancient Romans pioneered advances in many areas of science and technology, establishing tools and methods that have ultimately shaped the way the world does certain things.

The Romans were extremely adept engineers. They understood the laws of physics well enough to develop aqueducts and better ways to aid water flow. They harnessed water as energy for powering mines and mills. They also built an expansive road network, a great achievement at the time. Their roads were built by laying gravel and then paving with rock slabs. The Roman road system was so large, it was said that “all roads lead to Rome.”

Along with large-scale engineering projects, the Romans also developed tools and methods for use in agriculture. The Romans became successful farmers due to their knowledge of climate, soil, and other planting-related subjects. They developed or refined ways to effectively plant crops and to irrigate and drain fields. Their techniques are still used by modern farmers, such as crop rotation, pruning, grafting, seed selection, and manuring. The Romans also used mills to process their grains from farming, which improved their efficiency and employed many people.

Literature and Language

Much of the literature of the world has been greatly influenced by the literature of the ancient Romans. During what is considered the “Golden Age of Roman Poetry,” poets such as Virgil, Horace, and Ovid produced works that have had an everlasting impact. Ovid’s Metamorphoses, for example, inspired authors such as Chaucer, Milton, Dante, and Shakespeare. Shakespeare, in particular, was fascinated by the ancient Romans, who served as the inspiration for some of his plays, including Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra.

While Roman literature had a deep impact on the rest of the world, it is important to note the impact that the Roman language has had on the Western world. Ancient Romans spoke Latin, which spread throughout the world with the increase of Roman political power. Latin became the basis for a group of languages referred to as the “Romance languages.” These include French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Catalan. Many Latin root words are also the foundation for many English words. The English alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet. Along with that, a lot of Latin is still used in the present-day justice system.

Law

The use of Latin words is not the only way the ancient Romans have influenced the Western justice system. Although the Roman justice system was extremely harsh in its punishments, it did serve as a rough outline of how court proceedings happen today. For example, there was a preliminary hearing, much like there is today, where the magistrate decided whether or not there was actually a case. If there were grounds for a case, a prominent Roman citizen would try the case, and witnesses and evidence would be presented. Roman laws and their court system have served as the foundation for many countries’ justice systems, such as the United States and much of Europe.

The ancient Romans helped lay the groundwork for many aspects of the modern world. It is no surprise that a once-booming empire was able to impact the world in so many ways and leave a lasting legacy behind.

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The culture of Greece was evolved over thousands of years, and is widely considered to be the cradle of modern Western culture. This is because political systems and procedures such as democracy, trial by jury and lawful equality originated there.

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Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts. Separated they live in Bookmarksgrove right at the coast of the Semantics, a large language ocean. A small river named Duden flows by their place and supplies it with the necessary regelialia. It is a paradisematic country, in which roasted parts of sentences fly into your mouth. Even the all-powerful Pointing has no control about the blind texts it is an almost unorthographic life One day however a small line of blind text by the name of Lorem Ipsum decided to leave for the far World of Grammar. The Big Oxmox advised her not to do so, because there were thousands of bad Commas, wild Question Marks and devious Semikoli, but the Little Blind Text didn’t listen. She packed her seven versalia, put her initial into the belt and made herself on the way. When she reached the first hills of the Italic Mountains, she had a last view back on the skyline of her hometown Bookmarksgrove, the headline of Alphabet Village and the subline of her own road, the Line Lane. Pityful a rethoric question ran over her cheek, then she continued her way. On her way she met a copy. The copy warned the Little Blind Text, that where it came from it would have been rewritten a thousand times and everything that was left from its origin would be the word "and" and the Little Blind Text should turn around and return to its own, safe country. But nothing the copy said could convince her and so it didn’t take long until a few insidious Copy Writers ambushed her, made her drunk with Longe and Parole and dragged her into their agency, where they abused her for their projects again and again. And if she hasn’t been rewritten, then they are still using her. Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts. Separated they live in Bookmarksgrove right at the coast of the Semantics, a large language ocean. A small river named Duden flows by their place and supplies it with the necessary regelialia. It is a paradisematic country, in which roasted parts of sentences fly into your mouth. Even the all-powerful Pointing has no control about the blind texts it is an almost unorthographic life One day however a small line of blind text by the name of Lorem Ipsum decided to leave for the far World of Grammar. The Big Oxmox advised her not to do so, because there were thousands of bad Commas, wild Question Marks and devious Semikoli, but the Little Blind Text didn’t listen. She packed her seven versalia, put her initial into the belt and made herself on the way. When she reached the first hills of the Italic Mountains, she had a last view back on the skyline of her hometown Bookmarksgrove, the headline of Alphabet Village and the subline of her own road, the Line Lane. Pityful a rethoric question ran over her cheek, then she continued her way. On her way she met a copy. The copy warned the Little Blind Text, that where it came from it would have been rewritten a thousand times and everything that was left from its origin would be the word "and" and the Little Blind Text should turn around and return to its own, safe country. But nothing the copy said could convince her and so it didn’t take long until a few insidious Copy Writers ambushed her, made her drunk with Longe and Parole and dragged her into their agency, where they abused her for their projects again and again. And if she hasn’t been rewritten, then they are still using her. Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts. Separated they live in Bookmarksgrove right at the coast of the Semantics, a large language ocean. A small river named Duden flows by their place and supplies it with the necessary regelialia. It is a paradisematic country, in which roasted parts of sentences fly into your mouth. Even the all-powerful Pointing has no control about the blind texts it is an almost unorthographic life One day however a small line of blind text by the name of Lorem Ipsum decided to leave for the far World of Grammar. The Big Oxmox advised her not to do so, because there were thousands of bad Commas, wild Question Marks and devious Semikoli, but the Little Blind Text didn’t listen. She packed her seven versalia, put her initial into the belt and made herself on the way. When she reached the first hills of the Italic Mountains, she had a last view back on the skyline of her hometown Bookmarksgrove, the headline of Alphabet Village and the subline of her own road, the Line Lane. Pityful a rethoric question ran over her cheek, then she continued her way. On her way she met a copy. The copy warned the Little Blind Text, that where it came from it would have been rewritten a thousand times and everything that was left from its origin would be the word "and" and the Little Blind Text should turn around and return to its own, safe country. But nothing the copy said could convince her and so it didn’t take long until a few insidious Copy Writers ambushed her, made her drunk with Longe and Parole and dragged her into their agency, where they abused her for their projects again and again. And if she hasn’t been rewritten, then they are still using her. Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts. Separated they live in Bookmarksgrove right at the coast of the Semantics, a large language ocean. A small river named Duden flows by their place and supplies it with the necessary regelialia. It is a paradisematic country, in which roasted parts of sentences fly into your mouth. Even the all-powerful Pointing has no control about the blind texts it is an almost unorthographic life One day however a small line of blind text by the name of Lorem Ipsum decided to leave for the far World of Grammar. The Big Oxmox advised her not to do so, because there were thousands of bad Commas, wild Question Marks and devious Semikoli, but the Little Blind Text didn’t listen. She packed her seven versalia, put her initial into the belt and made herself on the way. When she reached the first hills of the Italic Mountains, she had a last view back on the skyline of her hometown Bookmarksgrove, the headline of Alphabet Village and the subline of her own road, the Line Lane. Pityful a rethoric question ran over her cheek, then she continued her way. On her way she met a copy. The copy warned the Little Blind Text, that where it came from it would have been rewritten a thousand times and everything that was left from its origin would be the word "and" and the Little Blind Text should turn around and return to its own, safe country. But nothing the copy said could convince her and so it didn’t take long until a few insidious Copy Writers ambushed her, made her drunk with Longe and Parole and dragged her into their agency, where they abused her for their projects again and again. And if she hasn’t been rewritten, then they are still using her. Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts. Separated they live in Bookmarksgrove right at the coast of the Semantics, a large language ocean. A small river named Duden flows by their place and supplies it with the necessary regelialia. It is a paradisematic country, in which roasted parts of sentences fly into your mouth. Even the all-powerful Pointing has no control about the blind texts it is an almost unorthographic life One day however a small line of blind text by the name of Lorem Ipsum decided to leave for the far World of Grammar. The Big Oxmox advised her not to do so, because there were thousands of bad Commas, wild Question Marks and devious Semikoli, but the Little Blind Text didn’t listen. She packed her seven versalia, put her initial into the belt and made herself on the way. When she reached the first hills of the Italic Mountains, sh

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Julianna Kufeldt on July 28, 2019:

This article is total bullshit. Many other civilizations contributed to these ideas and the Greeks -yes- were apart of the development too- but it is very naive to say the fully INVENTED all of these concepts. This is another way to idealize Greeks and western culture. This is not real research!

danika espinoza on July 23, 2019:

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Ndahimana Elysee on June 16, 2019:

We thank the Owlcation groupe and the Greeks for the good civilidatiin

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wow I just finished an ancient greek essay and I used this for info so thanks

Cristiano Ronaldo on May 22, 2019:

gracias for the help but Alexander the great looks like peter griffin

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