Harriet Lane: Unmarried First Lady of the United States
Portrait of Harriet Lane with Coast Guard Ship Named After Her
16th First Lady and the President's Niece
You probably didn't know it is possible to be the First Lady of the United States and not be married to the president. While most First Ladies in history have been wives of presidents, there are a few exceptions. Harriet Lane, niece to President James Buchanan, served as First Lady from 1857 to 1861 during the presidency of her uncle. Buchanan, a confirmed bachelor, was the only president that never married.
Harriet's mother died when she was only 8 years old and her father passed away when she was just 11. Buchanan then became the legal guardian for both Harriet and her sister.
He arranged for an excellent education for Harriet as well as extensive travels abroad where she met Queen Victoria and was introduced to London society. The beautiful and cheerful little girl from Pennsylvania grew up to be admired by many people around the world.
First Lady Lane's White House China was Modernistic for the Time Period
A Trendsetter in Her Time
Harriet, whose nickname was "Hal", was quite a beauty with gold hair. When she became First Lady, women copied her hair and sense of style. Some were amazed when she lowered the neckline of her inaugural gown, but they followed suit nonetheless.
First Lady Lane used her position to improve living conditions for the Native Americans living on reservations. She became known to the Chippewa Nation as the "Great Mother of the Indians". She also brought culture to the White House by featuring musicians and artists at presidential functions.
She Aged Beautifully
Life After the White House
After her uncle's term in office, she returned to his estate near Lancaster, Pennsylvania. She had many suitors but no desire to marry any of them. That changed when she was 35 years old and met and married Henry Johnston, a banker from Baltimore. They had two sons together.
Sadly, over the course of a few years, she suffered tremendous heartache through the deaths of those close to her. First, her beloved uncle died shortly after her marriage. Later, she lost her husband and became a widow when she was only in her 50's. Then, both of her sons died as teenagers from rheumatic fever.
She donated a large sum of money to build a home for invalid children at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. Today, it is known as the Harriet Lane Outpatient Clinic and serves many children in countries around the world. She continued to be a great benefactress after her death in 1903 at age 73, with the construction of a school building on the grounds of Washington National Cathedral. She also established a fund to provide for the education of the choirboys in service at the Cathedral, hence, the founding of well known St. Alban's School.
Her role as First Lady began after her uncle succeeded President Franklin Pierce. Mrs. Pierce had been a very shy and sad First Lady who was in ill health. She had lost her three sons while they were still children. Her last son was killed just a few days before her husband's inauguration in a terrible train accident. Mrs. Pierce witnessed her son being decapitated and she never recovered from the loss. She was in a period of mourning throughout most of President Pierce's term.
Americans were ready to escape the sadness that had been entrenched in the White House for 4 years. Harriet Lane, with her youthfulness and beauty, became extremely popular not only in the United States but around the world. In her honor, flowers, perfumes, and poems were named after her. Even though Harriet was only in her twenties, she had the poise and charm to host lavish weekly White House dinners and receptions. She quickly became known as "The Democratic Queen" by the Washington press corps.
Harriet grew to be even more beautiful as she aged. Many people of her time period likened her to the vivacious Dolley Madison, wife of President James Madison. Little did they know, 100 years later another First Lady would bring the same social graces, charm, sense of style and elegance to the White House. Like Harriet, she would have the same love for the arts and dedication to social causes. She would also be treated as royalty living in Camelot. Her name would be Jacqueline Kennedy.
Harriet Rebecca Lane
Born: May 9, 1830 in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania
Died: July 3, 1903 in Narragansett, Rhode Island
First Lady of the United States, 1857-1861, during the presidency of her uncle, James Buchanan.
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© 2012 Thelma Raker Coffone