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Harry S. Truman: 33rd President

Updated on February 7, 2017

Official Presidential Portrait

Source

The Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

On entering the White House after Franklin Roosevelt died on April 12,1945, Harry S. Truman told newspaper reporters, "I've got the most awful responsibility a man ever had. If you fellows ever pray, pray for me." He was referring to the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan. Though he knew that it would end the war and save lives, it was unknown what the lasting effects would be, as it had never been used before.

Although he was FDR's Vice President, prior to going into office, he knew very little about the war and nothing about the development of the atomic bomb. FDR did not communicate much with his Vice President. Truman was chosen, not because he was the preferred man for the job, but because he was a compromise between Roosevelt and the Democratic party. Although Roosevelt eventually chose him, he did not know him well and had not yet grown to fully trust him before he died. Due to being kept in the dark, when the new President was suddenly thrust into the position, he told reporters, "I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me."

Fortunately, Germany surrendered on May 7th, less than a month into his presidency, but he still had to decide how to defend the US against Japan. A team tested the first atomic bomb in a New Mexico desert in Alamogordo to see what effects it might have. An amazing sight appeared as a mushroom cloud rose 41,000 feet into the air, leaving behind a crater with a glassy, radioactive crust a half mile wide.

After this test, the US sent an urgent plea to Japan to surrender. They did not; therefore Truman made the very hard decision to drop an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, waited three days then another on Nagasaki. It was six days after the second bomb, in which Japan finally surrendered officially ending WWI on August 15, 1945.

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List of United States Presidents

1. George Washington

2. John Adams

3. Thomas Jefferson

4. James Madison

5. James Monroe

6. John Quincy Adams

7. Andrew Jackson

8. Martin Van Buren

9. William Henry Harrison

10. John Tyler

11. James K. Polk

12. Zachary Taylor

13. Millard Fillmore

14. Franklin Pierce

15. James Buchanan

16. Abraham Lincoln

17. Andrew Johnson

18. Ulysses S. Grant

19. Rutherford B. Hayes

20. James Garfield

21. Chester A. Arthur

22. Grover Cleveland

23. Benjamin Harrison

24. Grover Cleveland

25. William McKinley

26. Theodore Roosevelt

27. William Howard Taft

28. Woodrow Wilson

29. Warren G. Harding

30. Calvin Coolidge

31. Herbert Hoover

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt

33.Harry S. Truman

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower

35. John F. Kennedy

36. Lyndon B. Johnson

37. Richard M. Nixon

38. Gerald R. Ford

39. James Carter

40. Ronald Reagan

41. George H. W. Bush

42. William J. Clinton

43. George W. Bush

44. Barack Obama

45. Donald Trump

Truman as Captain and Senator

Although before he became President and made this infamous decision, he lived a much more modest life. He was born in Lamar, Missouri on May 8, 1884 and grew up in Independence. For many years he managed the family farm, but what he really wanted to do was go to West Point. Unfortunately, poor eyesight stopped his dream from coming into fruition, so he did the next best thing and joined the National Guard where he fought in France during WWI as a captain in the Field Artillery.

When he returned home he got married to Elizabeth Virginia Wallace and ran a clothing store in Kansas CIty. He was very active in the Democratic Party, which eventually allowed him to become elected as judge in the Jackson County Court in 1922, then Senator in 1936. He was a very successful Senator, and led an investigation into waste and corruption. It is believed due to these efforts, 15 billion dollars was saved.

It was his great success as Senator that eventually earned him the Vice-Presidential nomination alongside FDR, which eventually led to him becoming President and having to make the atomic bomb decision. Although, he is most well-known for bombing Japan and ending WWII, he accomplished many notable things as President.

The Fair Deal and the Truman Doctrine

Immediately upon coming into office, in June 1945, he witnessed the signing of the charter of the United Nations. He supported many of the policies Roosevelt had begun, then began establishing many of his own. He presented a 21-point program, which included such things as public housing, Fair Employment Practices Act, and expansion of Social Security. It eventually became known as the Fair Deal.

Due to the state of Europe after WWII ended, he wrote the Truman Doctrine and eventually the Marshall Plan, that gave a lot of U.S. aid to Europe to rebuild and recover from the trauma of the war. Specifically, it gave aid to Turkey and Greece, in hopes to stop the guerrilla attacks against Turkey by the Soviet Union and protect Greece from Soviet threats.

In 1948, Truman ran for reelection. The media had stated that he had no chance of being reelected, since the early polls had indicated just that.They stopped running campaign polls, although that did not slow his election campaign. His slogan was the "The buck stops here." Surprisingly, he won.

During his second term in June 1950, with support of the United Nations, he sent U.S. troops to Korea, after Communist North Korea attacked South Korea. He did well, balancing his involvement in the war, while also keeping peace with neighboring countries China and Russia. Had he been too aggressive, it may have led to conflict with these countries. Peace talks began in 1951, two years later the fighting ceased.

He decided not to run another term, and moved back to his home state in Independence. He died there the day after Christmas in 1972 at 88 years old.

Harry S. Truman in his World War I Army uniform.

Source

Fun Facts

  • He was a judge prior to becoming President.
  • He was an artillery commander during WWI, though poor eye sight kept him from going to West Point.
  • Although he was FDR's vice-president, the President did not know him well, and chose it as a compromise to the Democratic party. Because of this, FDR did not trust him with information about the war, which he had to learn on his own, after FDR died and he instantly became President.
  • He survived an assassination attempt, but one of his guards did not. In 1950, when the White House was under renovation, he was staying at the Blair House. Two Puerto Rican nationalists were stopped by his guards, one was killed by the same guard whose life was ended, and the other captured.
  • His middle name is just the letter "S" to honor a few different relatives whose names started with S.
  • The 22nd Amendment was ratified while he was in office, stating that "no person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice."

Truman Initiating Korean Involvement

President Harry S. Truman is shown at his desk at the White House signing a proclamation declaring a national emergency.
President Harry S. Truman is shown at his desk at the White House signing a proclamation declaring a national emergency. | Source

Basic Facts

Question
Answer
Born
May 8, 1884 - Missouri
President Number
33rd
Party
Democratic
Military Service
Missouri National Guard United States Army United States Army Reserve
Wars Served
World War I
Age at Beginning of Presidency
61 years old
Term of Office
April 12, 1945 - January 20, 1953
How Long President
8 years
Vice-President
None (1945–49)[a] Alben W. Barkley (1949–53)
Age and Year of Death
December 26, 1972 (aged 88)
Cause of Death
multiple organ failure

Excerpt from the History Channel

Sources

  • Freidel, F., & Sidey, H. (2009). Harry S. Truman. Retrieved April 22, 2016, from https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/harrystruman.
  • Http://blog.constitutioncenter.org/author/ncc/. "10 fascinating facts about President Harry S. Truman." Constitution Daily. May 08, 2016. Accessed December 19, 2016. http://blog.constitutioncenter.org/2016/05/10-fascinating-facts-about-president-harry-s-truman/.
  • Sullivan, George. Mr. President: A Book of U.S. Presidents. New York: Scholastic, 2001. Print.

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      marion d coath 5 months ago from aiken sc

      We almost destroyed ourselves along with planet earth cause it was really given to man to govern for positive and we took it and made it evil! Now here I go as a 2nd wave volunteer for yall...so y'all wont destroy yourselves along with mother earth! Youre WELCOMED! :-)

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