Direct and Indirect Speech with Detailed Explanation

Updated on April 4, 2018
Rafiq23 profile image

Muhammad Rafiq is a freelance writer, blogger, and translator with a Master's degree in English literature from the University of Malakand.

Reported Speech
Reported Speech | Source

Definition of Indirect Speech

Indirect speech is also known as Reported Speech, Indirect Narration or Indirect Discourse. In grammar, when you report someone else’s statement in your own words without any change in the meaning of the statement is called indirect speech. Quoting a person’s words without using his own word and bringing about any change in the meaning of the statement is a reported speech. Look at the following sentences:

Direct Speech: She says, “I am a little bit nervous.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she is a little bit nervous.

In the first sentence, the reporter conveys the message of the girl using her actual words i.e., “I am a little bit nervous.” In the second sentence, the reporter conveys her message but in his own words without any change in the meaning. Thus, both direct and indirect speeches are two different ways of reporting a statement of person. In simple words, quoting a person using your own words is called an indirect speech.

Reported Speech
Reported Speech | Source

Key Terminology

During the process, you will come across many important terms that you need to know better so that to convert any direct speech into indirect speech easily and without any hassle. Consider the following sentences:

Direct Speech: She says, “I am a little bit nervous.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she is a little bit nervous.

Reporting Speech:

The first part in the direct speech is called REPORTING SPEECH.

Reported Speech:

The second part of the sentence, which is closed in inverted commas, is called REPORTED SPEECH.

Reporting Verb:

Verb of the reporting speech is called REPORTING VERB.

Reported Verb:

Verb of the reported speech is called REPORTED VERB.

Basic Rules

Before proceeding ahead, it is mandatory to memorize these rules:

Changes in Person of Pronouns:

  • 1st Person Pronouns in Reported Speech are always changed according to the SUBJECT of the Reporting Speech.
  • 2nd Person Pronouns in Reported Speech are always changed according to the OBJECT of the Reporting Speech.
  • 3rd Person Pronouns in Reported Speech are not changed.

Changes in Verbs:

  • In case, the Reporting Speech is in PRESENT TENSE or FUTURE TENSE, then no change is required to be made in the VERB of Reported Speech. This verb could be in any tense i.e., Present, Past or Future. For example:

Direct Speech: He says, “I am ill.”

Indirect Speech: He says that he is ill.

Direct Speech: She says, “She sang a song.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she sang a song.

Direct Speech: You say, “I shall visit London.”

Indirect Speech: You say that you will visit London.

  • If Reporting Verb is in Past Tense, then Reported Verb will be changed as per following criterion:
  • Present Indefinite Tense is changed into Past Indefinite Tense. For example:

Direct Speech: They said, “They take exercise every day.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they took exercise every day.

  • Present Continuous is changed into Past Continuous Tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They are taking exercise every day.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they were taking exercise every day.

  • Present Perfect is changed into Past Perfect Tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They have taken exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • Present Perfect Continuous Tense is changed into Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They have been taking exercise since morning.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had been taking exercise since morning.

  • Past Indefinite is changed into Past Perfect Tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They took exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • Past Continuous Tense is changed into Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They were taking exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had been taking exercise.

No changes are required to be made into Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous Tenses.

Direct Speech: They said, “They had taken exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • In Future Tense, while no changes are made except SHALL and WILL are changed into WOULD.

Direct Speech: They said, “They will take exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they would take exercise.

Changes in Tense
Changes in Tense | Source

Important Words Changes

Words
Changed Into
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
This
That
He says, “He wants to buy this book.”
He says that he wants to buy that book.
These
Those
He says, “He wants to buy these books.”
He says that he wants to buy those books.
Here
There
She says, “Everybody was here.”
She says that everybody was there.
Now
Then
They say, “It’s ten o’clock now.”
They say that it’s ten o’clock then.
Sir
Respectfully
They said, “Sir, the time is over.”
They said respectfully that the time was over.
Madam
Respecfully
They said, "Madam, the time is over."
They said respectfully that the time was over.
Today
That Day
She said, “I am going to London today.”
She said that she was going to London that day.
Yesterday
The Previous Day
She said, “I visited Oxford University yesterday.”
She said that she had visited Oxford University the previous day.
Tomorrow
Following Day or Next Day
She said, “I am going to London tomorrow.”
She said that she was going to London the next day.
Tonigh
That Night
She said, “I am going to see him tonight.”
She said that she was going to see him that night.
Good Morning, Good Evening, Good Day
Greeted
She said, “Good morning, Sir David.”
She greeted Sir David.

The above-mentioned rules are mandatory for converting a Direct Speech into an Indirect Speech. Hence, they should be memorized thoroughly. The following examples cover all the afore-mentioned rules. So, focus on every sentence to know how the above-mentioned rules have been used here.

Examples of Indirect Speech

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
She says, “I eat an apple a day.”
She says that she eats an apple a day.
He will say, “My brother will help her.”
He will say that his brother will help her.
We said, “We go for a walk every day.”
We said that went for a walk every day.
You say, “I went to London yesterday.”
You say that you went to London the previous day.
He said, “My father is playing cricket with me.”
He said that his father was playing cricket with him.
They said, “We have completed our homework.”
They said that they had completed their homework.
She said, “I have been waiting for him since last morning.”
She said that she had been waiting for him since last morning.
She said, “I bought a book.”
She said that she had bought a book.
They said, “We were celebrating Eid yesterday.”
They said that they had been celebrating Eid the previous day.
We said, “We had been waiting since morning.”
We said that we had been waiting since morning.
He said to me, “I will not give you any medicine without prescription.”
He said to me that he would not give me any medicine without prescription.
Rafiq said, “I shall leave for London tomorrow.”
Rafiq said that he would leave for London the next day.
She said, “I shall be visiting my college tomorrow.”
She said that she would be visiting her college the following day.
They said, “It will have been snowing since morning.”
They said that it would have been snowing since morning.

Assertive Sentences

Those sentences, which make a statement, are called assertive sentences. These sentences may be positive, negative, false or true statements. To convert such like sentences into indirect narration, use the rules as mentioned above except SAID is sometimes replaced with TOLD. Look at the following examples:

Direct Speech: She says, “I am writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she is writing a letter to her brother.

Direct Speech: She says, “I was not writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she was not writing a letter to her brother.

Direct Speech: She said to me, “I am writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She told me that she was writing a letter to her brother.

Poll

Do you love to learn grammar?

See results

Imperative Sentences

Imperative sentences are those sentences, which give an order or a direct command. These sentences may be in the shape of advice, entreaty, request, or order. Mostly, it depends upon the forcefulness of the speaker. Thus, full stop or sign of exclamation is used at the end of the sentence. For example:

  • Shut the door!
  • Please shut the door.
  • Repair the door by tomorrow!

To convert such like sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • Reporting Verb is changed according to Reported Speech into ORDER in case the sentence gives a direct command. For example:

Direct Speech: The teacher said to me, “Shut the door.”

Indirect Speech: The teacher ordered me to shut the door.

  • Reporting Verb is changed according to Reported Speech into REQUEST in case the sentence makes a request. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “Shut the door.”

Indirect Speech: He requested me to shut the door.

  • Reporting Verb is changed according to Reported Speech into ADVISE in case the sentence gives an advice. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “You should work hard to pass the exam.”

Indirect Speech: He advised me that I should work hard to pass the exam.

  • Reporting Verb is changed according to Reported Speech into FORBADE in case the sentence prevents someone from doing something. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “Not to smoke.”

Indirect Speech: He forbade me to smoke.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
We said to him, “Mind your own business.”
We urged him to mind his own business.
She said to him, “Consult a doctor.”
She suggested him to consult a doctor.
He said to me, “Write it again.”
He asked me to write it again.
You said to your father, “Please grant him leave for some time.”
You requested your father to grant him leave for some time.
My mother said to me, “Never tell a lie.”
My mother forbade me to tell a lie.

Interrogative Sentences

Those sentences, which ask questions, are called interrogative sentences. Every interrogative sentence ends at a sign of interrogation. For example:

  • Do you live here?
  • Have you ever watched Terminator III movie?
  • Is it raining?

To convert interrogative sentences into Indirect Speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • Reporting Verb SAID To is changed into ASKED.
  • If Reporting Speech is having Reporting Verb at it its start, then IF is used in place of THAT.
  • If the Reporting Speech is having interrogative words like who, when, how, why, when then neither IF is used nor any other word is added.
  • Full Stop is placed at the end of the sentence instead of mark of interrogation.

Examples:

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
I said to her, “When do you do your homework?”
I asked her when she did her homework.
We said to him, “Are you ill?”
We asked him if he was ill.
You said to me, “Have you read the article?”
You asked me if I had read the article.
He said to her, “Will you go to the Peshawar Radio Station?”
He asked her if she would go to the Peshawar Radio Station.
She says, “Who is he?”
She says who he was.
Rashid says to me, “Why have you got late?”
Rashid says to me why I had got late.

Exclamatory Sentences

Those sentences, which express our feelings and emotions, are called exclamatory sentences. Mark of exclamation is used at the end of exclamatory sentence. For example:

  • Hurray! We have won the match.
  • Alas! He failed in the test.
  • How beautiful that dog is!
  • What a marvelous personality you are!

To change exclamatory sentences into Indirect Speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • In case, there is an interjection i.e., alas, aha, hurray, aha etc in the Reported Speech, then they are omitted along with sign of exclamation.
  • Reporting verb i.e., said is always replaced with exclaimed with joy, exclaimed with sorrow, exclaimed joyfully, exclaimed sorrowfully or exclaimed with great wonder or sorrow.
  • In case, there is what or how at the beginning of the Reported Speech, then they are replaced with very or very great.
  • In indirect sentence, the exclamatory sentence becomes an assertive sentence.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
He said, “Hurray! I have won the match.”
He exclaimed with great joy that he had won the match.
She said, “Alas! My brother failed in the test.”
She exclaimed with great sorrow that her brother had failed in the test.
They said, “What a beautiful house this is!”
They exclaimed that that that house was very beautiful.
I said, “How lucky I am!”
I said in great wonder that I was very lucky.
You said to him, “What a beautiful drama you writing!
You said to him in great wonder that he was writing a beautiful drama.

Optative Sentences

Those sentences, which express hope, prayer, or wish, are called optative sentences. Usually, there is a mark of exclamation at the end of optative sentence. For example:

  • May you succeed in the test!
  • May you get well soon!
  • Would that I were rich!

To change optative sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • In case, the Reported Speech starts with the word may, then the Reporting Verb said is replaced with the word prayed.
  • In case, the Reported Speech starts with the word would, then the Reporting Verb said is replaced with the word wished.
  • May is changed in might.
  • Mark of exclamation is omitted.
  • In Indirect Speech, the optative sentences become assertive sentences.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
He said to me, “May you live long!”
He prayed that I might live long.
My mother said to me, “May you succeed in the test!”
My mother prayed that I might succeed in the test.
She said, “Would that I were rich!”
She wished she had been rich.
I said to him, “Would that you were here on Sunday!”
I wished he had been there on Sunday.
You said to me, “ May you find your lost camera.”
You prayed that I might find my lost camera.

Learn Passive Voice Easily

Questions & Answers

    © 2014 Muhammad Rafiq

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • profile image

        Faraz Lahore 0301448552 

        6 days ago

        Great effort...

        Very nice Thanks alot

      • profile image

        Bhumi kumari 

        7 days ago

        Thanks

      • profile image

        Pradeep 

        8 days ago

        She said that we are making bread everyday but it is not prepared as the oven is damaged

      • profile image

        The teacher said,, earth moves barks at strangr 

        13 days ago

        Indirect

      • profile image

        Tanu Malik 

        2 weeks ago

        Thanks

      • profile image

        pranjal 

        2 weeks ago

        Marvellous

      • profile image

         

        2 weeks ago

        Thanks very useful to my school project

      • profile image

        shreekant 

        3 weeks ago

        thanks

      • profile image

        SWEETY kalkandha 

        3 weeks ago

        Any command

      • profile image

        Amarzish 

        3 weeks ago

        Very nice

      • profile image

        Priyal 

        4 weeks ago

        Will always changes to would which is not done in above example

      • profile image

        Samia peace 

        4 weeks ago

        Thanks a lot

      • profile image

        Sharna akter 

        5 weeks ago

        I can't understand this topic

        Dircet into indirect ...

        Peter said to me ''I can't go out with you because I am not feeling well "

      • profile image

        ragini ray 

        5 weeks ago

        thank you

      • profile image

        Ritul 

        7 weeks ago

        Thanks

      • profile image

        Asmita khatate 

        8 weeks ago

        Thank you! Rafiq for beautiful concept

      • profile image

        Maleeha kumail 

        8 weeks ago

        hamza Irfan if you read the initial rules, it has been stated that if the REPORTED speech is in present tense, then it doesn't matter whether we change the reported speech into present or past tense. (Same goes with the future tense. However the changes are implemented when the REPORTED speech is in PAST tense)

      • profile image

        Marisa Pereira 

        2 months ago

        It's great, very helpful for me.

      • profile image

        Irfan 

        2 months ago

        Awesome stuff to review the Direct and Indirect concepts.

      • profile image

        ilyas 

        2 months ago

        NIce explanation sir ! keep it up. thanks a lot !

      • profile image

        Driz 

        2 months ago

        one of the best article on direct and indirect.

      • profile image

        Mohit 

        2 months ago

        Very nicely explained

      • profile image

        hamza irfan 

        2 months ago

        i think there is a mistake in the the portion of important word changes.

        in the first example the word 'this' should not change into 'that' because if only past tense is used in the reporting speech then there will be changing of words, and if present tense is used in the reporting speech there should not be any change of word.

        if i am wrong help me to sort out ??

      • profile image

        Leyla 

        2 months ago

        thank you for detailed explanation

      • profile image

        love is a life 

        2 months ago

        Nice your grammar

      • profile image

        lydia 

        2 months ago

        This is really helpful page for me

      • profile image

        Arham Akram 

        3 months ago

        I easily did my work which I could not understand

      • profile image

        Madiha 

        3 months ago

        Every sentence are so nice very helpful to me

      • profile image

        Keer 

        3 months ago

        Thank you so much it is very helpful to me

      • profile image

        Kamal Chandra Minj 

        3 months ago

        Very concise and a good one.

      • profile image

        mariam 

        3 months ago

        v helpful

      • profile image

        nukul tambi 

        3 months ago

        Nice thing

      • profile image

        Shivangini 

        3 months ago

        Best way to understand

      • profile image

        mareeha 

        3 months ago

        what if sentence start with do?

      • profile image

        Rijul 

        3 months ago

        Thanks

      • profile image

        Munna 

        3 months ago

        What always happens,"she said

      • profile image

        Ibrahim 

        3 months ago

        To some extent it's good for learners

      • profile image

        atuka naga 

        3 months ago

        Nice Really nice ... Very much helpful Please add more...

      • profile image

        Payal 

        3 months ago

        All is nice . But can u give me In simple English

      • profile image

        Were 

        3 months ago

        Add more

      • profile image

        N MANIKANDAN 

        3 months ago

        Nice

      • profile image

        Atul sharma 

        3 months ago

        Great

      • profile image

        urmi banik 

        3 months ago

        thanks

      • profile image

        Mehak 

        3 months ago

        Nice

      • profile image

        Dav 

        3 months ago

        nice

      • profile image

        Nisar Khan Kakar 

        3 months ago

        Nice one.thanks

      • profile image

        Sunil pradhan 

        4 months ago

        Can you explain , if in the reported speech we have sir ,madam or your majesty how can change into indirect speech

      • profile image

        Katya 

        4 months ago

        Nice

      • profile image

        pooja 

        4 months ago

        i don't understand

      • profile image

        usha 

        4 months ago

        Sita said,"Hello Ram where are you going?" please change this into indirect speech

      • profile image

        Ahmed 

        4 months ago

        What is the indirect of this,She said that she would go.

      • profile image

        m umar 

        4 months ago

        Nice

      • profile image

        Aryan Chillar 

        4 months ago

        Very good explanation

      • profile image

        Ro Pacifist 

        4 months ago

        Very good explanation!

      • profile image

        fuck me in the ass(anual) 

        4 months ago

        thanks this website is the best

      • profile image

        Anuradha 

        4 months ago

        How to report 'how was your day'

      • profile image

        Ali 

        4 months ago

        Thank you

        Very nice and useful information about this grammer

      • profile image

        Verry nice grammar 

        4 months ago

        Verry nice grammar

      • profile image

        Sambhav KC 

        4 months ago

        very useful grammar

      • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

        Muhammad Rafiq 

        4 months ago from Pakistan

        He prayed that she might succeed.

      • profile image

        Sikandar Singh 

        4 months ago

        He said to her, "May you succeed !"

      • profile image

        Ravindra chauhan 

        4 months ago

        Nice

      • profile image

        Omkar paudel 

        4 months ago

        Hi sir,

        Very good afternoon.

        It's really awesome which helped me to know about all forgetton terms of Narration.

        Waiting for next topic Concord please.

      • profile image

        Roli Dubey 

        4 months ago

        Thank you

      • profile image

        Raj sharma 

        4 months ago

        Nice,It is helpful for me thanks

      • profile image

        Tina 

        4 months ago

        great!

      • profile image

        Ramchandra Saini 

        4 months ago

        Nice , it is helpful for me thanks

      • profile image

        Rohit Jha 

        4 months ago

        excellent explanation

      • profile image

        hamid ali 

        4 months ago

        it is helpful for me thanks

      • profile image

        Awanish 

        5 months ago

        The man said to the officer,"sir,I need your kind help".

      • profile image

        Julia 

        5 months ago

        Exteremly perfect

      • profile image

        Sameena 

        5 months ago

        A very good approac

      • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

        Muhammad Rafiq 

        5 months ago from Pakistan

        The teacher asked John if he would not sit down.

        Please, study the interrogative sentences in the article. This sort of sentence becomes affirmative by adding "if" or "weather". Here the pronoun "he" refers to John. Study the rules thoroughly and you will be able to change such like sentences.

      • profile image

        Win Naing 

        5 months ago

        Thanks a million, Sir!

        If possible, please help me as I'm confused to learn the following sentence.

        *The teacher asked John ,"Will you not sit down?"

        The teacher asked ------------------.

        Please explain it to me, Sir.

      • profile image

        pooja pandey 

        5 months ago

        he told you that you would go to agara the next day

      • profile image

        Mahi 

        5 months ago

        Great! Thanks a million!

      • profile image

        Arun 

        5 months ago

        Mohan said to rakhe. They did not help me

      • profile image

        Thank you 

        5 months ago

        Thank you

        This helped me a lot

      • profile image

        Samira 

        5 months ago

        Thank you a lot this is very helpful for me

      • profile image

        yaole 

        5 months ago

        very good help me a lot

      • profile image

        Maria 

        5 months ago

        Great! Thanks a lot.

      • profile image

        Hanif 

        5 months ago

        Great work

      • profile image

        Haru 

        5 months ago

        This page is really awesome.I really appreciate the content. The contents were really helpful for my project!

      • profile image

        nk raj 

        5 months ago

        Nice

      • profile image

        Deeksha 

        6 months ago

        Thank you a lot for your explaination

      • profile image

        yvens nelio 

        6 months ago

        The job that you have done in order to help us learn and review grammar rules is priceless . No end of thanks to you.

      • profile image

        Indirect format of narration 

        6 months ago

        He said birds fly in the sky

      • profile image

        6 months ago

        informative and useful

      • profile image

        Snega Shankar 

        6 months ago

        Its very useful to my study

      • profile image

        Tanya 

        6 months ago

        Thanks alot

      • profile image

        Sultan Mahmud 

        7 months ago

        It's the best way to learn the english grammar.

      • profile image

        Robin Raju,From Kerala 

        7 months ago

        Very helpful .Thanks Rafiq ...

      • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

        Muhammad Rafiq 

        7 months ago from Pakistan

        You are welcome!

      • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

        Muhammad Rafiq 

        7 months ago from Pakistan

        Thanks for your comments!

      • profile image

        ALA 

        7 months ago

        That was awesome.Pretty helpful for my exam!!

      • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

        Muhammad Rafiq 

        7 months ago from Pakistan

        Thanks for your comments. I am glad it helped you.

      • profile image

        Sanjay wankhade 

        7 months ago

        It's truly helpful

      • profile image

        Saroja 

        7 months ago

        Very good lesson.thanks a lot

      • profile image

        arka 

        7 months ago

        What would

        He will say “There is no age limit for learning."

        Be in indirect speech

      • profile image

        Jalaldin kakar 

        7 months ago

        Plese help me change this sentences in indirect.

        Hard working is the key to success.

        2. I am strong enough to compete him.

        3. Donald Trump and Kim J have fixed meeting in washington

        4. I don't have authority to permit you for this work

        5. China will defeat the united states in economic field.

        6. Pakistan may have the potential to become Asian tiger under CPEC.

        7. I can do this work.

        8. We shall play this game.

        9. Pakistan won't want more skirmishes with India.

        10. I shall not compare my self with him.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)