Direct and Indirect Speech With Examples and Explanations

Updated on March 13, 2019
Rafiq23 profile image

Muhammad Rafiq is a freelance writer, blogger, and translator with a Master's degree in English literature from the University of Malakand.

Definition of Indirect Speech

Indirect speech is also known as reported speech, indirect narration, or indirect discourse. In grammar, when you report someone else’s statement in your own words without any change in the meaning of the statement, it is called indirect speech. Quoting a person’s words without using his own word and bringing about any change in the meaning of the statement is a reported speech. Look at the following sentences:

Direct Speech: She says, “I am a little bit nervous.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she is a little bit nervous.

In the first sentence, the reporter conveys the message of the girl using her actual words (e.g., “I am a little bit nervous.”) In the second sentence, the reporter conveys her message but in his own words without any change in the meaning. Thus, both direct and indirect speeches are two different ways of reporting a statement of person. In simple words, quoting a person using your own words is called an indirect speech.

Key Terminology

During the process, you will come across many important terms that you need to know better so that you can convert any direct speech into indirect speech easily and without any hassle. Consider the following sentences:

  • Direct Speech: She says, “I am a little bit nervous.”
  • Indirect Speech: She says that she is a little bit nervous.

Now consider the different grammatical aspects of both.

  • Reporting Speech: The first part in the direct speech is called reporting speech.
  • Reported Speech: The second part of the sentence, which is closed in inverted commas or quotation marks, is called reported speech.
  • Reporting Verb: The verb of the reporting speech is called the reporting verb.
  • Reported Verb: The verb of the reported speech is called the reported verb.

Basic Rules

Before proceeding ahead, it is mandatory to memorize these rules:

Changes in Person of Pronouns:

  • 1st Person pronouns in reported speech are always changed according to the subject of the reporting speech.
  • 2nd Person pronouns in reported speech are always changed according to the object of the reporting speech.
  • 3rd Person pronouns in reported speech are not changed.

Changes in Verbs:

  • If the reporting speech is in present tense or future tense, then no change is required to be made in the verb of reported speech. This verb could be in any tense i.e., present, past, or future. For example:

Direct Speech: He says, “I am ill.”

Indirect Speech: He says that he is ill.

Direct Speech: She says, “She sang a song.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she sang a song.

Direct Speech: You say, “I shall visit London.”

Indirect Speech: You say that you will visit London.

  • If the reporting verb is in past tense, then reported verb will be changed as per the following criterion:
  • Present indefinite tense is changed into past indefinite tense. For example:

Direct Speech: They said, “They take exercise every day.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they took exercise every day.

  • Present continuous is changed into past continuous tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They are taking exercise every day.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they were taking exercise every day.

  • Present perfect is changed into the past perfect tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They have taken exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • Present perfect continuous tense is changed into past perfect continuous tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They have been taking exercise since morning.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had been taking exercise since morning.

  • Past indefinite is changed into past perfect tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They took exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • Past continuous tense is changed into past perfect continuous tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They were taking exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had been taking exercise.

  • No changes are required to be made into past perfect and past perfect continuous tenses.

Direct Speech: They said, “They had taken exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • In Future Tense, while no changes are made except shall and will are changed into would.

Direct Speech: They said, “They will take exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they would take exercise.

Important Word Changes

Words
Changed Into
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
This
That
He says, “He wants to buy this book.”
He says that he wants to buy that book.
These
Those
He says, “He wants to buy these books.”
He says that he wants to buy those books.
Here
There
She says, “Everybody was here.”
She says that everybody was there.
Now
Then
They say, “It’s ten o’clock now.”
They say that it’s ten o’clock then.
Sir
Respectfully
They said, “Sir, the time is over.”
They said respectfully that the time was over.
Madam
Respecfully
They said, "Madam, the time is over."
They said respectfully that the time was over.
Today
That Day
She said, “I am going to London today.”
She said that she was going to London that day.
Yesterday
The Previous Day
She said, “I visited Oxford University yesterday.”
She said that she had visited Oxford University the previous day.
Tomorrow
Following Day or Next Day
She said, “I am going to London tomorrow.”
She said that she was going to London the next day.
Tonigh
That Night
She said, “I am going to see him tonight.”
She said that she was going to see him that night.
Good Morning, Good Evening, Good Day
Greeted
She said, “Good morning, Sir David.”
She greeted Sir David.

The rules above are mandatory for converting direct speech into indirect speech. Hence, they should be memorized thoroughly. The following examples cover all the aforementioned rules. So, focus on every sentence to know how the above-mentioned rules have been used here.

Examples of Indirect Speech

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
She says, “I eat an apple a day.”
She says that she eats an apple a day.
He will say, “My brother will help her.”
He will say that his brother will help her.
We said, “We go for a walk every day.”
We said that we went for a walk every day.
You say, “I went to London yesterday.”
You say that you went to London the previous day.
He said, “My father is playing cricket with me.”
He said that his father was playing cricket with him.
They said, “We have completed our homework.”
They said that they had completed their homework.
She said, “I have been waiting for him since last morning.”
She said that she had been waiting for him since last morning.
She said, “I bought a book.”
She said that she had bought a book.
They said, “We were celebrating Eid yesterday.”
They said that they had been celebrating Eid the previous day.
We said, “We had been waiting since morning.”
We said that we had been waiting since morning.
He said to me, “I will not give you any medicine without prescription.”
He said to me that he would not give me any medicine without a prescription.
Rafiq said, “I shall leave for London tomorrow.”
Rafiq said that he would leave for London the next day.
She said, “I shall be visiting my college tomorrow.”
She said that she would be visiting her college the following day.
They said, “It will have been snowing since morning.”
They said that it would have been snowing since morning.

Assertive Sentences

Sentences that make a statement are called assertive sentences. These sentences may be positive, negative, false, or true statements. To convert such sentences into indirect narration, use the rules as mentioned above except said is sometimes replaced with told. Look at the following examples:

Direct Speech: She says, “I am writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she is writing a letter to her brother.

Direct Speech: She says, “I was not writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she was not writing a letter to her brother.

Direct Speech: She said to me, “I am writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She told me that she was writing a letter to her brother.

Imperative Sentences

Imperative sentences are sentences that give an order or a direct command. These sentences may be in the shape of advice, entreaty, request, or order. Mostly, it depends upon the forcefulness of the speaker. Thus, a full stop or sign of exclamation is used at the end of the sentence. For example:

  • Shut the door!
  • Please shut the door.
  • Repair the door by tomorrow!

To convert these types of sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • The reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into order in case the sentence gives a direct command. For example:

Direct Speech: The teacher said to me, “Shut the door.”

Indirect Speech: The teacher ordered me to shut the door.

  • The reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into a request in case the sentence makes a request. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “Shut the door.”

Indirect Speech: He requested me to shut the door.

  • The reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into advise in case the sentence gives a piece of advice. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “You should work hard to pass the exam.”

Indirect Speech: He advised me that I should work hard to pass the exam.

  • The reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into forbade in case the sentence prevents someone from doing something. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “Not to smoke.”

Indirect Speech: He forbade me to smoke.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
We said to him, “Mind your own business.”
We urged him to mind his own business.
She said to him, “Consult a doctor.”
She suggested him to consult a doctor.
He said to me, “Write it again.”
He asked me to write it again.
You said to your father, “Please grant him leave for some time.”
You requested your father to grant him leave for some time.
My mother said to me, “Never tell a lie.”
My mother forbade me to tell a lie.

Poll

Do you love to learn grammar?

See results

Interrogative Sentences

Those sentences, which ask questions, are called interrogative sentences. Every interrogative sentence ends at a sign of interrogation. For example:

  • Do you live here?
  • Have you ever watched Terminator III movie?
  • Is it raining?

To convert interrogative sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • The reporting verb said to is changed into asked.
  • If the reporting speech is having the reporting verb at it its start, then if is used in place of that.
  • If the reporting speech is having interrogative words like who, when, how, why, when then neither if is used nor any other word is added.
  • A full stop is placed at the end of the sentence instead of a mark of interrogation.

Examples:

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
I said to her, “When do you do your homework?”
I asked her when she did her homework.
We said to him, “Are you ill?”
We asked him if he was ill.
You said to me, “Have you read the article?”
You asked me if I had read the article.
He said to her, “Will you go to the Peshawar Radio Station?”
He asked her if she would go to the Peshawar Radio Station.
She says, “Who is he?”
She says who he was.
Rashid said to me, “Why are you late?”
Rashid asked me why I was late.

Exclamatory Sentences

Those sentences, which express our feelings and emotions, are called exclamatory sentences. Mark of exclamation is used at the end of an exclamatory sentence. For example:

  • Hurray! We have won the match.
  • Alas! He failed in the test.
  • How beautiful that dog is!
  • What a marvelous personality you are!

To change exclamatory sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • In case, there is an interjection, i.e., alas, aha, hurray, etc. in the reported speech, then they are omitted along with sign of exclamation.
  • Reporting verb, i.e., said is always replaced with exclaimed with joy, exclaimed with sorrow, exclaimed joyfully, exclaimed sorrowfully or exclaimed with great wonder or sorrow.
  • In case, there is what or how at the beginning of the reported speech, then they are replaced with very or very great.
  • In an indirect sentence, the exclamatory sentence becomes an assertive sentence.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
He said, “Hurray! I have won the match.”
He exclaimed with great joy that he had won the match.
She said, “Alas! My brother failed in the test.”
She exclaimed with great sorrow that her brother had failed in the test.
They said, “What a beautiful house this is!”
They exclaimed that that house was very beautiful.
I said, “How lucky I am!”
I said in great wonder that I was very lucky.
You said to him, “What a beautiful drama you writing!
You said to him in great wonder that he was writing a beautiful drama.

Optative Sentences

Those sentences, which express hope, prayer, or wish, are called optative sentences. Usually, there is a mark of exclamation at the end of optative sentence. For example:

  • May you succeed in the test!
  • May you get well soon!
  • Would that I were rich!

To change optative sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • In case, the reported speech starts with the word may, then the reporting verb said is replaced with the word prayed.
  • In case, the reported speech starts with the word would, then the reporting verb said is replaced with the word wished.
  • May is changed in might.
  • Mark of exclamation is omitted.
  • In indirect speech, the optative sentences become assertive sentences.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
He said to me, “May you live long!”
He prayed that I might live long.
My mother said to me, “May you succeed in the test!”
My mother prayed that I might succeed in the test.
She said, “Would that I were rich!”
She wished she had been rich.
I said to him, “Would that you were here on Sunday!”
I wished he had been there on Sunday.
You said to me, “ May you find your lost camera.”
You prayed that I might find my lost camera.

© 2014 Muhammad Rafiq

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image

      Mohit 

      14 hours ago

      Very nice grammar

    • profile image

      AHSAN SHABBIR 

      24 hours ago

      I Like to learn Grammar.But the Grammar is so difficult.

    • profile image

      kaluwapa Annastasia 

      3 days ago

      The grammar used is very useful to 99 percent ,it help me a lot

    • profile image

      Aman 

      6 days ago

      Mohan said,"she does not sing a song"

      Please translate to indirect...

      Please answer fast sir ji...

    • profile image

      Mahirakhan 

      8 days ago

      Thnk u sooooooo much

    • profile image

      Priyanka 

      13 days ago

      Now girls ,said agnes ,don't begin to quarrel change into direct to indirect or indirect to direct

    • profile image

      jay patil 

      13 days ago

      very guidefull and useful

      i love it

    • profile image

      KONDE NEHA LAXMAN 

      2 weeks ago

      what is the interrogative of :

      do you live here

    • profile image

      chandra paudel 

      2 weeks ago

      very useful rules. here goes one question;

      He said," when I got there, the place was almost empty.'

      please supply right answer who knows

    • profile image

      Vineela 

      2 weeks ago

      It helped me a lot

    • profile image

      M javed 

      2 weeks ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      umm-e-Shafay 

      3 weeks ago

      Great work, it's really helpful

    • profile image

      Adeel 

      3 weeks ago

      Great Work

    • profile image

      Eng-A... 

      3 weeks ago

      Thanks veey much!!!

    • profile image

      Hafeel mbm 

      3 weeks ago

      Good

    • profile image

      Mushaf khan 

      4 weeks ago

      You will be called metal. Wouldn't u mind telling me that What will be the direct narration for this sentence?

    • profile image

      JUNAID KARZAI 

      5 weeks ago

      Actually "No"is omitted in a sentence while converting to Indirect form

      But the problem is that u have not written the Reporting speech!

      Without repoting speech how it is converted into indirect.

    • profile image

      Sherly 

      5 weeks ago

      "No, I don't like". Convert into indirect form.

    • profile image

      KARZAI WAZIR 

      5 weeks ago

      He will told(say) me that he was playing with his sister.

      When the reporting speech is in Future tense then no changes occur in the verb of reported speech

      As a rule "that" is installed by removing inverted commas.

    • profile image

      bhavesh choudhary 9610976530 

      5 weeks ago

      He will say to me ,"Iwas playing with my sister" .

      most ha

    • profile image

      JUNAID KARZAI 

      5 weeks ago

      This is important and I think Obligatory for each and every one b/C without knowing English grammer a man has no state to talk about english!

    • profile image

      Laiba 

      5 weeks ago

      This is helpful for people who want to know about English

    • profile image

      Maro 

      6 weeks ago

      we can't come to the party next friday.

      Change the sentence into indirect speech

    • profile image

      JUNAID KARZAI 

      6 weeks ago

      Sir as far as my think is concerened this method will make use of many peoples and students

      Sir ,I kindly request to tell me the Indirect of the following two sentences in limiting duration.

      1)he said to me,"Dog,you have been very mean"

      2)the old man said,"fool!you were not go there in such storm"

      Waiting for reply;;;;;; Please

    • profile image

      Aeohi Srivastava 

      6 weeks ago

      Very good

    • profile image

      leenah 

      6 weeks ago

      thanks.

      its great and help me alot

    • profile image

      Julho 

      6 weeks ago

      Present

      They are attractive

    • profile image

      raji 

      7 weeks ago

      good

    • profile image

      Ayesha 

      7 weeks ago

      Why said to changed in told? In assertive sentences, can u explain the reason behind this,? Reply me soon

    • profile image

      Samjhana Nepal 

      8 weeks ago

      He said,"Which do you want?" "This one"she said change into indirect

    • profile image

      suman 

      8 weeks ago

      The old man cursed him to die. change it in to direct speech

    • profile image

      zahid ali 

      8 weeks ago

      this is very informative and evey student can understand easy grammar by this site

    • profile image

      Umber 

      8 weeks ago

      Excellent

    • profile image

      Pavitra Shanbhag 

      8 weeks ago

      Very helpful. Some confusion about the sentence : They said, "They take exercise everyday." is changed to : They said that they took exercise every day. In the first sentence they are talking about somebody else but in the second sentence it appears that they are talking about themselves. Shouldn't there be some differentiation?

    • profile image

      Ishanth sundar 

      8 weeks ago

      Very useful

    • profile image

      Kainat 

      2 months ago

      This is really good... Even I can easily all sentences....

    • profile image

      Veera 

      2 months ago

      Good

    • profile image

      darshan 

      2 months ago

      very useful

    • profile image

      Mansoor 

      2 months ago

      Superb

    • profile image

      SONAL Gupta 

      2 months ago

      Good

    • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

      Muhammad Rafiq 

      2 months ago from Pakistan

      I am glad it helped you. Please, let me know about your results.

    • profile image

      LAILA 

      2 months ago

      thanks it is very useful

    • profile image

      bharat chhetri 

      2 months ago

      why the adj 'great' before joy or sorrow? without great is also ok

    • profile image

      Ayush kumar 

      2 months ago

      It is easy to learn Direct and indirect

    • profile image

      sami ansari 

      2 months ago

      Tomorrow is my board exam and the only concept remaining was DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH thanks a lot now i can write exam with confidence

    • profile image

      Vemu 

      2 months ago

      Good

    • profile image

      Abdi 

      2 months ago

      Agenda

    • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

      Muhammad Rafiq 

      2 months ago from Pakistan

      Thanks for your comments. I am glad it helped you.

    • profile image

      Mahi sharma 

      2 months ago

      Its really like the english class....it has well explained I understand everything about D&ID speech.....it was fablous

    • profile image

      Banu priya 

      3 months ago

      Fantastic and marvoles

    • profile image

      Sakshi 

      3 months ago

      Really..u had explained it very easily...thank you...

    • profile image

      waqas khan 

      3 months ago

      Thanks sir g god bless you

    • profile image

      Bhumika gupta 

      3 months ago

      Very nice and thanks a lot for help

    • profile image

      Faraz Lahore 0301448552 

      4 months ago

      Great effort...

      Very nice Thanks alot

    • profile image

      Bhumi kumari 

      4 months ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Pradeep 

      4 months ago

      She said that we are making bread everyday but it is not prepared as the oven is damaged

    • profile image

      The teacher said,, earth moves barks at strangr 

      4 months ago

      Indirect

    • profile image

      Tanu Malik 

      4 months ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      pranjal 

      4 months ago

      Marvellous

    • profile image

       

      4 months ago

      Thanks very useful to my school project

    • profile image

      shreekant 

      4 months ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      SWEETY kalkandha 

      4 months ago

      Any command

    • profile image

      Amarzish 

      4 months ago

      Very nice

    • profile image

      Priyal 

      4 months ago

      Will always changes to would which is not done in above example

    • profile image

      Samia peace 

      5 months ago

      Thanks a lot

    • profile image

      Sharna akter 

      5 months ago

      I can't understand this topic

      Dircet into indirect ...

      Peter said to me ''I can't go out with you because I am not feeling well "

    • profile image

      ragini ray 

      5 months ago

      thank you

    • profile image

      Ritul 

      5 months ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Asmita khatate 

      5 months ago

      Thank you! Rafiq for beautiful concept

    • profile image

      Maleeha kumail 

      5 months ago

      hamza Irfan if you read the initial rules, it has been stated that if the REPORTED speech is in present tense, then it doesn't matter whether we change the reported speech into present or past tense. (Same goes with the future tense. However the changes are implemented when the REPORTED speech is in PAST tense)

    • profile image

      Marisa Pereira 

      6 months ago

      It's great, very helpful for me.

    • profile image

      Irfan 

      6 months ago

      Awesome stuff to review the Direct and Indirect concepts.

    • profile image

      ilyas 

      6 months ago

      NIce explanation sir ! keep it up. thanks a lot !

    • profile image

      Driz 

      6 months ago

      one of the best article on direct and indirect.

    • profile image

      Mohit 

      6 months ago

      Very nicely explained

    • profile image

      hamza irfan 

      6 months ago

      i think there is a mistake in the the portion of important word changes.

      in the first example the word 'this' should not change into 'that' because if only past tense is used in the reporting speech then there will be changing of words, and if present tense is used in the reporting speech there should not be any change of word.

      if i am wrong help me to sort out ??

    • profile image

      Leyla 

      6 months ago

      thank you for detailed explanation

    • profile image

      love is a life 

      6 months ago

      Nice your grammar

    • profile image

      lydia 

      6 months ago

      This is really helpful page for me

    • profile image

      Arham Akram 

      6 months ago

      I easily did my work which I could not understand

    • profile image

      Madiha 

      6 months ago

      Every sentence are so nice very helpful to me

    • profile image

      Keer 

      7 months ago

      Thank you so much it is very helpful to me

    • profile image

      Kamal Chandra Minj 

      7 months ago

      Very concise and a good one.

    • profile image

      mariam 

      7 months ago

      v helpful

    • profile image

      nukul tambi 

      7 months ago

      Nice thing

    • profile image

      Shivangini 

      7 months ago

      Best way to understand

    • profile image

      mareeha 

      7 months ago

      what if sentence start with do?

    • profile image

      Rijul 

      7 months ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Munna 

      7 months ago

      What always happens,"she said

    • profile image

      Ibrahim 

      7 months ago

      To some extent it's good for learners

    • profile image

      atuka naga 

      7 months ago

      Nice Really nice ... Very much helpful Please add more...

    • profile image

      Payal 

      7 months ago

      All is nice . But can u give me In simple English

    • profile image

      Were 

      7 months ago

      Add more

    • profile image

      N MANIKANDAN 

      7 months ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      Atul sharma 

      7 months ago

      Great

    • profile image

      urmi banik 

      7 months ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      Mehak 

      7 months ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      Dav 

      7 months ago

      nice

    • profile image

      Nisar Khan Kakar 

      7 months ago

      Nice one.thanks

    • profile image

      Sunil pradhan 

      7 months ago

      Can you explain , if in the reported speech we have sir ,madam or your majesty how can change into indirect speech

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)