Direct and Indirect Speech With Examples and Explanations

Updated on December 8, 2019
Rafiq23 profile image

Muhammad Rafiq is a freelance writer, blogger, and translator with a Master's degree in English literature from the University of Malakand.

Definition of Indirect Speech

Indirect speech is also known as reported speech, indirect narration, or indirect discourse. In grammar, when you report someone else’s statement in your own words without any change in the meaning of the statement, it is called indirect speech. Quoting a person’s words without using his own word and bringing about any change in the meaning of the statement is a reported speech. Look at the following sentences:

Direct Speech: She says, “I am a little bit nervous.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she is a little bit nervous.

In the first sentence, the reporter conveys the message of the girl using her actual words (e.g., “I am a little bit nervous.”) In the second sentence, the reporter conveys her message but in his own words without any change in the meaning. Thus, both direct and indirect speeches are two different ways of reporting a statement of person. In simple words, quoting a person using your own words is called an indirect speech.

Key Terminology

During the process, you will come across many important terms that you need to know better so that you can convert any direct speech into indirect speech easily and without any hassle. Consider the following sentences:

  • Direct Speech: She says, “I am a little bit nervous.”
  • Indirect Speech: She says that she is a little bit nervous.

Now consider the different grammatical aspects of both.

  • Reporting Speech: The first part in the direct speech is called reporting speech.
  • Reported Speech: The second part of the sentence, which is closed in inverted commas or quotation marks, is called reported speech.
  • Reporting Verb: The verb of the reporting speech is called the reporting verb.
  • Reported Verb: The verb of the reported speech is called the reported verb.

Basic Rules

Before proceeding ahead, it is mandatory to memorize these rules:

Changes in Person of Pronouns:

  • 1st Person pronouns in reported speech are always changed according to the subject of the reporting speech.
  • 2nd Person pronouns in reported speech are always changed according to the object of the reporting speech.
  • 3rd Person pronouns in reported speech are not changed.

Changes in Verbs:

  • If the reporting speech is in present tense or future tense, then no change is required to be made in the verb of reported speech. This verb could be in any tense i.e., present, past, or future. For example:

Direct Speech: He says, “I am ill.”

Indirect Speech: He says that he is ill.

Direct Speech: She says, “She sang a song.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she sang a song.

Direct Speech: You say, “I shall visit London.”

Indirect Speech: You say that you will visit London.

  • If the reporting verb is in past tense, then reported verb will be changed as per the following criterion:
  • Present indefinite tense is changed into past indefinite tense. For example:

Direct Speech: They said, “They take exercise every day.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they took exercise every day.

  • Present continuous is changed into past continuous tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They are taking exercise every day.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they were taking exercise every day.

  • Present perfect is changed into the past perfect tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They have taken exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • Present perfect continuous tense is changed into past perfect continuous tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They have been taking exercise since morning.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had been taking exercise since morning.

  • Past indefinite is changed into past perfect tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They took exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • Past continuous tense is changed into past perfect continuous tense.

Direct Speech: They said, “They were taking exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had been taking exercise.

  • No changes are required to be made into past perfect and past perfect continuous tenses.

Direct Speech: They said, “They had taken exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they had taken exercise.

  • In Future Tense, while no changes are made except shall and will are changed into would.

Direct Speech: They said, “They will take exercise.”

Indirect Speech: They said that they would take exercise.

Important Word Changes

Words
Changed Into
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
This
That
He says, “He wants to buy this book.”
He says that he wants to buy that book.
These
Those
He says, “He wants to buy these books.”
He says that he wants to buy those books.
Here
There
She says, “Everybody was here.”
She says that everybody was there.
Now
Then
They say, “It’s ten o’clock now.”
They say that it’s ten o’clock then.
Sir
Respectfully
They said, “Sir, the time is over.”
They said respectfully that the time was over.
Madam
Respecfully
They said, "Madam, the time is over."
They said respectfully that the time was over.
Today
That Day
She said, “I am going to London today.”
She said that she was going to London that day.
Yesterday
The Previous Day
She said, “I visited Oxford University yesterday.”
She said that she had visited Oxford University the previous day.
Tomorrow
Following Day or Next Day
She said, “I am going to London tomorrow.”
She said that she was going to London the next day.
Tonigh
That Night
She said, “I am going to see him tonight.”
She said that she was going to see him that night.
Good Morning, Good Evening, Good Day
Greeted
She said, “Good morning, Sir David.”
She greeted Sir David.

The rules above are mandatory for converting direct speech into indirect speech. Hence, they should be memorized thoroughly. The following examples cover all the aforementioned rules. So, focus on every sentence to know how the above-mentioned rules have been used here.

Examples of Indirect Speech

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
She says, “I eat an apple a day.”
She says that she eats an apple a day.
He will say, “My brother will help her.”
He will say that his brother will help her.
We said, “We go for a walk every day.”
We said that we went for a walk every day.
You say, “I went to London yesterday.”
You say that you went to London the previous day.
He said, “My father is playing cricket with me.”
He said that his father was playing cricket with him.
They said, “We have completed our homework.”
They said that they had completed their homework.
She said, “I have been waiting for him since last morning.”
She said that she had been waiting for him since last morning.
She said, “I bought a book.”
She said that she had bought a book.
They said, “We were celebrating Eid yesterday.”
They said that they had been celebrating Eid the previous day.
We said, “We had been waiting since morning.”
We said that we had been waiting since morning.
He said to me, “I will not give you any medicine without prescription.”
He said to me that he would not give me any medicine without a prescription.
Rafiq said, “I shall leave for London tomorrow.”
Rafiq said that he would leave for London the next day.
She said, “I shall be visiting my college tomorrow.”
She said that she would be visiting her college the following day.
They said, “It will have been snowing since morning.”
They said that it would have been snowing since morning.

Assertive Sentences

Sentences that make a statement are called assertive sentences. These sentences may be positive, negative, false, or true statements. To convert such sentences into indirect narration, use the rules as mentioned above except said is sometimes replaced with told. Look at the following examples:

Direct Speech: She says, “I am writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she is writing a letter to her brother.

Direct Speech: She says, “I was not writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She says that she was not writing a letter to her brother.

Direct Speech: She said to me, “I am writing a letter to my brother.”

Indirect Speech: She told me that she was writing a letter to her brother.

Imperative Sentences

Imperative sentences are sentences that give an order or a direct command. These sentences may be in the shape of advice, entreaty, request, or order. Mostly, it depends upon the forcefulness of the speaker. Thus, a full stop or sign of exclamation is used at the end of the sentence. For example:

  • Shut the door!
  • Please shut the door.
  • Repair the door by tomorrow!

To convert these types of sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • The reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into order in case the sentence gives a direct command. For example:

Direct Speech: The teacher said to me, “Shut the door.”

Indirect Speech: The teacher ordered me to shut the door.

  • The reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into a request in case the sentence makes a request. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “Shut the door.”

Indirect Speech: He requested me to shut the door.

  • The reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into advise in case the sentence gives a piece of advice. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “You should work hard to pass the exam.”

Indirect Speech: He advised me that I should work hard to pass the exam.

  • The reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into forbade in case the sentence prevents someone from doing something. For example:

Direct Speech: He said to me, “Not to smoke.”

Indirect Speech: He forbade me to smoke.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
We said to him, “Mind your own business.”
We urged him to mind his own business.
She said to him, “Consult a doctor.”
She suggested him to consult a doctor.
He said to me, “Write it again.”
He asked me to write it again.
You said to your father, “Please grant him leave for some time.”
You requested your father to grant him leave for some time.
My mother said to me, “Never tell a lie.”
My mother forbade me to tell a lie.

Poll

Do you love to learn grammar?

See results

Interrogative Sentences

Those sentences, which ask questions, are called interrogative sentences. Every interrogative sentence ends at a sign of interrogation. For example:

  • Do you live here?
  • Have you ever watched Terminator III movie?
  • Is it raining?

To convert interrogative sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • The reporting verb said to is changed into asked.
  • If the reporting speech is having the reporting verb at it its start, then if is used in place of that.
  • If the reporting speech is having interrogative words like who, when, how, why, when then neither if is used nor any other word is added.
  • A full stop is placed at the end of the sentence instead of a mark of interrogation.

Examples:

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
I said to her, “When do you do your homework?”
I asked her when she did her homework.
We said to him, “Are you ill?”
We asked him if he was ill.
You said to me, “Have you read the article?”
You asked me if I had read the article.
He said to her, “Will you go to the Peshawar Radio Station?”
He asked her if she would go to the Peshawar Radio Station.
She says, “Who is he?”
She says who he is.
Rashid said to me, “Why are you late?”
Rashid asked me why I was late.

Exclamatory Sentences

Those sentences, which express our feelings and emotions, are called exclamatory sentences. Mark of exclamation is used at the end of an exclamatory sentence. For example:

  • Hurray! We have won the match.
  • Alas! He failed in the test.
  • How beautiful that dog is!
  • What a marvelous personality you are!

To change exclamatory sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • In case, there is an interjection, i.e., alas, aha, hurray, etc. in the reported speech, then they are omitted along with sign of exclamation.
  • Reporting verb, i.e., said is always replaced with exclaimed with joy, exclaimed with sorrow, exclaimed joyfully, exclaimed sorrowfully or exclaimed with great wonder or sorrow.
  • In case, there is what or how at the beginning of the reported speech, then they are replaced with very or very great.
  • In an indirect sentence, the exclamatory sentence becomes an assertive sentence.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
He said, “Hurray! I have won the match.”
He exclaimed with great joy that he had won the match.
She said, “Alas! My brother failed in the test.”
She exclaimed with great sorrow that her brother had failed in the test.
They said, “What a beautiful house this is!”
They exclaimed that that house was very beautiful.
I said, “How lucky I am!”
I said in great wonder that I was very lucky.
You said to him, “What a beautiful drama you writing!
You said to him in great wonder that he was writing a beautiful drama.

Optative Sentences

Those sentences, which express hope, prayer, or wish, are called optative sentences. Usually, there is a mark of exclamation at the end of optative sentence. For example:

  • May you succeed in the test!
  • May you get well soon!
  • Would that I were rich!

To change optative sentences into indirect speech, follow the following rules along with the above-mentioned rules:

  • In case, the reported speech starts with the word may, then the reporting verb said is replaced with the word prayed.
  • In case, the reported speech starts with the word would, then the reporting verb said is replaced with the word wished.
  • May is changed in might.
  • Mark of exclamation is omitted.
  • In indirect speech, the optative sentences become assertive sentences.

Examples

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
He said to me, “May you live long!”
He prayed that I might live long.
My mother said to me, “May you succeed in the test!”
My mother prayed that I might succeed in the test.
She said, “Would that I were rich!”
She wished she had been rich.
I said to him, “Would that you were here on Sunday!”
I wished he had been there on Sunday.
You said to me, “ May you find your lost camera.”
You prayed that I might find my lost camera.

© 2014 Muhammad Rafiq

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image

      atasib adagine 

      4 hours ago

      atasib

    • profile image

      JUNAID KARZAII 

      2 days ago

      Sir Please I Need the Indirect Narration of this Sentence,

      He said me, "traitor"@

    • profile image

      Sahr Alex Komba 

      3 days ago

      How can I get this note in my PDF document?

    • profile image

      Sartaj Ahmed 

      4 days ago

      Tysm Sir

    • profile image

      Soma Yadav 

      5 days ago

      Thank you very very very much sir.

    • profile image

      Kashif 

      5 days ago

      You explained in a sequence and easy way. Best

    • profile image

      Ragini Sahani 

      6 days ago

      Thank you sir very very very much

    • profile image

      Prabhat Chourasia 

      6 days ago

      Good sharing of knowledge. It'll surely help many to learn and understand direct and indirect speech.

    • profile image

      Neha 

      7 days ago

      Thank you

    • profile image

      Jabran rana 

      7 days ago

      Thanks a lot sir i have learned it puickly

    • profile image

      vasanth 

      8 days ago

      it is very helpful for know about more english grammer questions

    • profile image

      amir sohail 

      8 days ago

      she said,"hurrah,"we have won the match" sir how change this into indirect

    • profile image

      Kunwer jaiswal 

      9 days ago

      Very good teaching

    • profile image

      tahniet 

      9 days ago

      Very helpfull.

    • profile image

      kabwe most 

      11 days ago

      you hav done wel atleast i hav and i wil fail any question frm this topic

    • profile image

      Dipti R Shah 

      12 days ago

      Very good teaching method sir Thank you

    • profile image

      Ahmed 

      12 days ago

      we appreciate your great efforts

    • profile image

      2 weeks ago

      How simply you execute this Grammar Vital element, I specially hassled about this that my teacher doesn't teach me well, therefore i really advice you to post many english things as you can to assist people. Love You from pakistan grade 4

    • profile image

      Iqbal afghan 

      2 weeks ago

      Hi!

      How we can to change this e.g

      Why did you come late today?

      Into indirect speech.

    • profile image

      Ahmad Hussain 

      2 weeks ago

      It was fruitful for me and others as well.

    • profile image

      Riaz ahmed 

      3 weeks ago

      Very Nice. It is very easy way to teach the direct indirect. thanks

    • profile image

      muneeb 

      3 weeks ago

      very nice

    • profile image

      Tadvi Nayan 

      3 weeks ago

      Indirec speech

    • profile image

      Tabeer Ali 

      3 weeks ago

      What is the easiest way to learn direct indirect tell me sir

    • profile image

      Aashish mahato 

      3 weeks ago

      NICE

      V.Good

    • profile image

      Abdul latif 

      3 weeks ago

      Fruitful knowledge

    • profile image

      Nitu 

      3 weeks ago

      Super B exallent

    • profile image

      Vandna pus 

      3 weeks ago

      The teacher said to the student , "the earth moves round the sun."

      Change this into indirect speech.

    • profile image

      Farwa 

      3 weeks ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      Engr 

      4 weeks ago

      Niki said that she had been hungry

    • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

      Muhammad Rafiq 

      4 weeks ago from Pakistan

      Niki said he was hungry.

    • profile image

      shabeer 

      4 weeks ago

      Niki said," i was hungry"

      how can I change into reported speech

    • profile image

      Pari semwal 

      4 weeks ago

      It is very important for all students

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Deepti 

      4 weeks ago

      Really very helpfull for studenrs as well as housewives who have forget while staying buzy wid kids like me i have quickly memorised it

    • profile image

      umer farooq 

      4 weeks ago

      its very helpful and useful grammar . thank you

    • profile image

      shaloma 

      4 weeks ago

      this is very useful grammar lesson. thank you for sharing with others.

    • profile image

      Anchal 

      4 weeks ago

      Nice and useful

    • profile image

      Sara 

      4 weeks ago

      Very helpful and nice,

    • profile image

      Dioum alpha Oumar I 

      4 weeks ago

      Thanks for your best lesson, it is useful

    • profile image

      Atika ch 

      4 weeks ago

      Very helpful

    • profile image

      Muhammad Talha Waqar 

      4 weeks ago

      Very Helpful Sir ... .... Best Wishes for You ....

    • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

      Muhammad Rafiq 

      4 weeks ago from Pakistan

      Thanks Junaid Ahmad Khan for your comments. I am glad you found it useful.

    • profile image

      Usama Latif 

      4 weeks ago

      Excellent

    • profile image

      kanchan shekhawat 

      5 weeks ago

      Thank you very much for your help.............

    • profile image

      Pulastya 

      5 weeks ago

      Very easy

    • profile image

      Saravanan 

      5 weeks ago

      Thq for your help

    • profile image

      Dona Dutta 

      5 weeks ago

      Its super good and it's very helpful to students . Thank you...

    • profile image

      Joel Johnson 

      5 weeks ago

      Thanks man for the great help

    • profile image

      maham zakia 

      5 weeks ago

      thankyou more!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • profile image

      SAAdat hussain 

      5 weeks ago

      special thanks it was really a good and helpful notes for students.

    • profile image

      Chinyama Sunday 

      5 weeks ago

      Well! I'm learning alot from this English platform

    • profile image

      Basim 

      5 weeks ago

      Thanlsyou

    • profile image

      Ashutosh dubey 

      5 weeks ago

      He said to the principal,"thank you,sir ".

    • profile image

      Mumtaz Ali 

      5 weeks ago

      Thanks you sri.... From pakistan

    • profile image

      Tripty 

      5 weeks ago

      Excellent

    • profile image

      Benedito Sergio Tivane 

      5 weeks ago

      Thanks for sharing your knowledge with us,the lesson about direct and indirect speech was so goo

    • profile image

      Thanks for your valuable notes 

      5 weeks ago

      Thanks hope that you will update more interesting notes of every topics in grammar

      .

    • profile image

      Dhruv Jangid 

      5 weeks ago

      thanks bro

    • profile image

      Very f 

      5 weeks ago

      Very good

    • profile image

      Ashy 

      5 weeks ago

      It's so helpful sir for my students..thanks

    • profile image

      Sanoop 

      5 weeks ago

      "No I normally listen to music."

      Change this to indirect

    • profile image

      Elhadj 

      6 weeks ago

      I want to change from indirect to direct speech.

      They had repented already, the pastor told his Christian.

    • profile image

      Midhin 

      6 weeks ago

      Thank you for your valuable lesson

    • profile image

      Dheeraj 

      6 weeks ago

      Good

    • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

      Muhammad Rafiq 

      6 weeks ago from Pakistan

      Thanks for catching it.

    • profile image

      razacyclewala37@gmail.com 

      6 weeks ago

      You have made a mistake in interrogative second last sentence.

      She says, “Who is he?”

      She says who he was.

      note:

      reported speech is in present so not change will be made in verb like,

      She says/asks who he is.

    • profile image

      Manas Bhattacharya 

      6 weeks ago

      Thanks. It helps a lot in clearing concept.

    • profile image

      Wafaa Mansi 

      6 weeks ago

      Thanks alot for your valuable lesson

    • profile image

      Kumar 

      6 weeks ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Hassan 

      6 weeks ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      MR 

      6 weeks ago

      Nice to see that

    • profile image

      Ganza 

      6 weeks ago

      Thank for that

    • profile image

      Bhuvaneshwari 

      6 weeks ago

      Very nice grammar.

      Thank you for that

    • profile image

      Praveen.u 

      6 weeks ago

      I like it very much.

    • profile image

      Mwamba 

      6 weeks ago

      whats wrong

    • profile image

      Muhammad Farooq 

      7 weeks ago

      any one help me plz

    • profile image

      KB show 

      7 weeks ago

      Thanks by the way

    • profile image

      m.bakhsh 

      7 weeks ago

      thank u

    • profile image

      Priyanshu 

      7 weeks ago

      Thank's a lot I really enjoyed learning

    • profile image

      laiba 

      7 weeks ago

      how to change optative sentences into indirect speech

    • profile image

      Woroud 

      7 weeks ago

      Thank youuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu for the leson

      THANK YOUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU

    • profile image

      lawal scorer 

      7 weeks ago

      we really enjoying this

      site thanks for your contributing

    • profile image

      Shravan vishu 

      7 weeks ago

      This site is marvelous for study

    • profile image

      Jigme yangden 

      7 weeks ago

      Direct Speech: She says, “I am writing a letter to my brother.”

      Indirect Speech: She says that she is writing a letter to her brother.

      In indirect speech dont we need to write like...she says that she was writing a letter to her brother....

    • profile image

      Zia 

      7 weeks ago

      Dont distrub me during my studies she said

    • profile image

      Sanvi 

      7 weeks ago

      Nice way of teaching grammar

    • profile image

      Swara 

      8 weeks ago

      Thanks for your help

    • profile image

      Ayush kushwaha 

      8 weeks ago

      Please change this sentence in indirect starting from "my mother told my father that"

      And the sentence is"my mother said to my father I cannot prepare the breakfast today"

    • profile image

      Sudhir Raghorte 

      8 weeks ago

      Where is the Wh-question sentences

    • profile image

      usman abid 

      8 weeks ago

      This lesson was to attractive.

    • profile image

      siti 

      8 weeks ago

      thank youu it was so helpful!!

    • profile image

      Faizan 

      8 weeks ago

      Nyx......so much attractive lesson easy to understand thankx...

    • profile image

      mohammad hatem 

      8 weeks ago

      Grammar is something important after learning the vocabulary

    • Rafiq23 profile imageAUTHOR

      Muhammad Rafiq 

      8 weeks ago from Pakistan

      Thanks Hafsa for your comments!

    • profile image

      hafsa 

      8 weeks ago

      my Allah bless you brother and i wish to you more success

    • profile image

      Ahotor 

      8 weeks ago

      God bless u all

    • profile image

      Abebe Israel 

      8 weeks ago

      English language is one of the best subject

    • profile image

      Bright 

      2 months ago

      Thanks, I have learned a lot

    • profile image

      Areej Awan 

      2 months ago

      Thankew sir..

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)