Nicholas is an online writer who has a deep interest in Hindu and Vedic philosophies.
I will attempt to describe the fundamental philosophical and metaphysical conceptions almost all thought structures of Hinduism share. The consideration of which will give greater appreciation for other cultures and religions, help the seeker clarify their thoughts on the nature of reality, and make certain aspects of yoga and spiritual practice more understandable.
What Is Brahman?
The most central concept of Hindu metaphysics is Brahman or Absolute Reality. Brahman lays at the foundation of all existence. All other levels of reality have come from it and will eventually collapse back within it. Now the primary purpose of human existence is to realize the identity of the self, or truest, spiritual essence (called Atman) with Brahman.
What Is Maya?
This "soul," we might call it, although that is not the best term because of its Western and Christian connotations, is stuck, we might say, in a level of reality called "maya" (or illusion). Our perception of existence is illusory because we fail to understand and experience the oneness of Self (Atman) with Brahman (Ultimate Reality). Instead of oneness, we experience separateness, age, sickness, death, and the ephemerality of things.
Thus, the spiritual quest for all Hindu-related religious and spiritual movements is to re-unite or re-realize the identity of Atman and Brahman. The best ways to do this and how one can or should approach and unify with Brahman are the questions that have created the different diversity we see today in Hindu thought and practice.
What Is Nirguna? What is Purusa?
All schools will recognize that Brahman is unmanifest, unbounded, and infinite. They term these characteristics nirguna, or without aspects or form. Brahman exists beyond time, space, and the other aspects of maya that cause all manner of human suffering. Brahman, however, gives rise to reality in its pluralism and multiplicity.
These "grosser" and less spiritualized states of existence have particularity, individualized existences; in the case of the human being, we call these the "ego-selves." Anything that exists in these states of manifest existence is part of Brahman's saguna (with form) existence.
Reality's manifest and physical aspects are often characterized as feminine, whereas the nirguna Brahman is identified as masculine. The dynamic between the masculine and feminine aspects of reality is central to Hindu thought and metaphysics. In some sense, Brahman exists and brings about existence through this gendered dyad. Without the feminine, purusa, (the principle of subjective consciousness and cosmic identity), the essence of Brahman, cannot come into being. Likewise, without the masculine characteristics of consciousness and the seeds of reality, prakrti (ever-changing nature and fundamental matter) cannot truly be alive, nor can it come into being.
All Things Are Composed of Prakrti
To sum up—Brahman, the most fundamental aspect of reality, exists beyond all form and phenomenal reality (described as nirguna), is likened to masculinity and is the activating force of consciousness and cosmic identity. Brahman manifests, thanks to his shakti (activating force), personified as feminine and often identified as a specific Goddess (Lakshmi, Parvati, Devi, Kali, Durga, etc.). In this state, all things are composed of prakrti (matter) and are individuated, separate, and multiple.
At a certain point in the manifestation process, reality forgets its identity with Brahman (Ultimate Reality), which is described as the state of maya (or living in illusion). The spiritual quest, then, is to realize the unity of trust, ontological self (Atman) with Brahman.
Uniting Atman With Brahman
Different traditions and practices recommend different avenues of uniting Atman with Brahman. Firstly, however, one must discern Brahman's true, manifest identity and his shakti to approach and unite with it. Some worship Shiva as Brahman and Parvati as his shakti. Others will argue that Vishnu is truly Brahman and Lakshmi is his shakti. You can imagine how this goes.
All theological arguments, of course, are rooted in various texts—the Bhagavad Gita forms the basis for much Vaisnava worship (focusing on Vishnu, and particularly Krishna as the Godhead), and various Puranas (holy texts in the Hindu corpus) advocate certain Gods (from Shiva to Vishnu and others). Most commonly, you will find Shiva or Vishnu (specifically, one of his avatars [forms], particularly Rama or Krishna) as the argued deity who is identical to Brahman, but this is not always the case.
Vishnu, Lakshmi, and Shiva
The god or goddess identified with Brahman is of utmost importance because their characteristics inform spiritual practice.
For example, Vishnu is the god of protection and preservation. His consort tends to be Lakshmi, a purveyor of affluence, material acquisition, and good luck. It would be logical, then, that living a householder's life, serving the state and preserving social norms, and focusing on material well-being would be part of living a spiritual life.
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However, Shiva, the god of destruction and an ascetic himself, inspires a different call to the spiritual. It is not through the fulfillment of one's dharma (social or karmic role) nor devotion and love offerings that one progresses spiritually. Through meditation, renunciation, asceticism, or even the inversion of societal standards, Shiva himself engages in his mythology.
Thus, while most Hindu religions and spiritual groups maintain a similar metaphysical understanding of reality, the character of Brahman, as identified with one of the traditional gods of the Hindu pantheon, informs different understandings of life, reality, and how one is to live a spiritual life and realize the identity of Atman and Brahman.
To Learn More
If you find this interesting, I recommend reading some of the books below to further explore the details and particularities of various thought groups within the umbrella of Hinduism. The videos might also help you.
- The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali by Swami Satchidananda — A must for any yogi
- Tantra: Path of Ecstasy by Georg Feuerstein — The author is world-renowned
- Ramayana: India's Immortal Tale of Adventure, Love and Wisdom by Krishna Dharma and Valmiki Ramayana — One of the main epics of Hinduism
- The Mahabharata — India's greatest epic
- Srimad Bhagavata by S.S.Cohen — Main text that justifies Vishnu and Krishna as Brahman
- Bhagavad Gita — The most central devotional text for the worship of Krishna
Short Video on Hindu Metaphysics by a Physicist and Vedic Scholar
Six-Part Video Series on Hindu Metaphysics and Science
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
preethi on July 23, 2019:
wonderful. thanks much
Devta Singh on August 24, 2017:
Sat Nam Ji
The level of awareness that I have just encountered with metaphysics in Hinduism is phenomenal. I thoroughly enjoyed the article and hopefully I can find more articles written as well as this one has been written and it is very easy to understand.
Sushil Kumar on April 16, 2017:
Several misconceptions and ambiguity still abounds in this exposition. Let me clarify:- the Atman is the direct equivalent of the lost Soul who has fallen or strayed from the path, and who has come to earth to rediscover its innate divinity & its kinship and intimate connection with God (Brahman), and realize itself as the true image of God. What stands in the way of complete reunion of the soul with God is the veil of ego which enevelopes the soul like a dark cloud, which and prevents it from seeing God, and causing it to forget God at times under the influence of Maya (God's illusory power which causes the unreal world to seem real) which gives rise to desires, which give birth to the evils of greed, anger, and lust-the three gateways to hell. Hence ego is the devil which causes the soul (and mind) to identify with the body, senses and things of this world, and lose sight of its true identity as the exact image of God, thus leading to miseries and sorrow. The forms or avatars are the direct physical manifestation of God (Brahman) who take forms and comes to earth when goodness starts to wane and evil and ignorance starts to overwhelm & dominate the earth.
Saadhak Shriman on August 24, 2015:
That was an excellent article and about as good as I ever read on Sanatan Dharma (Hinduism). I will add to it that the concept of God comes later, it is just to understand the Brahman (the eternal law/truth/energy) that we need Gods; else, you don't need any of the 330 million gods if you understand the Brahman, the Atman and the relation between the two. Therefore, you will find people who don't believe in Gods but are very much Hindu.