Is the Celebration of Easter Biblical?

Updated on April 17, 2019
Larry Slawson profile image

Larry Slawson received his Masters Degree at UNC Charlotte. He specializes in Russian and Ukrainian History.

Christian Cross
Christian Cross | Source

Introduction

Is the celebration of Easter, Biblical? This article explores the fundamental fallacies that surround the modern celebration of Easter, and examines the unbiblical nature of Easter practices and traditions through an analysis of Bible doctrines and verses.

To be clear, this article is not an attempt to diminish the importance of Christ’s Resurrection, nor is it an attempt to criticize Christianity or the Church for its current practices. The sole purpose of this article is to explore the fundamental fallacies that exist with the celebration of Easter and to demonstrate how its celebration is not supported by the Bible or the Lord Jesus Christ’s teachings. As with any article on Biblical matters, individuals should never take the word of this author (or others) as fact, but should always peruse the Bible themselves for both truth and assurance. In doing so, it is this author’s hope that you will be better informed of the Scriptural passages (and reasoning) behind why this holiday is false in the eyes of God.

Did Christ Really Die on Friday? (Good Friday)

One of the first issues concerning the celebration of Easter is the belief that Christ died on a Friday (Good Friday). However, if one examines Scripture, it is clear that Christ died on a Wednesday. Matthew 12:40 illustrates Christ’s prophecy concerning his death, burial, and Resurrection. In the verse, Christ states: “For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.”

If Christ had died on a Friday and arose from the dead on Sunday (as believed in many churches), then Christ’s prophecy is false given that only two days exist between Friday afternoon and Sunday morning. Some scholars have argued that partial days can be considered a “day.” However, Jesus himself defined what constituted a full day in John 11:9. In the verse, Jesus states: “…are there not twelve hours in a day?” If there are twelve hours in a day, then it can easily be implied that there are twelve hours in a night as well. Three days and three nights, therefore, are nothing short of 72 hours according to both a Biblical and scientific understanding of solar days.

Easter Eggs
Easter Eggs | Source

Was the Resurrection on a Sunday?

Another misconception about Christ’s Resurrection is the belief that Christ arose from the grave on a Sunday. However, this is simply not the case as Matthew 28:1-2, 5-6 states that Christ arose on the Sabbath. As it states: “In the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. And behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it. And the angel…said unto the women…I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. He is not here: for he is RISEN.”

Contrary to modern-day Christian beliefs, the Sabbath has never been on Sunday. As the book of Genesis teaches us, God rested on the seventh day after His creation of the world, which became the Sabbath. The seventh day of the week, however, is not Sunday, but rather Saturday. Examine any western calendar and you will observe that Sunday is always listed as the first day of the week.

It is also important to note three separate things about this verse in Matthew. For one, the women visited Jesus’ tomb very late on the Sabbath (Saturday), just as Sunday was beginning to near. Second, by the time they had arrived at the tomb, Jesus was already gone. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it is crucial to note that Jewish days always began at sundown at approximately six o’clock in the evening, compared to the western world which observes the start of a new day at midnight. When we take each of these factors into account, three days and three nights in the tomb (or seventy-two hours) would indicate that Jesus died on a Wednesday, and was placed in the tomb near six o’clock in the evening, thus, fulfilling the prophecy of Matthew 12:40 (the sign of Jonah).

When Did Christ Die?

Now that it has been established that Christ did not die on a Friday, but rather a Wednesday, at what time of the year was He crucified? According to John 19:31, Christ was crucified on the “Day of Preparation,” or the preparation day for the “Jewish Passover.” As it states: “The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.” According to Jewish customs, the Passover always begins on the fourteenth day of the Jewish month, Nisan (according to Leviticus 23:5). The day that follows (the fifteenth) was always referred to as the “High Day Sabbath,” which was an annual Passover Sabbath that was observed in addition to the weekly Seventh Day Sabbath. As Leviticus 23:5-7 states: “In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD’S Passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD; seven days ye must eat unleavened bread. In the first day ye shall have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein.” This fifteenth day, therefore, was always a Sabbath regardless of which day of the week it fell upon. And according to these scriptural passages it is clear that Christ was crucified on the day preceding “High Day Sabbath” (Wednesday the fourteenth).

If we are to follow these passages, it is clear that Jesus ate the Passover during the first hours of Wednesday, just after six o’clock (Tuesday night, according to western concepts of time), where he then proceeded to the Garden, was arrested, tried, and crucified all on the same day (Wednesday). Because Christ was crucified during the Jewish month of Nisan, it is clear that He died during the month of April (the equivalent of Nisan).

Depiction of the Easter Bunny
Depiction of the Easter Bunny | Source

What Time of the Day Did Christ Die?

After establishing that Christ died on a Wednesday, another important thing to note about his crucifixion is that it was performed around three o’clock in the afternoon. According to Luke 23:44, 46: “And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.” The ninth hour, here, refers to nine hours since the break of day. If sunrise occurred at six o’clock in the morning, the ninth hour is indicative of three in the afternoon. This would, in turn, allow Christ to have been buried in the tomb before the end of Wednesday. Why is all of this important to understand, you may ask? Understanding the exact time of Christ’s death helps us to pinpoint and prove, beyond a reasonable doubt, that Christ was not crucified on a Friday. Nor did he rise from the grave on a Sunday as commonly practiced in Easter traditions.

Easter is Not Mentioned in the Bible

Another problem concerning the celebration of Easter is the fact that it is not in the Bible. The word “Easter” (or its equivalents) appear in the Bible only once in Acts 12:4. When taken into context, however, the use of the word “Easter” in this verse refers only to the Passover. No directions or guidance are ever given in regard to the celebration or necessity of a Easter holiday. Nor does God ever furnish the Church with specific directions on how to celebrate the Resurrection of Christ. We are only told how to worship, and to observe the Lord’s Supper in remembrance of Jesus. According to 2 Timothy 3:16-17, the Bible states: “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction of righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.” In other words, the Bible thoroughly furnishes us with all of the necessary doctrines and teachings that we require. Had the celebration of Easter been a crucial element of the Christian life, don’t you think it would have been included in the Bible?

“All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction of righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.”

— 2 Timothy 3:16-17 (KJV)

Easter's Pagan Origins

In addition to the fact that Easter appears nowhere in the Bible, the celebration of Easter is also rooted in pagan traditions spanning thousands of years before the birth of Christ. According to history.com, the name “Easter” is derived from the Anglo-Saxon goddess Eostre, who was the goddess of light and spring (www.history.com).

Easter can also be traced back to the days of the Babylonians, Phoenicians, and Chaldeans. These groups celebrated Easter as a spring festival in honor of the goddess Astarte or Ishtar, the goddess of spring and rebirth (Halff, 6). According to historian Alexander Hislop, Easter “is not a Christian name,” and bears Chaldean origins (Halff, 6).

Easter (Ishtar) also served as a mythological creature of the Babylonian religion, and was believed to have had rabbits that laid eggs of various colors. Eggs represented a new life, whereas the colored eggs symbolized wishes “for a bright new year ahead” (Halff, 6). According to Dr. Charles Halff, both the rabbit and eggs are symbolic of fertility and sex, respectively (Halff, 6). Every time you hide brightly colored Easter eggs, therefore, you are celebrating an ancient practice of pagan civilizations.

Easter "Sunrise Services"

In addition to the pagan origins of the Easter Bunny and eggs, Easter sunrise services are also unbiblical given that they are a form of idolatry. In fact, the Bible clearly warns about the observance of these forms of service in Ezekiel 8:15-16, 18. In these verses, the Bible states: “… turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations than these. And he brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east: and they worshipped the sun toward the east…and though they cry in mine ears with a loud voice, yet will I not hear them.”

In this example, God is specifically condemning the children of Israel for performing sunrise services due to the fact that it is a form of idolatry. He even states that it is a great abomination. Why is this the case? By looking to the east and awaiting the approach of the Sun above the horizon, more focus and attention is devoted to the Sun’s movement than the worship service taking place. Yet, despite this, thousands of Christians across the world participate in sunrise services every year. Sunrise services are also closely linked to pagan traditions that occurred on Easter morning, in which they believed that the Sun was dancing for joy as it ascended above the horizon (Halff, 6). When individuals attend such services, they are unknowingly reenacting the worship of pagan goddesses (Halff, 6).

Poll

Is the celebration of Easter Biblical?

See results

The Observance of Days is Forbidden in the Bible

Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the celebration of Easter remains unbiblical due to the fact that God strictly forbids Christians to observe certain days above others. In Galatians 4:10-11, the Bible states: “Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain.” God is greatly displeased when His followers observe certain days with higher esteem than others because they represent a form of idolatry. Moreover, why should Christians only celebrate the Resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ once a year? His Resurrection is an event that should be celebrated 365 days a year, 24/7, as His ascent from the grave is what gives Christians across the globe salvation. This was a momentous event that should be at the cornerstone of Christian beliefs at all times, and not only one Sunday service a year.

Conclusion

In closing, the celebration of Easter is full of traditions, customs, and beliefs that have been practiced by Christians for centuries. Yet, as we have seen, none of these traditions are based upon Biblical teachings. Instead, many of these traditions formed the backbone of pagan rituals of civilizations that preceded the birth of Christ by millennia. Understanding these truths are crucial for Christians to understand, particularly as churches make it appear as though the celebration of Easter is a commandment from God. If we observe scriptural teachings, however, nothing could be farther from the truth. If anything, these practices and traditions only serve to displease God. Knowing the truth, therefore, is essential for all Christians in their relationship to Christ. As John 8:32 states, most eloquently: “ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.”

Works Cited:

Articles/Books:

Halff, Charles. The Fallacies of Easter: Is Easter Pagan or Christian? Christian Jew Foundation.

History.com Editors. "Easter 2019." HISTORY.com, A&E Television Networks, April 2019. https://www.history.com/topics/holidays/history-of-easter

Images/Photographs:

Wikipedia contributors, "Easter," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Easter&oldid=892630159 (accessed April 17, 2019).

Questions & Answers

    © 2019 Larry Slawson

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment
      • profile image

        June 

        4 weeks ago

        I will share scriptures that don’t support the trinity it is not a mystery . As some religions would have you believe.

      • profile image

        GE Hoostal 

        4 months ago

        3 nights: synecdoche, like 6 days in Mt 17:1 = 8 days in Mk 9:2. Prophecies DIRECTLY about the Resurrection say Christ would rise ‘the third day’, ‘te trite hemera’, i.e. ON, not AFTER. Mt 28:1 says ‘opse de Sabbaton’, AFTER the Sabbath. Jewish & Eastern Christian days begin at sunset, as in Gn 1, so ‘day’ can = 24 hrs. All Christians in the Bible except Romans are E. Christians. So it already had been Sun. for ~ 12 hrs.

        Modern-day true Christian beliefs = the ancient: every Holy Sat., we Byzantine Christians sing, ‘THIS IS THE most blessed SABBATH day…’ Holy Sat. is MegaSABBATon in Greek, Velikaya SUBBOTa in Russian, etc. Ethiopian Christians STILL keep the Sabbath same as the Jews. Holy Wk events are explained in the Didiscalia Apostolorum. St Ign. of Antioch wrote, ‘But let every one of you KEEP THE SABBATH after a spiritual manner…AND AFTER THE OBSERVANCE OF THE SABBATH, LET EVERY FRIEND OF CHRIST KEEP THE LORD’S DAY AS A FESTIVAL, THE RESURRECTION-DAY…’ Who knows Christ’s teaching better, the Apostles themselves & their disciples, or any of us who only picks up a Bible & uses fallible reasoning to try to deduce the teaching, which isn’t all contained there anyway (cf. Mk 4:33,34)?

        Day of Prep.: ‘for the next day was High Sabbath’ (megale Sabbatou), (Jn 19:31), the Megasabbaton we E. Christians have celebrated ever since. You go from ‘megale sabbatou’ to essentially, ‘not any sabbatou whatsoever, but Passsover instead’. So ‘it is clear’, ‘it has been est.’, etc. is the Fallacy of Argument by Assertion.

        Furnishing: Hb 9 says, Even the 1st Tabernacle had ordinances of divine worship & an earthly sanctuary. Then it summarizes them & their sacrifices. Then it reminds us we have a greater & more perfect Tabernacle, & it req’s better sacrifices (in plural). ∴ the greater & more perfect Tabernacle has greater & more perfect ordinances of divine worship. Not every sacrifice is acceptable, e.g. Korah’s. But a greater priesthood is req’d now, the hierourgounta in Rm 15:16, the priesthood of the order (taxin) of Melchizedek. The priesthood of all believers predates the Lev. priesthood so the former can’t replace the latter, & the former is a lateral arrangement but a taxis is vertical: ‘one member over another in rank…ancient military term…an ordered troop…arranged in descending rank’ (Bible Hub). ∴ since the 1st Tabernacle had its priests & Pascha, the 2nd has greater priests & a greater & more perfect Pascha, which we do. The Jewish Passover is a shadow of it (Hb 10:1)—compare a flat, black shadow to the detail, color, & fullness of what casts it. Then consider how the Tabernacle was beautiful & had elaborate ceremonies. So the Church must have beauty & ritual of a GREATER DIMENSION, as I’m sure you as a student of Russia have read St Vladimir’s emissaries found in Constantinople: ‘We knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth, for we cannot forget that beauty.’ Haven’t you attended the midnight Pascha? We’re to to stand fast & hold the traditions (paradoseis) taught by [spoken] word (logou) & epistle (epistoles) (2Th 2:15). You accept our paradoseis of epistoles but not our paradoseis of logou. You got your NT from Catholics/Orthodox, & you don’t trust us for ANYTHING else, incl. our OT, so why trust that we perfectly copied, vetted, approved, compiled, & handed down the NT to the 1st Protestants?

        Biblical worship = proskynesein, i.e. prostration, bowing, & kissing, all of which E. Christians do tons of. And the Disciples at the Last Supper passed on authority directly (Ac 8:18,19), so the Eucharist’s not D.I.Y. In 2Tm 3:16, the purported ‘all’ is actually ‘pasa’, which means taken ‘one piece at a time.’ (Bible Hub.) ‘Graphe’ is singular: ‘Scripture’ = 1 v. ∴ that v. means each v. taken separately is inspired & profitable. If ‘ophelimos’, ‘profitable’, were ‘all-sufficient’, then believers’ being careful to excel in good works (Tt 3:8) would be all-sufficient, making believing superfluous. If each v. were all-sufficient, pointing out to us Catholics/Orthodox any 1 v. would make us instant Protestants. Protestants tried to evangelize me when I was an agnostic—didn’t work, obviously. See v. 15 for the Scriptures in ‘every Scripture’: those St Timothy had known since infancy. The NT hadn’t been written yet, he’s Greek/Jewish, Ac 2:7–11 demonstrates that each Jew knew only the vernacular lang. of his birthplace, he’s from a Greek city, & the Greek OT is the LXX, the OT of us Byzantines. Incl. even more books than the RC Canon, & proof the Masoretes were corrupt (e.g. Is 7:14 LXX v. MT). The Bereans, being in Greece, likewise had the LXX. If they had searched the MT (it didn’t yet exist), then ∵ it didn’t match the Faith & Apostolic teaching, they wouldn’t have converted! 2Tm 3:16 means the LXX in its full Canon must be accepted.

        Protestants got their OT from Jews & NT from us, each w/ pre-determined purpose. Neither source ever said it contained all crucial items. E. Churches canonized Scripture, whichever books of it each had at the time, TO BE READ IN CHURCH. All items in the Canon are holy; nothing uncanonical is Scripture; ∴ nothing uncanonical is holy? Fallacy of Illicit Major. So E. Churches have different Canons all simultaneously true. And who might anyone be to decide what’s ‘crucial’?

        If the Bible contains all necessary doctrines, why doesn’t it prohibit cannibalism? Where are the traditions taught by spoken word only, the divine ordinances for the new Tabernacle, the marriage & funeral rites, the Canon OF Scripture W/I Scripture? Not from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zacharias, b.t.w., ∵ Christ wasn’t pronouncing woe unto the Pharisees for having too many books in their OT; Zacharias was killed btw the altar & temple, inner side of the altar, but Zechariah was killed in the ct, outer side of the altar; Zacharias is in the NT (Lk 1); & if the death of Zechariah would have closed the Canon, everything after his death—incl. 2Ch 24:21 & Lk 11:51!—would be inadmissible. Where does it say you’re allowed to have pews, pulpits, unbiblical instruments, or to pray sitting or w/ closed eyes? Where are the rest of the explanations of parables, esp. who is the 1 porter (Mk 13:34) for the whole house? No one would have any authority to tell someone misinterpreting Scripture that he’s misinterpreting it. You can tell a certain Protestant in error that he’s in error, but he does likewise to you: nobody’s objectively corrected. And w/ 100s of 1000s of divisions (all ‘non-denom’ churches are separated from each other), who could objectively be said to have caused any? Always whoever’s on the OTHER side of 1, so how are vv. against ‘divisions’ profitable? Not an invisible church, ∵ how could we tell to the whole church the sin of our brother not listening, w/o going to law b/f unbelievers, how could the church speak as 1, & how could we as 1 treat him as a heathen & a publican?

        We E. Christians, Chaldeans incl’d, don’t have ‘Easter’, only Pascha. Like Anglo-Saxons brought a pagan goddess to the Holy Land? Like Christians recently converted to the true Faith, who were being persecuted, tortured, & martyred BY the pagans, incl. for smashing pagan statues, fell right into error, mixing into their Faith worship of the same idols they had just destroyed, & then the OTHER Christians were like,

      • Miebakagh57 profile image

        Miebakagh Fiberesima 

        7 months ago from Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NIGERIA.

        Noted, please.

      • Larry Slawson profile imageAUTHOR

        Larry Slawson 

        7 months ago from North Carolina

        Thank you Ms. Dora! I'm glad you enjoyed :)

      • MsDora profile image

        Dora Weithers 

        7 months ago from The Caribbean

        Your presentation is clear and factual. Thanks.

      • Larry Slawson profile imageAUTHOR

        Larry Slawson 

        7 months ago from North Carolina

        Hi Cristine! I’m glad you enjoyed! Thank you!

      • cristina327 profile image

        Cristine Santander 

        7 months ago from Manila

        Great hub, interesting revelations, a great eye opener. Thanks for bringing these facts into light.

      • Miebakagh57 profile image

        Miebakagh Fiberesima 

        7 months ago from Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NIGERIA.

        Hi, Larry, I appreciated you. Thanks.

      • Larry Slawson profile imageAUTHOR

        Larry Slawson 

        7 months ago from North Carolina

        Thank you Miebakagh! I'm glad you enjoyed!

      • Miebakagh57 profile image

        Miebakagh Fiberesima 

        7 months ago from Port Harcourt, Rivers State, NIGERIA.

        Hello, Harry, my pleasure in reading the story. I agreed with every detail. And the way you present facts is convincing. However, some Christian, especially among the orthodox and charismatics have their mindset settled on the usual days of Friday and Sunday as the death and resurrection days. Thanks for sharing.

      • Larry Slawson profile imageAUTHOR

        Larry Slawson 

        7 months ago from North Carolina

        Thank you Cheryl! I'm so glad you enjoyed reading. Yes, I agree 100 percent. Its an uphill battle with others at times.

      • Cheryl E Preston profile image

        Cheryl E Preston 

        7 months ago from Roanoke

        This truly is the most balanced article I have been able to find thus far regarding this subject. Thank You. And You are correct we should celebrate His resurrection every day. I try to but many around me are traditional. It's an uphill battle.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)