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Jack Speak—Naval Language and Slang of the Royal Navy

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Jack Speak Dictionary

The British Royal Navy has a language or slang all of its own which reflects both its long history and also the culture (both good and bad) of the seafarer.

I've never been in the armed forces but began to work with the Royal Navy about 10 years ago in an Officer's Billet (job) as a training specialist. To begin with, I didn't have a clue what anyone was talking about. Then I discovered Jackspeak.

The Royal Navy has a curious habit of pretending its shore establishments or 'stone frigates' are ships. With training establishments, this apparently odd behavior helps the trainees to feel at home or rather 'at sea.' On 'concrete ships,' the RN talk about raising the gangplank (closing the gates) and allowing sailors to 'go ashore.'

Pipes and Heads

The officer's mess is called the Wardroom and the toilets are the 'heads.' A call to 'clear the lower decks' means everyone is to be addressed by a senior officer while the 'upper deck' refers to officers only. This address will be announced by a 'pipe.'

To the non-nautical, this means a 'tannoy' announcement. This expression goes back to the days when a pipe or whistle was blown before an announcement was made aboard ship.

Bosun's Whistle

Bosun's Whistle

Colours and Colourful Language

Ceremonial activities also affect shore life. First thing in the morning there are 'colours.' Everyone is expected to face the mast (surprisingly, every shore establishment has one) while the white ensign is raised to the accompaniment of a bugle.

Fortunately (for me) only uniformed personnel are expected to salute. 'Divisions' are another feature of the establishment routine where everyone in uniform marches (on special occasions, led by a Royal Marine Band.

Navy speak or 'Jack' speak, as it is sometimes affectionately called, is complex and consists of a broad spectrum of language from military jargon, through historical derivations to slang and downright vulgarity. Much of the vocabulary relates to life on board ship and also to Jack's arduous leisure pursuits while ashore.

Bearing in mind the reputation English sailors have, some of this is very lewd and explicit! There are a great many expressions which relate to drinking, women, bodily functions and, not to put too fine a point on it, sex.

It will be fascinating to see how Jackspeak and navy slang evolves as the number of women going to sea steadily increases. Will political correctness in the Royal Navy triumph? Will women feminise the language and culture? Only time will tell.

Navy cannon being fired

Navy cannon being fired

Many expressions we regularly use today, on dry land, originate from life on board ship in Nelson's day.

  • Take the expression long shot meaning attempting something with little chance of success. This originated from firing a cannon beyond its normal range.
  • What about at loggerheads? Loggerheads were hollow spheres of iron at each end of a shaft. They were heated and used to melt tar in a bucket. The expression arose because the two loggerheads can never come together.
  • Swinging the lead relates to a sailor dropping a lead weight on a line over the side of the ship in order to measure the sea depth. Sailors found this to be a handy method of avoiding real work.
  • On a more culinary note, chew the fat relates to the need for heavy mastication in order to break down the tough rind of beef that was stored in a barrel of brine for months on end.
Royal Navy chef onboard HMS Ark Royal

Royal Navy chef onboard HMS Ark Royal

More Expressions

  • Piping hot originates from the fact that if food were collected from the galley as soon as the appropriate 'pipe' sounded then would it would still be hot when served.
  • Toe the line, meaning to conform to rules and authority, originates from a time when a ship's company were mustered for victualling or pay. Each sailor stepped forward to a line marked on the deck and gave his name and duties.
  • Pig's Ear, a term for something messy, refers to an upper deck urinal used by sailors when on watch. Incidentally, Jack's expressions for a call of nature, all of which allude to experiences at sea, include syphon the python, pumping the ship, ease springs, check the ship for leaks and springing a leak.
  • The expression all above board refers to things on the top deck of the ship and therefore open to inspection.
  • True colours relate to Naval etiquette which, while allowing false colours or flags to be displayed when approaching an enemy ship, insists that true colours are flown once battle begins and fire is exchanged.
  • Copper bottomed, something worthwhile, as in a 'copper-bottomed guarantee, refers to copper plates which were fixed to wooden ships hulls to minimise worm attack and prevent the build-up of barnacles and weeds.

Relationships and Fratton

When a male sailor arrives at a foreign port and goes in search of companionship he may well indulge in a bit of 'counterpane hurdling' or he may 'give the ferret a run.' For health reasons, Jack would be well advised to wear a 'franger.' A condom is also known as a wellie, a fred, or a forget-me-not.

If Jack doesn't have a franger then his partner may expect him to 'Get out at Fratton.' This is a quaint expression for 'coitus interruptus' and the derivation becomes clear when you realise that Fratton is the last railway station before Portsmouth and the Naval Base.

Strangely, however, a 'franger sangar' is a fried egg sandwich! While we're on the subject of relationships, beware anyone young and innocent invited on board to view the mythical 'golden rivet.' This fabled fixing is supposedly located in the lower reaches of the vessel by the shipbuilder and celebrates the completion of construction.

When I was on a Frigate in the Northern Gulf just before the last Gulf War, the Principal Warfare Officer (a young woman) arranged for me to visit the Engine Room. Her parting shot to the Deputy Marine Engineering Officer, also a girl, was "Don't forget to show him the Golden Rivet!" The irony is they were both about half my age. How times have changed!

Within the Royal Navy, the submariners remain a somewhat separate and secretive bunch. When anyone in the RN talks about 'a boat' then they mean a submarine. Submariners are sometimes referred to by the rest of the Navy as 'boat people.' The submariners refer to the surface fleet as 'skimmers' or less kindly as 'targets.'

Much sailor's talk conveys a school-boyish sense of humour. I like 'sparrowfart' for dawn or first light. (What the sparrow does before he begins the dawn chorus). The 'sports pages' are the romantic and sexy bits in a letter to a loved one. Friday is known as 'Poets day' ( Go Off Early Tomorrow's Saturday)!

If this introduction has whetted your appetite for JackSseak and Royal Navy slang or you find yourself working with the British Navy then consider purchasing the definitive guide to Jackspeak written by Rick Jolly, a surgeon Commander in the Royal Navy.

Questions & Answers

Question: What is navy slang for the Fleet Air Arm?

Answer: The members of the Fleet Air Arm were sometimes referred to as 'Airy Fairies'.

Question: Is the term "matelot' for a Navy sailor in any way derogatory?

Answer: The term "matelot' is neutral. It is a French term, and its original meaning was 'bedmate' because two sailors used to share hammock space. Now it is just a word for sailor often used by sailors to describe themselves.


Jim on April 26, 2020:

What's a dab toe?

Pompey Boy on April 18, 2020:

London train leaving Portsmouth arriving at Fratton

Neil B on November 15, 2019:

Is to "get shot" of someone that is causing trouble a Jack term?

Mike on September 16, 2019:

@Fred Perry, when I was in the Andrew it was "2, 6, Heave!" "Pull" was a rowing command for the crew to pull back on the oars in unison while they are in the water in order to propel the boat.

Fred Perry - Yorkie on July 30, 2019:

Nobody has mentioned 2, 6 pull. I still always use this when taking the strain haha. Only my 2 nephew's who followed me into the RN know hat im talking about.

In the days of cannon, each member of the gun crew were given numbers. Numbers 2 and 6 were at the rear of the gun and it was those two who pulled it back into position for the next shot - hence 2. 6 pull

AB Blood Reed on March 21, 2019:

When I leave the office l state that i'm about to ' Silp and proceed '

I understand it is catching on !

Margaret Kapasi RGN on February 28, 2018:

Desperatly trying to find out what ship my aunt sailed in during WW2 to Ceylon She joined up as a QARNNR in 1942. What port would she have landed and what was the name of the RN hospital either in Colombo ornTricomillee?

Ben (ex - RAF) on February 06, 2018:

I believe "ship-shape & Bristol fashion" came about because for centuries Bristol was the major port on the west coast & shipping there was the best regulated & most organised in the country, or so it was said by Bristolians. Hence it's use to mean in tip-top order, everything neat & tidy.

Taken from ""Salty Dog Talk - the nautical origins of everyday expressions" ISBN 0-229-11705-8. My copy is 1960's....!

Werrf on November 13, 2017:

We can't forget the spectacular word "pompholugopaphlasmasin", coined in a report by the captain of HMS Lotus to describe the characteristic "bubbling and boiling" sound of a u-boat breaking up under water.

FX Killick on October 20, 2017:

Barrack stanchion. Jaunty. Crusher. Chokey. Up the line. Jack Dusty. Handy Billy. The Dockyard bike. Rum rat. Bubbly (alas issued no more). Blue liners. Old boot.

Alan R Lancaster from Forest Gate, London E7, U K (ex-pat Yorkshire) on December 09, 2016:

Rik, what about "Ship-shape and Bristol Fashion"? Nobody's mentioned that here yet.

An uncle was in the wartime navy (WWII), and he came out with a few choice expressions, including "Hell's bells" (that was a favourite of his). Half the rest is a bit foreign to me, but understandable. He spent some time in the Med, where my Dad was in the Army. Between them you could have written a whole new English Dictionary. I what he'd make of today's midget sized RN?

phil coyle on April 14, 2016:

The RN got its name the Andrew after Andrew Miller a merchant who funded the early navy and it was known as Andrews navy. Andrews liver salts came much later Think this guy was pulling your p....r

len on August 07, 2012:

In the RCN in 1955/60 and only a few of these phrases are familiar. We called the sea "the chuck",lost articles were put in the "scran bag" desert was "duff"and issued rum was "pussers neats" There were many many more.

Geoff Leading Seaman on June 29, 2012:

Hi There love the page but did see something wrong You have have had lots of response with POETS day I can tell you for a fact as I'm in the Royal Navy it means Piss Off Early Tomorrows Saturday hope this helps ;)

Peter Geekie from Sittingbourne on May 31, 2012:

Thanks Rik

As an ex officer in the Andrew this was good fun and reminds me of earlier days. Also may help to convince my wife who still thinks I make it up !!

Kind regards Peter

Rik Ravado (author) from England on May 23, 2012:

Bob, are you mixing me up with Rick Jolly - who wrote the book Jackspeak? He is a doctor and I never served in the RN.

Bob Graffham on May 23, 2012:

Rick (Sir ! )You want me to pay my pension to you for this stuff? Always knew you were a crafty bastard? Showing we Aircrewmen of 772Sqdn at Portland in the Late 1970's your lovely collection of medical photo's taken in N.I.

Oh well I guess someone has to supplement the pension and you certainly have the gift to eductate and entertain!

All The Best.

Candice on January 13, 2012:

My fiancé is in his 2nd phase of training as a submariner engineer in the RA in HMS Sultan in Pompy and he's loving it! I love that only I know what he's saying when he say's he's going out for a 'tab' and things like that. Want to be the best Military wife I can be so this book looks like it will come in handy! Thank you!

Rik Ravado (author) from England on September 27, 2011:


I think it might be 'teriyaki' This isn't Jackspeak but teriyaki derives from the noun teri (???), which refers to a shine or luster given by the sugar content in the tare, and yaki (Japanese cooking). My guess is sailors called the Sun 'teriyaki' in the Far East.

siti on September 27, 2011:

gud 4 knowledge

Liam on September 25, 2011:

There is a scene in The Battle of the River Plate with two Ratings on watch as the sun is rising and one says "here comes old 'terriagi' ". Is this word Jackspeak and what does it mean ?

Zoe Brain from Canberra, Australia on June 30, 2011:

Then there's sippers, gulpers, scran, two blocks... another voice from Australia here.

Rik Ravado (author) from England on March 06, 2011:

Thanks for stopping by and sharing Jimmy.

Alan - Yes 'Oggin, 'Ogwash, Hoggin and Hogwash are all used according to the book Jackspeak by Rick jolly.

Alan Oliver on March 05, 2011:

During my time in the 'Andrew'... in the fifties, the 'Sea' was often referred to as the 'ogin' or 'oggin'? Has anyone come across the term?

ABSM JIMMY on October 20, 2010:

im in the Aussie navy and its all still used today... with more getting invented. interestingly, in rookies you get issued a book of jack speek with your kit. POETS day is true. oh and the girls love it more than the guys i think!!!

Rik Ravado (author) from England on August 26, 2010:

Jane - Interesting the idea of POETS day (even if the meaning is subtly different) extends beyond the British Navy!

Jane Lawton on August 25, 2010:

I'm an artist who moved to Florida recently, so I'm painting boats and seascapes. Loving it! A note about "Poets Day" I learned this in Charleston, S.C. of all places. P.O.E.T.S. stands for "Piss On Everything, Tomorrow's Saturday

Rik Ravado (author) from England on July 15, 2010:

Mike this is a really interesting. for those who don't know, Guz is the Navy nickname for Devonport in the south west of England. It possibly comes from the wartime signal letter group GUZZ, the port's call sign.

According to the book 'Jackspeak', 'Andrew' is probably derived from Andrew Miller, a successful press gang officer of the 18th century. As with many of these terms there may be more than one explanation!

Mike Hobbs on July 14, 2010:

I asked an ex-matelot once 'Why the RN was referred to as 'The Andrew' he replied that it was all about Andrew's liver salts, in that it gave you the sh*ts. I come from Guz in 'oggy land, but this was explained to me in Scotland

Rik Ravado (author) from England on July 02, 2010:


Great to have an Australian viewpoint of Jack Speak. I know Whale Island well. Its also known as HMS Excellent. Thanks for your informative comment!

Tom Ware from Sydney, Australia on July 01, 2010:

Rik, the Australian Navy I served in from 1954-60 was every bit as British as the RN and used all the same phraseology: Tiddly-oggies, bum-nuts and bacon, etc.. Many of the officers were from Blighty and I can recall one particularly hard gunnery officer from Whale Island. Yep, sailors have a language of their own...but so, too, do so many other professions and callings.

Rik Ravado (author) from England on April 16, 2010:

Thanks for stopping by Cynthia!

Cynthia Fadness on April 15, 2010:

I Think It was just great! Bravo!!!

Rik Ravado (author) from England on August 08, 2009:

Jo - Glad you enjoyed this article. I've visited HMS Drake. Working with the RN is unusual but generally a rewarding experience!

Jo McGOWAN on August 07, 2009:


Rik Ravado (author) from England on July 23, 2009:

Glad you enjoyed it Sarah - hope it helps you to understand him better! PS: If he annoys you, when he's asleep, tip a bucket of water over him and shout "Man Overboard!"

sarah on July 23, 2009:

this page is great, my fella is in the navy and i am always telling him to speak english!!!

Rik Ravado (author) from England on December 08, 2008:

Catala - Yes I don't think that is an RN phrase - Glad you enjoyed.

catala on December 07, 2008:

you seem to have missed "shiver me timbers" but that was from the merchant navy? or John Silver..good hub

Rik Ravado (author) from England on September 30, 2008:


Glad you enjoyed it!

adamjthompson on September 29, 2008:

I'm american, but a great read. Many of these terms are used in the US, too.

Rik Ravado (author) from England on May 15, 2008:

Thank you knolyourself for your kind comments - However, I'm not quite as old as Peter O'Toole!

Theophanes - Yes dialects are great fun. When I used to live in a small village in Derbyshire people used to say "Hows ye Father?" The standard reply was "Fair to middlin" (it had nothing to do with how my father actually was!)

Theophanes Avery from New England on February 23, 2008:

That was great! I've only heard of a small handful of those. It's amusing to know where they come from. I'm always fascinated by local dialects and slang that diverge so much from regular speechthat they become their own code or language. What a fun read, keep it up.

knolyourself from Bay Area, Ca on January 23, 2008:

Just got my first comment in history, may as well write one - and your it. Love the origin of language; and like your persona. Reminds of 'The Singing Detective'. Also like your writing style - you got 'The Knack', a film from the 60s. So really enjoyed your article, you should do well. And since you're in sight of the English Channel, also Heavy Weather, Peter O'Toole.

Rik Ravado (author) from England on January 17, 2008:

Mortimer, Woody - Glad you found it interesting. It amazes me how many words and expressions we use in everyday speech in the UK actually come from the Navy. Copper-bottomed is an obvious example!

Woody Marx from Ontario, Canada on January 13, 2008:

A real 'copper bottomed' Hub! I love to hear about the true origins of words.


MortimerWorth from Germany on January 11, 2008:

I've been around some US Navy and I am familiar with a little less than half of what you have here being part of their culture as well. I am once again enjoying the brainstorming fun facts that you dig up.

Rik Ravado (author) from England on January 01, 2008:

Many thanks William. Working with the Royal Navy is strange even to a British civilian - I often wonder what other Navies make of JackSpeak!

William F Torpey from South Valley Stream, N.Y. on January 01, 2008:

I greatly enjoyed reading this hub. Thanks, Rik. I'll add the book to my reading list.