The Irish War of Independence and Kevin Barry

Updated on June 15, 2018
viking305 profile image

L.M.Reid is an Irish writer who has published many history articles online and in magazines.

An Irish Soldier

Kevin Barry became active as a soldier in Dublin as a 15 year old lad.

At age 18 he caught by the British Soldiers and receives the Death Penalty.

He is hanged in MountJoy Jail in November 1920.

This is the story of a medical student in University College Dublin who died fighting for the freedom of his country

The Black and Tans

The Black and Tans

Dublin of 1920 was a terrifying city to live in if you were Irish because Britain made the laws in Ireland then. If a person was heard to speak in Irish they would be arrested and jailed. The people of Dublin were not even safe in their own beds.

At any time of day or night any home could be raided by the Black and Tans, the house torn apart or the occupants arrested and interrogated. There was also a curfew at night with only the sound of the British army lorries along the dark streets looking for trouble.

The people in their houses would hold their breaths until the lorries passed their street praying that they would not stop outside where a brutal raid would begin.

Irish War of Independence

This is the Dublin that Kevin Barry grew up in as a young lad. And this is why he became a soldier at fifteen years of age to fight for Irish freedom in 1920 during the Irish War of Independence. Kevin Barry was hanged by the British Government in Dublin when he was only 18 years old.

The sacrifice of men women and children during The Irish War of Independence. Irish men were taken from their homes by the British soldiers and later found dead in a field or back alley. This was the atmosphere that the men of the Volunteers were fighting in.

The Irish people had seen sixteen men executed four years earlier after the 1916 Easter Rising. Their families were refused their bodies after the executions for a Christian burial . Their bodies were hastily dumped in a hole, dug at the back of Arbour Hill Prison .

Quick lime was added so there would be no possibility of the families claiming the bodies later.This is now a National Monument in Arbour Hill Dublin Ireland. There is a ceremony held every year to celebrate their fight and sacrifice for Irish freedom.

Kevin Barry
Kevin Barry | Source

Black and Tans in Ireland

At the beginning of the year more British soldiers came to keep order in Ireland. They were recruited from the many demobbed soldiers of the First World War in England. These men could not settle back into civilian life or regular jobs.

Those recruited were offered £1 a week, which was very good pay at the time, and the chance to ‘fight’ the Irish. There was a shortage of uniforms so they had to do with a mixture, of dark green jackets and khaki trousers. The Balmoral – cum – Beret was very distinctive.

So they became known in Ireland as the Black and Tans.

By November 1920 they were in Dublin for over six months and the regular British soldiers were starting to follow their lead of brutality.

Kevin Barry a Soldier at the age of 15

The Irish volunteers had approx. 15,000 men but very little guns or ammunition. They carried out a series of raids from 1918 onwards, to capture the arms from the British soldiers. At the time of his arrest Kevin Barry was studying medicine at University College Dublin

He was born on January 20, 1902 at 8 Fleet Street, Dublin. He had joined the Volunteers in October 1917, at the age of 15. He was first in ‘C’ Company of the 1st Battalion and later transferred to ‘H’ Company.

His Commander was Captain Seamus Kavanagh. Kevin’s first duties were to deliver orders on his bike all over the Dublin City. He then progressed to taking part in the raids on the soldiers for guns. He was an experienced Volunteer when he was captured despite only being eighteen years old.

Studying to Become a Doctor

He had won a Dublin Corporation Scholarship to U C D by getting an Honours in Middle Grade when he was only sixteen, and honours in Senior Grade the following year.

His Captain in the Volunteers had asked him not to go on the raid because he knew he had an exam at 2.00 pm that same day. But Kevin insisted that he would be alright and back in plenty of time.

Kevin Barry Arrested 1920 .
Kevin Barry Arrested 1920 . | Source

Black and Tans. Archive film

Church Street Ambush

On September 20th 1920, British soldiers drove up to Church Street in Dublin 7. They were there to collect their ration of bread from Monks's Bakery, for Collinstown Camp. This is now the site of Dublin Airport.

Earlier that morning four Irish Volunteers had taken over the office in the Bakery disconnecting the phone. They waited. In the surrounding side streets approx. sixteen other volunteers were in key positions. Kevin Barry, Sean O’Neill and Bob O’Flanagan were waiting in position to attack the lorry.

The British soldiers were loading up the lorry when they heard ‘ Drop your rifles, put up your hands.’ They were attacked by a group of twenty Irish Volunteers. All but one soldier dropped their rifles.

He fired a shot at the Volunteers and a gun battle erupted. Private Harold Washington was killed instantly and two other British soldiers, Private Marshall Whitehead and Private Thomas Humphries died later.

British Soldiers Dublin 1920
British Soldiers Dublin 1920 | Source

A Young Lad under the Lorry

Most of the Irish Volunteers ran through the streets and got away. Bob O’Flanagan had been shot in the head but jumped into a cab. Another Volunteer picked up Bob’s cap afraid it would identify him. It had some of Bob’s scalp still inside it.

The British soldiers quickly loaded up their dead and wounded. They were ready to drive off when an old woman shouted at them to be careful as there was a young lad under the lorry. They jumped out and grabbed the boy.

This was Kevin Barry

His gun had jammed when he first began to shoot. He fixed it, and then began shooting at the soldiers again. But it jammed a second time. He was lying on the ground concentrating on trying to fix the gun when he realised the battle was over and the rest of the Volunteers has escaped. He quickly dived under the lorry so the soldiers would not see him.

He would have got away with it if the old woman had not shouted for the soldiers to be careful. They dragged him out and threw him into the back of the lorry beside the dead soldier. The Irish crowd that had gathered turned on the woman calling her a traitor.

She tried to tell them that she did not realise what she was saying until it was too late, and was only afraid that the lorry would run over the lad.

Auxiliaries and Black and Tans in Ireland

Raided Houses and Shops

There was chaos after the ambush. More regular British soldiers and Black and Tans arrived and closed off the streets. They raided nearby houses and shops. The crowd that had gathered ran for cover as they knew the British soldiers were looking for trouble.

They searched the onlookers and wanted to know the names of the other men. The shop owners closed their doors knowing that the ambush would be used as an excuse for the Black and Tans to loot and damage the area.

Letter Written by Kevin Barry

Letter by Kevin Barry
Letter by Kevin Barry

Hospital Treatment

Kevin Barry meanwhile was at the Barracks being questioned. He told them his address as 58 South Circular Road and his occupation as a medical student. First they told him he would be let go free if he gave the names of the other men involved.

He refused. They then began to torture him with six men in the room. He was threatened with a bayonet in his stomach and his back. When this did not work he was thrown to the ground and two of the soldiers kicked him. His arm was twisted behind his back while another soldier put his foot on his back and began to dig him.

This according to Kevin Barry himself went on for over five minutes. He needed hospital treatment for his arm for four or five days afterwards. When he was transferred to Mountjoy Prison his arm was still in a sling. The prison officers at Mountjoy Prison in Dublin were all Irish and were sympathetic to Kevin.

They allowed his mother to visit him in prison under an assumed name as they knew the British would not allow her in to see him if they knew who she was. They treated him well while he was there.

The British Army had Control of the Court

A new law called the ‘Restoration of Order in Ireland Act’ came about on August 9, 1920, approx. six weeks before the Ambush. This practically gave the Army total power over the law in Ireland.

It was decided that Kevin Barry would be tried under this new law by Secret Court Martial. The jury was made up of nine officers and a Brigadier - General called Onslow.

Kevin refused to have a defence lawyer because he would not recognise a British Court. Kevin Barry was charged with three counts of murder. The evidence proved that the bullet taken from one of the dead soldiers was a 45 calibre.

All the witnesses stated that Kevin Barry was using a 38 calibre. The trial lasted one day.

At 8 o’clock that night Kevin Barry was told he was found guilty and was sentenced to be hanged. The execution was set for November 1. There were five or six attempts to rescue him by the Irish Volunteers but they failed.

Memorial to Kevin Barry
Memorial to Kevin Barry | Source

People Began To Cry

The prayers grew louder and people began to cry for Kevin Barry . A few hours before his death Kevin Barry was allowed to see his family and friends. On the morning of the execution there was a large crowd of men, women and children praying for Kevin outside Mountjoy Jail.

He had spent the night in the cell with a warder and two soldiers. He wrote a letter to his friends and family. He went to bed at midnight and slept until he was woken at 6.am. Kevin then had mass and Communion in the cell.

The hangman from England and his assistants came into the cell a few minutes before 8.00 am. His arms were tied together.

Hanged in Mountjoy Jail

He walked between the two priests towards the Hang House. The others followed behind him. At 8.00 am Mountjoy Prison bell rang. The prayers grew louder and people began to cry. A few minutes later a prison official posted a sign on the door.

It read The sentence of the law passed on Kevin Barry, found guilty of murder, was carried into execution at 8.00 o’clock this morning.

Kevin Barry

Irish War of Independence in 1920

When the old woman saw the headline that Kevin Barry, at 18 years old was hanged she screamed ‘Oh Christ! So they have hanged that child.’ She felt so guilty that she had a nervous breakdown.

Kevin Barry was buried in the grounds of Mountjoy Prison at 1.30 pm that day. A simple cross marked the grave.

Nine more Irish Volunteers were hanged at Mountjoy Jail while fighting for Irish freedom during the Irish War of Independence by the British Government until Ireland became a Free State.

State Funeral in Dublin in 2001

In October 2001 the remains of Kevin Barry, the 18 year old Irish soldier and the bodies of nine other Irish Volunteers who had been executed and buried at Mountjoy Prison were exhumed.

They were given a State Funeral with nine of them being buried at Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin. The other one, Patrick Maher was buried in Limerick. The Taoiseach of Ireland, Bertie Ahern said during his speech at the burial ceremony that “…. Ireland was discharging a debt of honour that stretches back eighty years…."

Sources

  1. Evening Herald Newspapers of November 22th and 24th 1920.
  2. The Story of Kevin Barry. Sean Cronin 2001.
  3. Kevin Barry and his Time Glendale 1989.
  4. The Story of Kevin Barry. National Publications Committee 1971.
  5. Kevin Barry the first matry of the Black and Tan War. PJ Bourke 1959.
  6. Hanged in Ireland: The Forgotten 10 Executed 1920 to 1921 Blackwater Press 2001.
  7. Ireland Since The Famine FSL Lyons. 1973.
  8. 1916 As History. The Myth of Blood Sacrifice. C. Desmond Greaves 1971.
  9. The Irish Republic. Dorothy Macardle 1968.

Questions & Answers

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment

      • profile image

        Peter Leone 

        23 months ago

        I saw the grave of Kevin Barry in Ireland in glasnevin cemetery also Kevin Barry memorial hall in Dublin it was an emotional trip to such a sweet young lad who gave his life for freedom Kevin Barry will live for ever as a hero the British government and the hangman will go. Down in Infamy long live the memory of Kevin Barry

      • viking305 profile imageAUTHOR

        L M Reid 

        6 years ago from Ireland

        There were a lot of young men and women who sacrificed their lives to gain freedom for Ireland during the Irish War of Independence in 1920.

        They would all be horrified the way that our past and present Irish Government has given our freedom away to the EU!

        Thank you everyone for taking the time to leave a comment

      • profile image

        terry barry 

        6 years ago

        some years ago i was given a special visit to his cell in mountjoy prison ,a cold and lonely place,a sad ending to a young mans life, r.i.p kevin barry.

      • profile image

        dardo 

        6 years ago

        what was his last letter called ? he is the bravest 18 year old boy ive ever read about and when reading about his final days is heart breaking for kevin barry and for the 1921 Thomas whelan edmand foley frank xavier flood thomas bryan and the rest god bless them all

      • profile image

        zoe 

        7 years ago

        Very interesting & informative read for someone who lives in ireland but isn't from. History is fascinating.

      • profile image

        Norbell39 

        7 years ago

        Good writing on the events that led this young man to the gallows and with all due respect there would have been more if they were caught.18 year old men are a lot braver than when 38.he paid the ultimate sacrifice for his beliefs and what he experienced growing up.I salute you for your courage

      • profile image

        jandee 

        7 years ago

        Hello viking all I can say just now is more please...good stuff ,jandee

      • viking305 profile imageAUTHOR

        L M Reid 

        8 years ago from Ireland

        Thanks for your comment Pamela. Especially as Kevin Barry was so young. But he was a soldier since he was fifteen years old and had seen the Black and Tans shooting and beating up people for years. His last letter was very powerful and gave an insight into his character. Very sad really.

      • Pamela Kinnaird W profile image

        Pamela Kinnaird W 

        8 years ago from Maui and Arizona

        You wrote this so well that I raced through it, hanging on every word. It's amazing that the bullet was a 45 calibre and the witnesses said Kevin Barry had been using 38 calibre and yet he was found guilty. This is well-known in your corner of the world, but brand new to me. And it's amazing that he was able to sleep the night before his execution. Thank you for choosing this topic. It's the first time I've read about this time period in Ireland.

      • Garlic Angel profile image

        Christine 

        8 years ago from Dublin

        Another great hub viking,, I am learing loads from them... Thank you for sharing them ....

        Garlic Angel :-)

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)