King Henry VIII and His Six Wives—Love, Marriage, and Children

Henry VIII of England, King 1509-1547

King Henry VIII was, quite probably, the most significant English political and religious figure since William the Conqueror set sail from Normandy in 1066 AD.

This article is about Henry the man - his loves, his wives, his children. Famous for having six wives, Henry VIII is said to be the only English King to have had more wives than mistresses.

Every English schoolchild knows the rhyme, "divorced, beheaded, died, divorced, beheaded, survived", about, in turn, Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr.

Even in his own lifetime, when his revenge could be swift and cruel, his marital history was made fun of. The beautiful 16 year old Duchess Christina of Denmark is supposed to have said in 1538 that if she had had two heads, Henry was welcome to one of them. She declined to marry him.

Henry himself died thinking that he had had only two marriages - to Jane Seymour, and Catherine Parr. The rest were not valid, in his view. That meant, also, that King Henry VIII only considered one of his children, the future King Edward VI, to be legitimate. He did not regard his daughters, Mary Tudor and Elizabeth Tudor, as being born within marriage.

Portraits of Catherine of Aragon

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Catherine of Aragon in c. 1503, as the widowed Princess of WalesCatherine of Aragon as Queen of England, in c. 1520s
Catherine of Aragon in c. 1503, as the widowed Princess of Wales
Catherine of Aragon in c. 1503, as the widowed Princess of Wales
Catherine of Aragon as Queen of England, in c. 1520s
Catherine of Aragon as Queen of England, in c. 1520s

Family and Childhood of Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII's wife 1509-1533

Catherine of Aragon was born in Spain on 16th December 1485.

She was the daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. Both were monarchs of their own countries. Catherine was therefore an infanta, a Spanish princess. Her title as a child was Infanta Caterina.

Catherine was named after her maternal grandmother, the English daughter of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster.

As you can see from the portrait to the right of this text, she looked English as well, with fair hair, fair skin, and blue eyes.

Ferdinand and Isabella were important monarchs in Europe. They were relentlessly pious and Catholic, and were awarded the titles of, “the Catholic Kings”.

Catherine had several older siblings. The eldest was called Isabella, then came Juan, and then Juana, Maria and then the baby of the family, Catherine.

Catherine had an active childhood. Ferdinand and Isabella were busy with the reconquista.

They were dedicated to expelling the last remaining Muslim Moors from Spain, and the Queen was head of her own armies. Isabella took her daughters as well as her son to the siege of Granada in 1491.

Historical Fiction on This Topic

The Other Boleyn Girl
The Other Boleyn Girl

It's not history, and you shouldn't rely on it for facts, but it's a great read and very atmospheric.


Catherine of Aragon's Marriage to Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales

At the age of 3, Catherine was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales. The couple were married before they even met, by proxy.

They married firstly in Wales in May 1499, where Arthur married the Spanish Ambassador to England, De Puebla.

There was a second proxy marriage in December 1500, and the Ambassador played the part of Catherine of Aragon at a wedding feast after the proxy marriage.

Catherine arrived in England in October 1500, at Plymouth, Devon. Catherine and Arthur married in St Paul’s Cathedral on 14th November 1500.

The young couple moved to the Welsh Marches, but their married life together was short. Prince Arthur, Prince of Wales, died on 2nd April 1502, leaving Catherine a young teenage widow.

It was almost immediately proposed by Catherine’s parents, Ferdinand and Isabella, that Catherine marry Arthur’s younger brother, Prince Henry.

Henry the VII was far from sure that the marriage remained to his advantage. And Henry the VII therefore delayed it as long as possible, and in fact it was delayed until after he died in 1509.

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Henry VIII in about 1520Henry VIII in old age
Henry VIII in about 1520
Henry VIII in about 1520
Henry VIII in old age
Henry VIII in old age

Henry VIII's Marriage to Catherine of Aragon

Henry VII died on 21st April 1509.

Catherine married Henry VIII on 24th June 1509 in a very private ceremony. Henry appeared to want to marry Catherine. He had come to know her over the years that she lived in London as his brother’s widow, and appeared to find her attractive and interesting.

Catherine was a little older than Henry. She was 24 in 1509 when they married, and Henry was 18. She was, however, universally regarded as attractive. It must have seemed like a miracle to Catherine - from impoverished, disregarded and ignored widowhood, to wife and Queen in a matter of weeks.

Catherine became pregnant quickly, but miscarried in early 1510. She became pregnant again almost immediately, and on 31st December 1510 her first living child, a son, was born. He was named Prince Henry, and was baptised and given his own royal household. Jousts and ceremonies were held all over England to celebrate.

At the age of 22 days, Prince Henry died.

In 1513, Henry the VIII set sail for France in order to fight, allied with the Spanish, on French soil. He appointed Catherine as Regent of the country while he was away, a signal honour and a sign of his confidence in her.

While Henry fought battles abroad, encouraged by affectionate and admiring letters from Catherine back in England, the Scottish army led by James IV invaded England. Catherine organised the military defence. She marched out at the head of an army from Richmond, near London, and appears to have worn some form of armour.

Obviously she didn’t exactly fight, but was nearby when the English and Scots armies clashed at the Battle of Flodden. The Scots lost badly. In the Scottish armour, the King himself was killed, there was an Archbishop, a Bishop, 2 Abbots, 12 Earls, 14 Lords and 10,000 common soldiers. Casualties on the English side were only about 1,500.

Catherine further wrote to Henry a couple of months later to inform him that she was pregnant again. This pregnancy also ended in a miscarriage. She suffered from another stillbirth in 1514. She appears to have miscarried again in early 1515.

In January 1516 Catherine was once again in childbed. At the age of 31 she gave birth to the only child which would live to adulthood. Wonderful though a living child was, the celebrations were hugely muted because the child, Mary, was a girl and not the son everybody wanted.

In 1518, in November, Catherine gave birth to another live daughter, who died a few days later.

A video About the Inventory Made in 1547, on the Death of Henry VIII

Bessie Blount—Henry VIII's Mistress c. 1519-20

Henry the VIII’s only confirmed mistresses were Elizabeth Blount and Mary Boleyn.

By Elizabeth Blount, Henry had a bastard son, Henry Fitzroy.

In 1525 he was formally recognised as the King’s son, created Earl of Nottingham, Duke of Richmond, Duke of Somerset, a Knight of the Garter, and Lord Admiral and Warden General of the Marches against Scotland.

The 6 year old was given a formal household, based at Sheriff Hutton Castle, Yorkshire, and altogether set up as a royal figure.

Henry died before he reached adulthood. At one stage, bizarrely, King Henry VIII appeared to be considering a marriage between Henry Fitzroy and his half-sister, Mary Tudor, daughter of Catherine of Aragon.

Mary Boleyn, sister of Anne Boleyn and mistress of Henry VIII
Mary Boleyn, sister of Anne Boleyn and mistress of Henry VIII

Mary Boleyn—Henry VIII's Mistress c. 1520 to 1523

When Mary Boleyn, Anne’s older sister, became Henry’s mistress, she was already married to William Carey. That marriage had taken place in February 1520. Carey was bribed, and given grants of land, titles and other offices.

Mary remained his mistress for some time. She had a son, Henry Carey, in 1525. It is generally thought very unlikely that this child was also Henry’s.

Firstly, the affair had probably ended by then. Secondly, Henry was all too eager to recognise Henry Fitzroy as his bastard son, in order to show that his marriage was the problem not his virility.

"Greensleeves," Supposed to Have Been Written by Henry VIII for Anne Boleyn

The Failing Marriage in the 1520s

Catherine was very short, probably only about 4 feet 9 or 10 in height. She was pregnant 7 out of the 9 years from her marriage in 1509 to 1518, and by the age of 35 she was really very large.

Henry VIII no longer found her attractive. In losing her looks, and failing to produce a male heir, Catherine also lost a great deal of her power over the King.

By 1525, Henry VIII was referring to himself as childless, despite his healthy living heir, Mary.

In 1525 also, Mary’s household was reorganised to be formally the heir’s household. She was given stewards and chamberlains who were barons, a Lord President of the Council, who was a Bishop, and 300 assorted servants. Her household cost £5000 a year to run.

As Princess of Wales, Mary was based in the Welsh Marches.

By 1527, however, Henry VIII had decided that the solution to the problem of the succession was to obtain a new wife.

The Six Wives of Henry VIII
The Six Wives of Henry VIII

A great book which looks at Henry, the six wives, the children, and puts it in context. Well-researched and a good read.


The King's Great Matter

Henry VIII convinced himself that the words in Leviticus Chapter 20 showed that his marriage was unlawful:

If a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an impurity; he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness: they shall be childless

Henry came to believe fervently that the papal disposition for the marriage was not sufficient to make it lawful, and that the Pope could not set aside the laws of nature and God.

Henry was therefore determined that the marriage should be set aside.

Henry thought it would be easy. Generally speaking, Popes were sympathetic to Kings who lacked sons and whose wives were unable to provide them.

Ways out of marriage contracts were often found. For example, Eleanor of Aquitaine’s first marriage to Louis of France was dissolved as they had only daughters.

In the King's Great Matter, however, things were different. Amongst other problems, the Pope was under the practical and military control of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

And, of course, Charles V was not just the Holy Roman Emperor, he was Catherine of Aragon’s nephew.

Woodcut showing the coronation of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII, from Stephen Hawes, "A Joyfull Medytacvon to All Englande" published 1509
Woodcut showing the coronation of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII, from Stephen Hawes, "A Joyfull Medytacvon to All Englande" published 1509

The End of Catherine of Aragon's Marriage, and Her Life Thereafter

In May 1533, Cranmer declared that Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon had been unlawful, and declared Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn valid.

In July 1533, Henry issued a proclamation stripping Catherine of Aragon of her title as Queen, and saying from thenceforth should she be known as the Princess Dowager of Wales, as Prince Arthur’s widow. She was given a greatly reduced household and sent off to the country.

Catherine moved in the spring of 1534 to Kimbolton, Huntingdonshire, and lived there as a semi-prisoner. Henry had not allowed Catherine to see her daughter for some years.

In March 1534, the Pope finally declared that Henry’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon was valid in Canon Law, and that the marriage could not be challenged. This was now, in England, an irrelevancy.

Catherine died early in January 1536 at Kimbolton. She was buried as the Princess Dowager of Wales.

Mary had to be dealt with. She was put under enormous pressure from after the birth of Elizabeth to swear an oath that her parents had not been married and that she was illegitimate.

Anne Boleyn as Queen of England, painted about 1534.
Anne Boleyn as Queen of England, painted about 1534.

Hever Castle, Home of the Boleyn family

Anne Boleyn's Family and Childhood

Anne Boleyn did not come from one of the top families in the land.

Her father’s family were merchants who had ascended into the landed classes. Her great-grandfather, Geoffrey Boleyn, was a London merchant who bought land in Norfolk and in Kent. Anne’s grandfather and father, Thomas Boleyn, married well, into increasingly aristocratic families.

Thomas Boleyn’s wife was the daughter of the second Duke of Norfolk and sister of the third. Thomas and Elizabeth married in about 1500, and had 3 children who lived to adulthood; Mary Boleyn, Anne Boleyn, and George Boleyn.

The exact dates of birth of all 3 children are not known. It is likely that Mary Boleyn was the oldest (contrary to what Philippa Gregory says in the “Other Boleyn Girl”) Anne was the second, born between 1502 and 1507, and George was the youngest.

Anne was well educated, attractive, and had all the courtly skills. As a child she went to live in the Archduchess Margaret’s household in Burgundy. Margaret’s court was intellectual and cultured, and Anne Boleyn received an extremely good education there.

When Henry VIII’s sister, Mary Tudor, married the King of France in 1514, Anne Boleyn joined Mary’s household in Paris. Mary Tudor was quickly widowed, in 1515, but Anne Boleyn stayed at the French Court.

Anne became perfectly fluent in French, had a very good singing voice and played a number of instruments.

She did not look like a classic ideal of English beauty. She was dark-haired and had very dark eyes. She was nevertheless regarded as extremely attractive, skilled, and interesting.

In the early 1520s, Anne returned to England and entered the royal household as one of Catherine of Aragon’s Ladies in Waiting. It is likely Henry VIII became interested in Anne in late 1524 or 1525.

Original parchment record of the trial of Anne Boleyn and her brother, George Boleyn, for incest, adultery, and treason.
Original parchment record of the trial of Anne Boleyn and her brother, George Boleyn, for incest, adultery, and treason.

Anne Boleyn's Relationship With Henry VIII

In 1525 and 1526, Henry VIII chased Anne Boleyn vigorously. He no doubt thought it would be easier enough to make her his mistress. But she held out.

A good number of Henry’s love letters to Anne have survived. Many of them were stolen and they are now in the Vatican library.

They became engaged on New Year’s Day, 1527.

Anne was, by 1528, already supporting religious dissenters, Lutherans, and Protestants. She did her best to protect them against persecution by the Catholic establishment.

Instead, Anne favoured her Chamberlain and Chaplain Thomas Cranmer. He was a reformist priest from Cambridge.

Anne brought Cranmer to Henry VIII’s attention, and he rose steadily in Tudor circles, eventually becoming Archbishop of Canterbury.

Anne adopted a new motto from the Burgundian Court in 1531, “Thus it will be, grumble who will”.

For a couple of years, bizarrely, King Henry VIII, Queen Catherine of Aragon, and Anne Boleyn had travelled together in a royal court.

Henry VIII's Children

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Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of AragonElizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne BoleynEdward VI, son of Henry VIII and Jane SeymourHenry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, son of Henry VIII and Elizabeth Blount
Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Edward VI, son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
Edward VI, son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, son of Henry VIII and Elizabeth Blount
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, son of Henry VIII and Elizabeth Blount

The Marriage of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII

nry VIII and Anne Boleyn became lovers in November or December 1532. They had a secret marriage at the end of 1532, although Henry was still married to Catherine of Aragon.

By early December, Anne was pregnant, and the expected heir made the marriage even more urgent.

The Act of Succession 1534, passed at the end of March, cited Thomas Cranmer’s verdict that the marriage to Catherine was unlawful, and affirmed the lawfulness of the marriage between Henry and Anne Boleyn.

The succession to the throne was to go to Henry’s heirs male by Anne or any subsequent wife, and if no such sons were born, the throne was to pass to Elizabeth. Mary I was not mentioned at all.

On 7th September 1533, Anne gave birth to a healthy child. This heir is exactly what was wanted, apart from one terrible error.

The baby, Elizabeth, was a girl and not the son for which Henry had risked everything.

More Acts were passed setting out the reformation, the Act of Supremacy 1534 appointed the King as Supreme Head of the Church of England, and the Act of Obedience 1534 made any attribution of power to the Pope treason.

In January 1536, Anne Boleyn was pregnant again. In a jousting event, Henry had an accident and fell badly. Anne Boleyn was not there, but was badly shocked when told.

On the day of Catherine of Aragon’s funeral, 5 days after the accident in jousting, Anne miscarried a male foetus.

This was the third pregnancy for Anne. She’d had the healthy Elizabeth I in 1533, a miscarriage in 1534 (or possibly a stillbirth) and a further male miscarriage in early 1536.

By the time of this miscarriage, Henry’s eye already seems to have turned to Jane Seymour.

In early May, Anne Boleyn was arrested and was taken to the Tower of London. Her chief prosecutor and interrogator was her Uncle, the Duke of Norfolk.

Anne was accused of adultery with numerous gentlemen at the Court, and of incest with her brother. The 5 men, including George Boleyn, were executed on Tower Hill near the Tower of London on 17th May.

Anne Boleyn’s marriage to the King was annulled on the 18th May, and Anne Boleyn herself was executed on the 19th May. She was buried in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula.

After the execution, the 2 year old Princess Elizabeth joined her sister Mary in a state of legally-proclaimed bastardy.

Queen Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII
Queen Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII

Jane Seymour

Jane Seymour was a complete contrast to Anne Boleyn. She spoke very little, and when she did she was extremely meek, submissive and calm.

After the exciting and rollercoaster relationship with Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII appears to have been attracted to a woman who was frankly seen as pretty dull.

The day after Anne Boleyn’s execution on 19th May, Henry VIII and Jane Seymour were betrothed, and they married on 30th May at York Place, now Whitehall, in Central London.

Not much is known about how Jane Seymour formed a relationship with Henry VIII. Jane was a member of Anne Boleyn’s household, just as Anne Boleyn had been a member of Catherine of Aragon’s household.

The relationship appears to have started in about February 1536. Like Anne Boleyn, Jane was from a good but not top-notch aristocratic family.

Jane soon became pregnant, and on the 12th October 1537, gave birth to a healthy son, named Edward. After a long and difficult labour, Jane appeared to be recovering, but then became infected with childbed fever, and died late on the 24th October. It appears that Henry was absent.

Anne of Cleves, in the portrait seen by Henry VIII before they met
Anne of Cleves, in the portrait seen by Henry VIII before they met

Anne of Cleves

King Henry’s fourth marriage was an arranged marriage of State.

With the reformation in full swing in England, fiercely Catholic princesses could not be considered, nor would they consider Henry.

The Duchy of Cleves was in present day Northern Germany, and had its capital at Düsseldorf. The Duke had 2 unmarried younger sisters, Anne and Amelia. Anne was 25 when the marriage took place, and Henry was nearly 50.

The famous portrait of Anne of Cleves was painted by Hans Holbein, in order that Henry could see what she looked like before they married.

Anne was not well educated. She came from a suitably non Catholic country, but could only speak and understand her own language, a type of German, and could not speak English, French or even Latin.

Anne arrived in England right at the end of December 1539, and first met Henry by surprise on New Year’s Day. Anne of Cleves failed to recognise Henry VIII, who was offended by this.

His type of humiliation set him against her from the beginning. In addition, he decided that she was unattractive and unsuitable.

However, in terms of arranged royal marriages it was impossible for him to reject her now.

The couple married on 6th January 1540, greatly against Henry’s will.

The day after the marriage, Henry declared he’d been unable to consummate it and was not impotent but unable to rise to the occasion with Anne.

By early July 1540, Henry was already talking about divorce. Anne of Cleves was distinctly upset by this, but was wise enough to realise that opposing the King in such matters was bad for her health.

She therefore wrote to the King accepting that the marriage should be tried and found invalid, and signing the letter, “Your Majesty’s most humble sister and servant, Anne, daughter of Cleves.”

As Anne had been so accommodating, Henry VIII was generous to her and gave her an income of £4000 a year and 2 houses, Richmond and Bletchingley, both near London. She was to be considered an honoured member of the royal court.

Catherine Howard, fifth wife of Henry VIII
Catherine Howard, fifth wife of Henry VIII

Catherine Howard's Family and Childhood

Catherine Howard was English, from the same family as Anne Boleyn. The Duke of Norfolk, the man who had prosecuted and supervised the execution of Anne Boleyn, was Catherine’s Uncle as well as Anne’s.

Catherine was one of the younger children of Edmund Howard, a younger son. There was not a great deal of money.

Edmund Howard married Jocasta Culpepper, who already had several children. She and Edmund Howard were married for about 15 years and had 10 more children.

No-one is sure exactly when Catherine Howard was born. The earliest possible date of birth is about 1520, and the latest about 1525. When she married Henry, therefore, she was almost certainly aged between about 14 and 19.

Catherine spent a lot of her childhood in the household of her step grandmother, the powerful Dowager Duchess of Norfolk. She formed a relationship as a very young teenager with a music master, but this relationship does not appear to have been consummated.

Later, she formed another relationship with Francis Dereham, also a member of the Howard clan and a gentleman. It appears very likely that they had a sexual relationship when Catherine was about 13 or 14.

In late 1539 Catherine Howard was appointed as a Lady of Waiting for the future Queen Anne of Cleves.

Clip of the Clash Between Henry VIII and His Chancellor, Sir Thomas More

The Tower of London, showing Traitors' Gate. Copyright Viki Male
The Tower of London, showing Traitors' Gate. Copyright Viki Male
St. Peter ad Vincula chapel in the Tower of London. This is the burial place of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard.
St. Peter ad Vincula chapel in the Tower of London. This is the burial place of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard.

The Marriage Between Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

By spring 1540, there was a fully fledged love affair between Catherine Howard and Henry VIII. The relationship was heavily pushed and encouraged by Catherine’s Uncle, the Duke of Norfolk.

Catherine appears to have had red hair, pale skin, and dark eyes. They married on 8th August 1540 at Hampton Court, Henry’s second marriage in 8 months.

Henry was besotted with Catherine. He described her as his, “rose without a thorn”.

In 1541, Henry VIII undertook a progress to the north of England. A progress was a royal journey around all or part of a King’s kingdom. The Court arrived after the progress at Hampton Court at the end of October.

Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, had received allegations against Catherine, and told the King. Henry did not believe a single one of the allegations. He did agree that the matter should be investigated, but said it should be utterly confidential to protect Catherine’s reputation.

A number of members of Catherine’s step grandmother’s household were interviewed, and confirmed Catherine’s earlier relationships.

On 5th November, Henry summoned his councillors, including Catherine’s Uncle the Duke of Norfolk. He then left secretly for London and never saw Catherine again.

On 7th November, the Archbishop Cranmer arrested and interrogated Catherine, who appears to have fallen apart when confronted with the evidence. She made a full written confession, and begged for the King's Mercy.

The punishment for Catherine’s pre-marital relationships was, Henry decided a couple of days later, that she be banished to a former Nunnery, at Syon, but was still to be treated as a Queen.

A more dangerous allegation then came about. Catherine had been unwise enough to appoint Francis Dereham to her household, and the Council suspected the love affair might have continued after she married Henry. Dereham was tortured, but did not admit it, although he did go on to say that Thomas Culpepper and Catherine Howard had formed a relationship.

Thomas Culpepper was arrested the following day. He was taken to the Tower and tortured.

Catherine actually wrote to him, a letter which survived and was used against her, in which she said,

I have never longed for so much for a thing as I do to see you and speak with you, the which I trust shall be shortly now … it makes my heart to die to think what fortune I have that I cannot always be in your company …Yours as long as life endures, Catherine.

Catherine and Culpepper both admitted to meeting secretly late at night on the northern progress. Neither admitted actually committing adultery, but both admitted that there was an intention to do so.

Dereham and Culpepper were both tried for treason. Culpepper was beheaded on 10th December, and Dereham was dragged to Tyburn, hanged, castrated, disembowelled, beheaded and quartered ,all because he had slept with a teenage girl who had that point had not even met her future husband, the King.

Catherine herself was not even tried. An Act of Parliament was passed in early 1542 with retrospective clauses saying that a loose-living woman who married the King without declaring it was guilty of treason, as were people who knew that she was not a virgin and allowed her to marry the King anyway.

Catherine was executed on 13th February 1542, and buried next to her cousin, Anne Boleyn.

Catherine Parr, sixth and last wife of Henry VIII
Catherine Parr, sixth and last wife of Henry VIII

Catherine Parr

Future wives were going to be quite to come by.

The Act of Attainment meant that any woman who had not been married was greatly at risk if she married the King. As were her relatives, in case the King later discovered something about her past that he didn’t like.

Fortunately, Henry VIII’s eye lit on a widow.

Catherine Parr was born as the first child of Thomas Parr and Maud Green, in 1512. Catherine of Aragon was her Godmother. In 1517, Catherine’s father died of the plague, leaving Catherine’s mother a widow at 22 and Catherine fatherless at the age of 5.

Catherine was married at some time before 1529, when she was 17. She married Sir Edward Burgh, son and heir to Lord Burgh of Gainsborough in Lincolnshire. Edward died in 1533 leaving Catherine a childless 21 year old widow. Her mother had also died during her brief marriage.

Within months, Catherine Parr married again, to John Neville, Lord Latimer, again a much older man, 20 years older than her, who had had 2 previous wives and 2 young adult children. Catherine, and her husband Lord Latimer, were both reformists. They did their best to encourage the reformation and the downfall of Catholicism.

Lord Latimer was in increasing ill health in 1542 and 1543. He died in early March 1543, leaving his wife well provided for, and once again a widow. She was still only 31 years old. She formed a relationship with Sir Thomas Seymour, younger brother of Queen Jane Seymour and Prince Edward’s Uncle.

But the King was interested in her, and offered to marry her just after her husband died. She agreed, although she did not appear to want to be Queen. The marriage took place on 12th July 1543.

Catherine Parr did her best to bring together Henry’s disparate family, and brought Mary, Elizabeth and Edward together in the royal household with herself and Henry VIII. Catherine got on particularly well with Mary I.

Catherine also formed a close relationship with Elizabeth I, and  Elizabeth lived with Catherine after Henry’s death.

Like Henry’s first wife but unlike any of the others, Catherine Parr was appointed Regent when Henry journeyed abroad to supervise war in France. She appears to have done a good job as Regent, and was admired by Henry for it.

Catherine was well-educated, pious in reformist religion, and interested in religious and social affairs. She wrote a book, published in June 1545, called, “Prayers or Meditations”

For a New Year’s present, in 1546, Elizabeth decided to flatter both her parents by sending to Henry VIII a copy of Prayers or Meditations by Queen Catherine. Elizabeth translated it into Latin, French and Italian and dedicated it to her father, and impressive feat for a 12 year old.

Henry appears to have been a little bit irritated by this, and appears to have thought that Catherine Parr was getting above herself in terms of religion. Catherine narrowly escaped being arrested and executed for heresy by some clever work.

After Henry VIII died, Catherine was finally able to marry Thomas Seymour, and to have Elizabeth and Elizabeth’s cousin, Lady Jane Grey, to live with her. She married Thomas Seymour very shortly after Henry VIII died on 28th January 1547, and became pregnant for the first time in 4 marriages.

Catherine Parr survived Henry VIII, but not for long. Her child, a girl named Mary, was born in 1548, and Catherine Parr died of childbirth fever. Her husband was then accused of treason and executed.

Sir Thomas Seymour, Catherine Parr's fourth husband. They married in 1547, and Henry VIII's death
Sir Thomas Seymour, Catherine Parr's fourth husband. They married in 1547, and Henry VIII's death

Comments 57 comments

shamelabboush profile image

shamelabboush 7 years ago

It's really difficult to find well-educated hubers like yourself. I always enjoy reading your hubs especially those tackling the English History bcz it's very rich and abundant with stories, epics, and magnificent characters.

JamaGenee profile image

JamaGenee 7 years ago from Central Oklahoma

LG, what a great job you've done presenting Henry's wives and mistresses!  It's so hard to keep them straight! American children don't grow up with the rhyme that makes it so easy.  

BrianS profile image

BrianS 7 years ago from Castelnaudary, France

I think this is a really interesting period of English history particularly in respect to religion. This was a very good read and the portraits were great, loved to see what they all actually looked like.

Amanda Severn profile image

Amanda Severn 7 years ago from UK


You and I must be on the same wavelength, as I've been gathering some bits together to do a hub on Henry VIII! He's very popular at the moment what with all the publicity surrounding the Tower of London exhibition, and all these TV programmes and dramatisations about him.

You've certainly done a good job here. I love the portraits. When I'm in London, I love to visit the National Portrait Gallery and see those wonderful old paintings. My favourite one in there is the portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh who manages to look bold and dashing even in a formal portrait.

You should get plenty of traffic to this hub, and it certainly deserves it. Well done!

LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 7 years ago from London Author

Thanks all, I'm glad you found it interesting! I guess we are both inspired by the same thing, Amanda, the 500 years since he came to the throne!

This is the first in a small series about Henry.

Elena. profile image

Elena. 7 years ago from Madrid

LG, your history articles are really, but REALLY great!  They simply flow and are so full of interesting historic tidbits!  It's outstanding how you manage to explain about the lives and origins and relations of all these notable women in an incredibly entertaining way!

I'm bookmarking this to consult the next time I'm mixed up with Henry VIII -- which is pretty much every time the guy appears on a documentary or a movie!  Thank you!

RVDaniels profile image

RVDaniels 7 years ago from Athens, GA

Such a tragic tale. Isn't history fascinating?

Tom Rubenoff profile image

Tom Rubenoff 7 years ago from United States

I've always enjoyed reading about Henry VIII. There is so much of marriage, state, personality and religion that is shown in a harsh light by one man's behavior.

packerpack profile image

packerpack 7 years ago from India, Calcutta

Yes I was correct and had also commented on your previous Hub that you seem to in historical mood!! Yet another brilliant piece of historical work! I liked it Amanda, keep it up!

Iphigenia 7 years ago

Enjoyed this hub enormously. This is a period of history that is so fascinating - all across europe - the renaissance was well established and so many changes in attitudes, ideas and dissemination of knowledge ...... Henry was caught up in all of this and seems to be a mix of medieval man and forward thinking modernist in his time.

The recent TV program - The Tudors - was very innaccurate but I think it revived an interest. Do you remember the 1970's series with Keith Michell ? I'd love to see that one again.

frogdropping profile image

frogdropping 7 years ago

Love history and especially loved this. Great hub!

GeneriqueMedia profile image

GeneriqueMedia 7 years ago from Earth

I've always been fascinated by monarchy and the power struggle it waged with the rest of humanity.

Also, tell Teresa her hublinking works. ;)



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cindyvine 7 years ago from Kyiv, Ukraine

Absolutely fascinating, loved it

Design Training 7 years ago

I love it.

EYEAM4ANARCHY profile image

EYEAM4ANARCHY 7 years ago from Las Vegas, NV.

It's kinda ironic that Larry King has been married 7 times. As far as I know, he didn't have any of them killed though.

LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 7 years ago from London Author

I don't think you can be descended from any of them. The 3 children of these six women were Mary I, Elizabeth I, and Edward VI, and none had any children of their own.

Catherine Parr had a daughter by her 4th husband after Henry VIII died, Mary Seymour, but she died as a child.

Cheryl 7 years ago

I love the history of the Tudors. This is very informative and interesting to read. Well done.

LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 7 years ago from London Author

Thanks Cheryl, glad you found it interesting.

tonymac04 profile image

tonymac04 7 years ago from South Africa

Great Hub on a fascinating person and period, thanks

Love and peace


LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 7 years ago from London Author

Thanks Tony, glad you found it interesting.

upal19 profile image

upal19 7 years ago from Dhaka

All history loving people like me will like this hub. thank you londongirl for this efforts.

EverythingMouse profile image

EverythingMouse 7 years ago

I have been interested in Tudor history since a very early age. I was brought up in England and since living in the US now miss that closeness to all the historical sites.

Gem 7 years ago

Thank you so much for posting this LG! It was so easy and interesting to read, I loved it. I have always enjoyed reading about Henry VIII but this was particularly fascinating. I wish I could store this in my memory and quote you on it everytime my friends and I get in fights about his wives! Just curious, what's your source?

heyju profile image

heyju 7 years ago

Very nice hub, loved it. Thanks again!!

lil 7 years ago

this a nice web wite....i love it!!!!!!!!!!!!

Ancient Digger 7 years ago

The Ancient Digger

Ancient Digger 7 years ago

The Ancient Digger

Jaggie 6 years ago

LG. This was Super Interesting!!!Yea not Really but thanks for the info!! mainly the pictures! You Rock!!! :)

raychelle 6 years ago

My cousin's husband is a decendant of Henry VIII...I don't know from which woman, but his grandmother does, she studied geneology...

Nice job, I love the Tudors and their history!

Trish_M profile image

Trish_M 6 years ago from The English Midlands

Very clear and interesting. I enjoyed it very much. :)

LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 6 years ago from London Author

Glad you enjoyed it!

Rachelle - Henry VIII doesn't have any descendants. He had 3 legitimate and 1 illegitimate children, and none had children of their own.

christopheranton profile image

christopheranton 6 years ago from Gillingham Kent. United Kingdom

Very well written and an entertaining read. Keep up the good work.

LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 6 years ago from London Author

Thanks, glad you enjoyed it

mrsmillich profile image

mrsmillich 6 years ago from New York

Great page! You were very thorough, which I appreciate. I think Catherine Howard was my favorite wife, mostly because she was so different from all of the others. She really didn't have a clue how precarious her position was.

Nice work.

LondonGirl profile image

LondonGirl 6 years ago from London Author

I'm glad you enjoyed it. I think Anne Boleyn interests me the most.

GinnyWeasley00 6 years ago

fantastic page! i got all i needed. :) thank you so much!

compu-smart profile image

compu-smart 6 years ago from London UK

A very enjoyable and interesting read about the most famous king..

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geraldinegerongay 6 years ago from Los Angeles, CA

I love this topic. I like reading the genealogy of the Royal Family. Hope to read more.

wingedcentaur profile image

wingedcentaur 6 years ago from That Great Primordial Smash UP of This and That Which Gave Rise To All Beings and All Things!

Good Day LondonGirl

I found my way to this hub via Paraglider's hub "Bloody Mary Tudor," which was linked to one about Elizabeth by Teresa McGurk, which had a link to yours here. I'm starting to feel a bit like a frog... but that's okay.

You know, it strikes me that our friend, Hank here, is a man not unlike the current Italian prime minister, Silvio Berlusconi -- particularly with their obsessive concern about their public reputation for virility.

You wrote: "Henry was all too eager to recognize Henry Fitzroy as his bastard son, in order to show that his marriage was the problem not his virility."

And also: "The day after the marriage, Henry declared he'd been unable to consumate it and was not impotent but unable to rise to the occasion with Anne."

I heard a story one time, about Berlusconi, that I think makes the point. Silvio Berlusconi is the Italian prime minister. He's a billionaire media mogul. It is said that through various combinations and so forth, he either owns or controls most of the media in Italy. He is said to be a real larger-than-life, colorful character.

I heard this story on a news program called DemocracyNow! with Amy Goodman (and Juan Gonzales), " the war and peace report." This was the October 15, 2009 episode. One of the guests was a Slovenian philosopher called Slavoj Zizek.

He was making a point about how official power has become more openly obscene these days. Well, apparently Berlusconi had been dragged into court, yet again, on some matter or another.

It came to pass, somehow, the Silvio Berlusconi's lawyer was moved to make an official, public statement to the effect of: 'Rumors that Mr. Berlusconi is impotent are lies and he is prepared to prove this in court!'

There you go. What else can one say, right? Listen, I voted this excellent hub up for awesome: a very efficient, comprehensive, and well organized presentation with great pictures.

As blake4d would say 'Keep on hubbing.'


Adrian Cook 6 years ago

Dear London should be an historian and a writer. You turned this very complicated and intricate and deeply woven piece of human drama into a simple easy fast flowing line allowing the details to follow on along the side. Tremendous. Thank you. Give us more! Thanks Adrian

Ladybythelake55 profile image

Ladybythelake55 6 years ago from I was Born in Bethesda, Maryland and I live in Chicago,IL


Graham 6 years ago

Hi LG this was a truly amazing and detailed description on henry's wives and kids but i was wondering why did he mary so many? i haven't a clue.

Titania 6 years ago

THIS IS THE BEST PAGE EVER!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

MarieAlice profile image

MarieAlice 6 years ago from Peru

Really great hub, I love history and love reading about historic people too!!! really enjoy reading this hub!!!!

MarieAlice 6 years ago

bets ever page i love itttt!

Emanuel Steven Bonnie 6 years ago

Ive watched a series called Tudors n i was curious to read more about King Henry the viii and his wives's saga and thank God ive found it here...its interesting

liah 5 years ago

do you now iam happy he diyed becoz he was a nastey man see and mary was poor children and the wifes

PaperNotes profile image

PaperNotes 5 years ago

Wow, royalty, power and money can really make bad things to appear good. Ironic how the church proclaims the sanctity of marriage and family when years before even the popes are sympathizing with a king with no heirs and thus consider a marriage to be invalid so the man could have an affair with another woman who can bear an heir that he wanted.

jackie_fish profile image

jackie_fish 5 years ago

really enjoyed reading this hub well done

TheMonk profile image

TheMonk 5 years ago from Brazil

So in depth. That was a lot of good and well researched information. Thanks for this!

Anniebooks 5 years ago


TACY 5 years ago


FlourishAnyway profile image

FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

Wonderfully researched and well written hub. I enjoyed it thoroughly!

iguidenetwork profile image

iguidenetwork 2 years ago from Austin, TX

You gave each of the profiles of Henry VIII's wives that are quite well-researched. Very interesting hub.

Stargrrl 19 months ago

I have read most of the books you've featured in this outstanding hub. I really like the era, and I learned a few things from this hub. I will check out "Dissolution." It sounds good!

FatBoyThin profile image

FatBoyThin 18 months ago from Kinneff, Scotland

I love the Tudor period and you capture a real sense of the times here - great Hub.

Helena Doherty profile image

Helena Doherty 5 months ago

I enjoyed your hub about Henry and the wives. It is very clear and easy to follow. I loved the old movie "Anne of the Thousand Days" with Richard Burton and Genevieve Bujold but I guess the reality of the Tudor court wasn't quite so glamorous and romantic.

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