Angela is an avid reader who studied English Literature in college. She has a passion for the written word and loves literature.
King Lear Confuses Morality with Foolishness
King Lear is a play that confuses morality with foolishness, as well as mingles insanity with wisdom. William Shakespeare, notorious for his clever wordplay, wrote it so that King Lear 's wisest characters make foolish decisions. Shakespeare wants to portray how sometimes what appears to be a dumb idea when it comes to money is often the most sensible decision of all. One example is when Cordelia, King Lear's daughter, chooses to be honest rather than flatter her father (King Lear) at the beginning of the play. Although her decision may appear to be foolish on the surface, she proves herself to have made the wisest decision by remaining true to herself. Shakespeare shows in many of his plays that character is of utmost importance in a person's life, and he proves his point in King Lear.
King Lear also finds that the line between foolishness and wisdom may not always be clear. For instance, Lear's most significant sources of wisdom are through two of the most unlikely sources: his fool and his own madness. The fool plays a central part in bringing out Lear's transformation from a man full of pride and ignorance and a fool himself to a man who becomes wise through his humility. The fool remains by Lear's side despite his growing insanity in the third act. Ironically, as Lear's insanity increases, so does his wisdom—until he can see wisdom on his own without the fool. Shakespeare chooses to express the ongoing theme of fools having wisdom and wise choices appearing foolish through a reversal in the hierarchy of Fool and King, the use of "moral fool[ishness]," and the ignorant decisions of Lear.
Reversal in Hierarchy
The reversal in hierarchy plays a central part in the king and the fool's relationship. The fool assists Lear in gaining wisdom and humility. He is the only person from whom the king accepts blatant honesty and criticism. Northrop Frye, a critic of Shakespeare, explains that this privilege is given to the fool “because in our world nothing is funnier than a sudden outspoken declaration of the truth.” Regardless of the era in which a person lives or his/her social standing within society, criticism is easier to accept when it is delivered through comedy. Therefore, through the use of humor, the fool is able to discuss serious subjects without the king feeling defensive. For instance, when the fool states, "To give away thy land, / Come place him here by me / Do thou for him stand. / The sweet and bitter fool / will presently appear," he criticizes Lear for foolish deeds such as "giv[ing] away [his] land." Because the fool has earned the privilege of being outspoken through his humor, Lear only mildly challenges the fool’s critique when he retorts, "Does thou call me fool, boy?" If anyone else would have criticized him in the same manner, Lear would have become violently angry. If he is upset by the fool’s first response, the fool does a good job of deflecting any further anger through the use of humor while criticizing Lear further. He does so when he says, "All thy other titles thou hast given away; that thou wast born with." Despite the fool being the king’s servant, Lear ultimately listens to him. This role reversal is important to the development of the play because the fool acts as Lear’s window to wisdom for the first half of the play. It is not until Lear has become completely mad that he begins to make wise choices. Lear needed this reversal in roles in order to develop as a character.
The fool is very aware of this reversal in the hierarchy, as he makes clear many times throughout the play. He denotes this reversal when he states, “I am better than thou art now; I am a fool, thou art nothing.” Even though the fool is merely a court jester and of low status, at least he has a status. By giving away his kingdom, the king has made himself obsolete and without a role in society. Again, the fool deliberately refers to the reversal in the hierarchy when he says, "There, take my coxcomb. Why this fellow has banished two on's daughters and did the third a blessing against his will." By feigning giving Lear his coxcomb, the fool is telling the king he should be the fool due to his foolish acts.
The fool becomes frustrated with Lear’s careless decisions. He expresses his feelings of frustration by playing with the word “fool.” According to the Oxford Dictionary, the word “fool” has multiple meanings: “a person who acts unwisely or imprudently,” “a person who is duped or imposed on,” and “a jester or clown.” In the following passage, he plays on these definitions while also proving his own nobility.
That sir which serves and seeks for gain,
And follows but for form,
Will pack when it begins to rain
And leave thee in the storm.
But I will tarry; the fool will stay,
And let the wise man fly.
The knave turns fool that runs away;
The fool no knave, perdy.
By stating that "the fool" is "no knave" and the "knave turns fool" shows that he is very aware of the reversal. The words knave and fool often are used to describe the same type of person, although they are not synonyms. Knave means “a dishonest or unscrupulous man.” This is significant because the line “the knave turns fool” shows that Lear (the knave) has become a “person who acts unwisely,” as well as “a person who is duped” by his elder daughters. The fool, on the other hand, is “a jester” who is not a knave because he is honest.
The Fool's Integrity
The fool’s integrity is seen in the first four lines of his speech when he says “a servant who seeks for gain…will pack when it begins to rain.” He proves that he is not a servant who is only supporting Lear for his own gain because the fool chooses to stay. If he were a servant that was only there for the material gain, he would have abandoned Lear when things became difficult. The fool is doing what he believes is right. He recognizes that he is one of the few sources of wisdom that the king listens to; therefore, he declares that he will remain faithful to the king when he says, "but I will tarry, the fool will stay." Through his redundancy by emphasizing "the fool," he realizes that loyalty to Lear has become foolish due to the uncomfortable situation they are in during the storm.
Fortunately for Lear, the fool remains by Lear's side, acting as a source of wisdom until the third act, after which the fool no longer appears in the play again. This does not indicate that wisdom has left Lear. In fact, it means quite the opposite. Even though King Lear is becoming more and more insane, he begins proving his wisdom. For instance, when he reunites with Cordelia, he states, "I am a very foolish fond old man." The fact that he realizes that he is foolish shows wisdom in and of itself. He later recognizes that Cordelia had a right to be angry with him when he states, "I know you do not love me; for your sisters / Have (as I do remember) done me wrong. / You have some cause, they have not." This shows great humility on the part of the king. He now sees Goneril and Regan for the cruel individuals they are. He also realizes his own foolishness when he says, "I am even / The natural fool of fortune." The lack of the fool's presence shows that Lear does not need wisdom walking at his side any longer, even though he has become completely mad.
The fool’s willingness to stay with the king is one of many examples where the characters within King Lear act with “moral foolishness.” Moral foolishness is when the line between what is moral and what is foolish becomes blurred. For instance, Goneril calls Albany a “moral fool” because he condemns her for her dishonesty and treachery. Goneril views Albany as a fool because he places his morals before his goals. She feels that one should do whatever they can in order to get the desired outcome. An unwillingness to do whatever it takes is seen as a weakness; therefore, in Goneril’s eyes, trying to live a life with a moral code will not result in getting what one desires.
Morals Used Foolishly
The idea that morals can be used foolishly is present throughout the play. Another example is “foolish honesty.” Edmund uses the phrase "foolish honesty" when he describes the ability to manipulate his brother Edgar and his father. He says, "A credulous father, and a brother noble, / Whose nature is so far from doing harms / That he suspects none; on whose foolish honesty / My practices ride easy." Edmund believes that because his father and his brother are honest, they are easily manipulated. In his eyes, honesty is seen as a weakness rather than an asset. Therefore, it is "foolish" to be honest. Edmund feels the only way to get what you want is through deceit. He also feels that due to their honesty, his plans to usurp his brother's birthright will be much easier. From a worldly perspective, honesty seems foolish to a person who is selfishly motivated by money and power, which are merely worldly effects.
On the other hand, from a religious or moralist perspective, it is seen differently. Kim Pathenroth, a religious essayist, said it best when she states:
The characters who behave foolishly according to the world’s standards… turn out to have real, life-giving, divine wisdom; on the other hand, the characters obsessed with being wise by worldly standards… participate in a fatal folly, a blinding self-absorption that makes them not only cruel and rapacious but ultimately miserable and self-destructive.
Edmund is obsessed with being wise by the world’s standards, and as a result, has become self-absorbed, cruel, and miserable. Not only does he make this clear when he plots against his brother and father, but also after he has won the affection of both Goneril and Regan. He says,
To both these sisters have I sworn my love;
Each jealous of the other, as the stung
Are of the adder. Which of them shall I take
Both? One? Or neither? Neither can be enjoyed,
If both remain alive…
It is clear he does not love either of them. He is only thinking of his own lustful nature and what the women could provide for him financially; therefore, he misses out on wonderful parts of life that could be enjoyed.
Cordelia, on the other hand, recognizes that life has more to offer than financial gain. She appears to act with “foolish honesty” when her father asks her about her love for him. Her response is not foolish at all. She is appalled by her sisters' false flattery and chooses to be honest when she says, "I love your majesty / According to my bond, no more or less." Even though she states that she loves him, she does not flatter him by speaking of a love that is inappropriate between a father and a daughter as her sister's Goneril and Regan do. Instead, she explains her lack of flattery by saying,
Why have my sisters husbands if they say
They love you all? Haply when I shall wed,
That Lord whose hand must take my plight shall carry
Half my love with him, half my care and duty.
She points out that if her sisters truly love their father in the way they claim, they would not have enough love to share with their husbands. Due to the king's foolishness, he believes her sisters' great claims of love and feels Cordelia's love pales in comparison. Despite the risk of losing her inheritance, Cordelia values honesty and risks revealing her appropriate level of love for her father.
Just as Goneril and Regan gain their land and kingdoms through their dishonesty, Cordelia gains her goal of love and respect through her truthfulness. The King of France looks beyond her loss of rank as he states,
Fairest Cordelia, that art most rich being poor,
Most choice forsaken and most loved despised,
Thee and thy virtues here I seize upon.
Be it lawful I take up what's cast away.
Gods, gods! 'Tis strange that from their cold'st neglect
My love should kindle to inflamed respect.
This beautiful proposal contains paradoxes that seem to be foolish at first. For instance, how can one become rich by being poor? What he means is that because of her willingness to be honest, and to risk losing all her wealth, she shows that she is rich in "virtues" that are irreplaceable, such as integrity and love. Even though “he forfeits a [financial] dowry," he gains love, which reflects his wisdom. Despite Cordelia’s death, she finds true love. She may not have survived the play, but then if “all the world’s a stage,” who in life does?
Not all "foolish honesty" is as good as it is in the case of Cordelia. Kent speaks honest words foolishly while the king is angry and sternly rebuking a man who is of a higher authority. This “foolish honesty” is seen in the following speech from Kent to Lear:
When majesty falls to folly. Reserve thy state,
And in thy best consideration check
This hideous rashness. Answer my life my judgment,
Thy youngest daughter does not love thee least,
Nor are those empty-headed whose love sounds
Reverb no hollowness.
Kent's honesty could have resulted in death due to his harsh words to a king. Examples of his harsh words are when he states, "When majesty falls to folly" and refers to his actions as "hideous rashness." One difference between this "foolish honesty" to that of the King of France's and Cordelia's is that Kent's brashness did not result in the fulfillment of his desires. Although he did finally get Lear to listen to him, it was only when he became dishonest by pretending to be someone else. While his speech is truthful, his timing and manner are unwise. Because Kent chooses to speak harshly while the king is angry, he does not bring about a change in Lear's perception. Instead, Kent is banished.
A King's Folly
Despite Kent's ignorance, King Lear also acts ignorantly when he banishes Kent and Cordelia. He chooses to banish two of the few people who remain loyal to him. His daughter even was willing to risk her life because of her love for her father. A poem written by Richard Johnson based on the play King Lear called “King Lear and His Three Daughters” portrays this well when it talks about her death. The poem says she “dy’d indeed for love.” Ironically, this is the same love she describes to her father in the beginning when he rejects and banishes her. It is not until Lear has lost everything, including his sanity, that he realizes his foolishness in sending them away. This foolish act is obvious to all.
Goneril even recognizes it when she says, "He always loved our sister most and with what poor judgment he hath now cast her off appears too grossly." Goneril becomes frightened by Kent’s reaction to Cordelia. She realizes that if he is willing to do this to his favored daughter, he may be willing to do worse to her. Frye points out that Goneril and Regan’s recognition of Lear’s foolishness motivates them to disallow any further authority that he may still have had. Frye agrees with this and expresses the sisters’ feelings when he explains,
…while they’re not surprised that Lear acts like an old fool, even they are startled by how big a fool he is, and they realize that they have to be on their guard to stop him from ever having the power to do to them what he’s just done to Cordelia. The hundred knights Lear insists on could easily start a palace revolution in such a society, so the hundred knights will have to go.
In this, the two women act wisely, even if their intent is void of scruples. Goneril again shows great insight when she exclaims,
Idle old man,
That still would manage those authorities
That he hath given away. Now, by my life,
Old fools are babes again...
She not only recognizes that he loves Cordelia most, but that banishing her is very "poor judgment." She calls Lear an "idle old man," which refers to his decision on giving away his land as laziness. He not only transfers his "authorities" before it is necessary, but does so in order to be able to act as a young child again. She makes this clear by comparing "old fools" to "babes." This reference not only points out how babies are not required to do anything, but also that they are not yet able to discern and have not yet learned crucial reasoning skills.
As a result of Lear’s lack of discernment and wanting to live a carefree life, his life becomes filled with grief. If he had chosen to listen to those, like Kent, who spoke with wisdom, he would have avoided the catastrophes that followed. Shakespeare shows how when a person chooses to live a life of irresponsibility, there are consequences. The more responsibility that is given up, the bigger the consequences are. Michelle Lee, another Shakespearean critic, remarks that by giving up his power, Lear loses the ability to fight against his thankless daughters. “What he will do is suffer, and Shakespeare will make sure his suffering is among the greatest chronicled suffering of the earth.”
King Lear shows that wisdom is not always as it appears, and there are severe consequences for acting foolishly. Wisdom does not denote social class, as in the case of the king and the fool. Those who should be wise may not always have the right answers, whereas people who are thought of as foolish may be astute. True wisdom can only be found in those who are honest and have integrity. Dishonest people confuse what is wise and what is foolish, as in the example of Cordelia. Many may view her as being unwise because of the way she spoke with her father when he asked her how much she loves him. Although she loses her share in the dowry, she receives what she wants, which is love from her husband. In the end, she also regains the love of her father. Her reward for her honesty is greater than all the land both her sisters inherit, because Cordelia gains love.
- "fool1noun" The Oxford Dictionary of English (revised edition). Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Grand Valley State University. 11 April 2009 <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.gvsu.edu/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e28794>
- "knave noun" The Oxford Dictionary of English (revised edition). Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Grand Valley State University. 11 April 2009 <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.gvsu.edu/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t140.e41724>
- Frye, Northrop. "Northop Frye on Shakespeare." Edited by Robert Sandler, 101-121.( Markham, Ontario: Yale University Press, 1986), 111.
- Johnson, Richard. "King Lear and his three daughters." 1775.( London: British Library: reproduction found through electronic source: EEBO, 1620),275.
- Lee, Michelle. Shakespearean Criticism. Vol. 103. (Detroit: Thomas Gale, 2007), 107.
- Paffenroth, Kim. "'Reason in Madness': The Wisdom in Folly in the New Testament and King Lear ." In In Praise of Wisdom: Literary and Theological Reflections on Faith and Reason, 53-83. (New York : Continuum, 2004), 53.
- Shakespeare, William. “King Lear.” In The Complete Pelican: Shakespeare, by Stephen Orgel and A. R. Braunmuller, 1574-1615. (New York: Penguin Books, 2002), IV.
Questions & Answers
Question: How did the severe adversity in King Lear's life make him wise?
Answer: I am not sure I feel that King Lear ever became wise. He did begin to make smart decisions, but only after he started to go mad. He made those decisions out of self-preservation, but unfortunately, due to his earlier choices, his wise decisions, in the end, did not save him.
Question: What is the significance of the storm in the play King Lear?
Answer: The storm represents the stark contrast between nature and humans. While nature is strong and uncontrolled, humans are frail and mortal. The stark contrast proves to King Lear that he is virtually powerless, which is the first time he feels this humbled in his entire life. The storm also represents a divine judgment over the characters.
© 2010 Angela Michelle Schultz
JEEVA on May 12, 2020:
This article is really helpful..thank you!
sanjee nath on August 26, 2018:
your article is very useful for my exam thank you so much
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on May 26, 2018:
Good luck on your exxam Adam Saadna!
Adam Saadna on May 26, 2018:
Been studying King Lear for my A-Level exams, started in Year 13 and I have an exam for this play and "A Streetcar Named Desire" in just over a week's time. I would like to thank you for the great resource, it's been helpful in clarifying my knowledge and helping me to understand a different perspective of the play - the critical quotes are also helpful as part of my exam for Lear involves AO5 - critical analysis, definitely feeling more confident and I have you to thank, very pleased.
csa on April 14, 2018:
please give me some text for write about "comment on how severe adversity in king lear`s life made him become wise?
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 17, 2016:
Thank you DanaDoes. That is very kind of you to say.
Dana Culverwell-Solomon from Port Alfred, Eastern Cape, South Africa on April 11, 2016:
Great Hub Angela,
Over the years of studying Shakespeare, King Lear has, and possibly will remain my favourite of his plays.
Really enjoyed the way you developed this analysis, really an enjoyable read.
Can't wait to see more of your writings, you are a great writer to follow
Robert Levine from Brookline, Massachusetts on October 08, 2015:
mahzad on February 25, 2015:
(y) thumbs up for you you did a superb job
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on October 23, 2012:
Thank you both very much!
Maria Jordan from Jeffersonville PA on October 23, 2012:
Since high school this was my favorite of Shakespeare's plays. You have done a superb job of description and analysis of this timeless tale. This was a most enjoyable read this morning.
Voted UP and UABI. Hugs, Maria
hi friend from India on June 12, 2012:
Really very nice hub. Vote up.
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on March 09, 2012:
I definitely think it agrees with human nature, I don't feel that is in question. Do I think that King Lear's decision to stay with each of his daughter's was a right or wrong decision. I believe that he should have been a loving father who treated all of his children with respect and love. I also don't think he should have been so eager to get rid of his Kingdom. I believe that he was still at a healthy age that he should have still kept his kingdom. But he got lazy, as humans do. Overall King Lear was a very selfish, unwise man. So I guess, since I think he should have kept his own kingdom, it was an unwise decision to stay with his daughters. But since he split up his kingdom, staying with his daughters would have been okay if he didn't let himself get manipulated so easy. I guess what I'm saying is that it's not the act of staying with his daughters that was wrong, but the motivation behind why he stayed with them.
alaa on March 09, 2012:
Is king Lear decision to stay with each of his daughters for a while is right or wrong decision and does this agree with human nature or not ?
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on December 05, 2011:
I'm glad it did. This is my one of my favorite Shakespeare plays! I hope you enjoy it!
CE on December 01, 2011:
I just want to say that this was a great article to read. I had to write up a thematic presenation on Madness an d wisdom in King Lear, and this helped me greatly!
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on June 24, 2010:
That would have been really neat to see. He would have been great as Lear!!! I wonder if they ever will do it with Anthony Hopkins. I would watch it.
Juliette Morgan on June 23, 2010:
First class writing, I so enjoyed. I have seen the play several times. There was going to be a movie made this year with Anthony Hopkins playing Lear but it had to be scrapped due to lack of funding, which is a great shame.
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on May 23, 2010:
Eric, the fool is my favorite character in many of his plays, especially this one. Shakespeare had such an ironic sense of humor. I love it! Ahhh, I wonder what the name of those funny hats are called. I used to know. That's going to bug me now.
EricDenby from east lansing, michigan on May 22, 2010:
I love it - Love the article, love the fool in all of Shakespeare's play - The voice of honesty guised with bells and funny hats (or whatever). Great hub.
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on May 04, 2010:
Yeah weakvsfire. The fool is the voice of reason in several of Shakespeare's play. The reason the jester was the only person able to criticize the king is because he was the only one who could do it under the guise of joking.
I think its so incredibly insightful how Shakespeare does that. I really didn't understand how creative Shakespeare was until I studied and was forced to analyze his work. I then began to realize how often he played on words. Like making King Lear a fool and his fool wise. It shows how intelligent he was.
WeakvsFire on May 04, 2010:
I remember Bones basically saying how the Jester even though seemingly lowly was the only one able to get away with criticizing the King. Also, I think in a few of Shakepeare's other plays he has the character of the Fool being the voice of reason.
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 11, 2010:
That still is really amazing. When I was a senior in high school I traveled to the Stratford upon Avon in Canada. It was definitely a neat experience, but nothing like it would be going to the real thing! Hopefully, someday I'll be able to travel across the sea to see it, among many other destinations I would like to go see!
Tricia Mason from The English Midlands on April 11, 2010:
Stratford is a lovely town ~ lots of history! I go there often. Yet I only attended the theatre there, for the first time, a couple of years ago!
Angela Michelle Schultz (author) from United States on April 10, 2010:
I actually assumed I wouldn't like it. My first read, not really... I learned about it, and so my second read was much more enjoyable, when I knew to look out for somethings.
By the way, you don't know how jealous I am that you can go to Stratford for plays. :)
Tricia Mason from The English Midlands on April 10, 2010:
This is a play that I have only 'dipped into'. I think that it is now time to read and study it properly. I'll see if they are showing it in Stratford. I think that I would enjoy it :)