Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci is considered one of the greatest and most influential artists of all time. Accompanying his impressive artistic talent was a vast knowledge in the fields of mathematics, biology, anatomy, physics, engineering, and architecture - all areas in which Leonardo contributed greatly. His discoveries constantly pushed the boundaries of modern thought and paralleled the new beliefs that emerged from the Renaissance.
Among Leonardo’s many famous pieces of art, La Scapigliata (commonly referred to simply as Female Head ) is one that could be considered slightly unorthodox for its time. Critics argued that Leonardo was not simply sketching a woman with uncombed hair; instead, they suggest he was creating a work of art that depicts the natural beauty and power inherent in women. La Scapigliata maintains a sense of equality between men and women in a time when such equality did not exist.
Leonardo was born in 1452 in the town of Vinci, Italy. His name literally means “Leonardo from the town of Vinci”. For this reason he is referred to by his first name instead of his surname. The Museum of Science in Boston, Massachusetts explains of Leonardo’s early life:
“Growing up in his father's Vinci home, Leonardo had access to scholarly texts owned by family and friends. He was also exposed to Vinci's longstanding painting tradition, and when he was about 15 his father apprenticed him to the renowned workshop of Andrea del Verrochio in Florence. Even as an apprentice, Leonardo demonstrated his colossal talent.”
Leonardo’s unique talent allowed him to leave his apprenticeship and move on to paint for himself.
Social and Political Environment
Leonardo finished La Scapigliata in 1508 in Italy. This is not surprising, as the beginning of the sixteenth century in Europe was a time of extraordinary change. The discovery of the New World in the beginning of the century set the stage for further world exploration and significant economic, scientific and technological development.The Renaissance, which began in Italy roughly two centuries earlier, was beginning to expand its grasp even further into Europe.
The political scene in Italy at this time was far from unified. Italy was broken into many different provinces and states, all with a different governing chapter. This lack of unity between states most likely influenced the cultural and societal demand for change. Philosophers took the “classical” knowledge of which they had been taught for hundreds of years and completely re-evaluated it, changing it and forming new ideas and concepts that better fit their new understanding of the world.
During this time Italy was also experiencing a broader shift of power as the Roman Catholic Church’s influence was spreading more and more into Europe and across the Atlantic. The French invasion of Italy in 1494 spurred roughly four decades of wars that added to the political and social unrest in the Italian city-states. Overall, though, the economy at this time was stable enough for most people to live comfortably.
Leonardo, being a master of his time, internalized the great amount of change in the atmosphere around him and turned it in to a tangible and groundbreaking piece of art. In 1503 Leonardo reportedly began working on his famous Mona Lisa, a painting that also depicts a female in a uniquely curious light.
Impact of La Scapigliata
Leonardo da Vinci was doing more than just painting pictures of women. He was breaking through the firm grip of prejudices and social restraints placed on women for thousands of years prior to the sixteenth century. La Scapigliata portrayed women in a sense never before seen from an artistic standpoint and foreshadowed the many feminist movements to erupt throughout the world hundreds of years after Leonardo’s death.
The Renaissance was the beginning of a change in the way women were viewed in society. Typically, women were viewed as objects - as simply wives and mothers with little to no power in the home, let alone in society. Men were the dominant social and political figures of this time period. Through La Scapigliata , Leonardo is suggesting there is much more to the female race than society understands and appreciates. His use of soft lines and gentle shading in this sketch illustrates how women are so naturally beautiful, and in doing so Leonardo challenges viewers to be appreciative of this beauty. The concept of untamed hair suggests a raw power in the female sex that is not often revealed on a day-to-day basis. The basic, innate power and magnificence of women is a concept Leonardo hoped his contemporaries and his fellow citizens would begin to embrace and respect.
As an instrumental and emotional piece of art, La Scapigliata acts as an advocate for women of sixteenth century Europe and explores the deeper psychological realm of feminism. While Leonardo was most likely unaware of the long-term implications of his artwork, he was a true visionary whose work is still highly esteemed in our modern era. While La Scapigliata is only one of Leonardo’s many masterpieces, it presents a plethora of groundbreaking ideas regarding the treatment of women in society which are still being fought for in countries throughout the world today.
Lorenzo Gallus on May 15, 2020:
Halfway between panel painting and preparatory drawing, La Scapigliata or Testa di fanciulla is one of Leonardo's most mysterious works: we do not know exactly what it represents, when it was made and for whom, or how many hands it passed through throughout its history.
According to some testimonies, his first destination was the room of Margherita la Paleologa, wife of Federico Gonzaga and daughter-in-law of Isabella d'Este. At the beginning of the nineteenth century we find it in the home of the Parma painter Gaetano Callani, whose son sold it to the Academy of Fine Arts, then the National Gallery of Parma.
Whose face is not known. There are those who think it is a Madonna, those who lead it to a study for Leda with the swan. The most varied hypotheses have also been made regarding dating, from youthful work to full maturity.
The beauty of a young woman with very sweet features remains, with half-closed eyelids and soft lips posed with a slight smile, her vibrant hair broken into curls. The wise use of chiaroscuro brings out the face from the background as a sculptural relief, giving concrete realization to the studies on the movements of the soul to which Leonardo devoted himself with passion. https://www.arte.it/leonardo/loc/la-scapigliata-25...
Suzanne Bouisses on August 20, 2018:
Hi there I have this beautiful piece and it’s on very old wood just a long shot but i was just wondering if there could have been two as it looks so real ?????
theactorsinger on August 01, 2017:
In Your research of "La Scapigliata" did You find the name and information about the model who Leonardo had pose for the painting?
Madigan on October 27, 2016:
This is an exceptional work of art and really fascinates me, as well. Despite all the research I have done I still am left pondering who the woman in this painting is? Any thoughts?
Bear/llama on April 18, 2016:
This page helped so much! I had to do a research paper on this painting and I cited your Hub several times! :) I don't know what I would have done without your Hub. Thank you so, so much for doing a Hub on this subject!!!
janesix on April 05, 2014:
I love that one. Don't think I've ever seen it before. Beautiful.
Judy..Bologna on October 24, 2013:
I saw the original La Scapigliata by Leonardo in Parma's national gallery it was tucked away in a corner,a tiny portrait,but so Beautiful it gave me goose bumps..now we are planning to see Leonardo's The Last Supper in Milano.a much more grand painting but I AM SURE La Scapigliata will alway's remain my favourite of Leonardo's works
berrey on December 17, 2012:
My painting analysis would have been the bane of my existence... or my grade, anyways... but then I found this, and all was right in the world.
Better Yourself from North Carolina on July 05, 2012:
Great hub! It's been years since all my art history classes so it was nice to catch back up with the history of a great artist and the influence of his work! Thanks for sharing!
Rebekah Nydam (author) from Massachusetts on February 09, 2012:
You're welcome! I noticed while writing this paper that there's really not much information out there about this particular piece of art. It fascinates me!
rema c. (student) on February 09, 2012:
thank you so much for all this! i really needed help now i found it ;)
Rebekah Nydam (author) from Massachusetts on May 31, 2011:
Thank you very much!
Obscure_Treasures from USA on May 30, 2011:
Very good hub! I am interested in Paintings so I have liked your hub a lot!