Glenis studied for a B.A (Hons) in English Literature after taking early retirement. She was awarded her degree at the age of 67.
A Snowy Night on Westminster Bridge, London
About the Poet Robert Bridges
Robert Bridges (1844-1930) was an English poet who, after his education at Eton College and Oxford University, trained as a doctor and worked in several London hospitals until 1882. He retired from the medical profession at the age of thirty-eight and from then lived a secluded family life, devoting his time to literature, writing, reviewing, and editing. He famously edited and published the poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins, his friend from university days, after Hopkins had suffered a premature death.
Bridges was the Poet Laureate from 1913 until his death in 1930.
London Snow by Robert Bridges (1890)
When men were all asleep the snow came flying,
In large white flakes falling on the city brown,
Stealthily and perpetually settling and loosely lying,
Hushing the latest traffic of the drowsy town;
Deadening, muffling, stifling its murmurs failing;
Lazily and incessantly floating down and down:
Silently sifting and veiling road, roof and railing;
Hiding difference, making unevenness even,
Into angles and crevices softly drifting and sailing.
All night it fell, and when full inches seven
It lay in the depth of its uncompacted lightness,
The clouds blew off from a high and frosty heaven;
And all woke earlier for the unaccustomed brightness
Of the winter dawning, the strange unheavenly glare:
The eye marvelled—marvelled at the dazzling whiteness;
The ear hearkened to the stillness of the solemn air;
No sound of wheel rumbling nor of foot falling,
And the busy morning cries came thin and spare.
Then boys I heard, as they went to school, calling,
They gathered up the crystal manna to freeze
Their tongues with tasting, their hands with snowballing;
Or rioted in a drift, plunging up to the knees;
Or peering up from under the white-mossed wonder,
‘O look at the trees!’ they cried, ‘O look at the trees!’
With lessened load a few carts creak and blunder,
Following along the white deserted way,
A country company long dispersed asunder:
When now already the sun, in pale display
Standing by Paul’s high dome, spread forth below
His sparkling beams, and awoke the stir of the day.
For now doors open, and war is waged with the snow;
And trains of sombre men, past tale of number,
Tread long brown paths, as toward their toil they go:
But even for them awhile no cares encumber
Their minds diverted; the daily word is unspoken,
The daily thoughts of labour and sorrow slumber
At the sight of the beauty that greets them, for the charm they have broken.
Synopsis of London Snow by Robert Bridges
The title the poem is explicit. What the reader is about to experience is an impression of snowfall in London.
The first line locates the poem in time and place - it tells us what happened, where and when; in a city (London, as we know from the title), there was an overnight snowfall. This was not a light sprinkling of snow: An image of a blizzard is immediately conjured by the choice of the word flying as an adverb to qualify the past tense verb came.
Snow blurs sharp lines and boundaries "making unevenness even" - a description suggestive of deep snow and of drifts. The use of the present perfect progressive tense for a large number of verbs (ending in ing) is notable - this tense suggests that something that started in the past continues in the present and may continue into the future. The snow is unstoppable.
The use of the adverb stealthily tends to personify the snow in the mind of the reader - the passage in its entirety is suggestive that the snow has a life and a purpose.
Lines 10-12 continue the idea of personification in that when the snow had reached a depth of seven inches it seems to have accomplished its objective and so "The clouds blew off" as if as a deliberate choice.
Lines 13-15 introduce the reader to the initial impact of the snow on the residents of the town. The unusual brightness of the morning caused them to wake earlier than usual to a "strange unheavenly glare". The choice of the adjective unheavenly is unusual - the glare of the snow is certainly the opposite of heavenly insofar as it is on the earth and therefore earthly, but there seem to be an implication that the snow is not a God-send. Also consider that a 'heavenly' glare is usually produced by strong sunlight.
Lines 16-19 describe the impact of the snow on the sounds of the town. Every sound has been muffled.
Lines 19-24 are about the impact of snow on touch, taste and sight, described in the reaction of schoolboys to the unusual phenomena; they catch ice-cold crystals on their tongues, make snowballs, dive into deep drifts and, gazing upwards, admire the effect that the snow has had on the trees.
Lines 25-27 describe the inconvenient effect of the snow upon carts transporting goods from the countryside. The carriers have made their loads less heavy than usual, in order for those that have risked making a journey to "blunder" along deserted roads without become stuck.
Lines 28-37 It is on line 29 that, through the reference to "Paul's high dome", that the only reference to London is made.The morning sunlight has triggered a thaw and the townspeople bestir themselves. They "wage war" with the challenges that the weather has made. Countless workers tread brown slushy paths through the snow. But even those normally thinking about their work and worries are this morning diverted by the beauty of what they see.
Line 29 of London Snow - "Standing by Paul's high dome ... "
Robert Seymour Bridges
Form of the Poem London Snow by Robert Bridges
Bridges was a classicist. He rejected contemporary trends and modernism in poetry in favour of a more accessible, readily understood, style that is apparent in the lovely poem, London Snow.
- The poem is presented as a single stanza of thirty-seven lines. The effect that this form produces is one of a self-contained unbroken chain of events, started by snowfall that persists through the night.
- There are three end stops in the poem - at lines 9, 24 and 30 (plus the final stop at line 37). The stops indicate a brief pause in the narrative.
- By enjambing across the points where some poets might have chosen to create stanza breaks, Bridges has created a flow through the poem, mirroring the unremitting, lengthy, snowstorm.
- The length of the lines ranges from eleven syllables to seventeen syllables and the metre is irregular, creating a poem with a rhythm that resembles the rhythm of speech.
The Rhyming Scheme of London Snow by Robert Bridges
The poem, which might at first reading appear to be an adaptation of free verse, actually has a sophisticated pattern of full and part end rhymes, as follows: -
Lines 1-4 ABAB
Lines 5-6 CB
Lines 7-10 CDCD
.Lines 11-12 ED
Lines 13-16 EFEF
Lines 17-18 GF
Lines 19-22 GHGH
Lines 23-24 IH
Lines 25-28 IJIJ
Lines 29-30 KJ
Lines 31-34 KLKL
Lines 35-37 MLM
Imagery in London Snow by Robert Bridges
Poetic imagery is used to de-familiarise the familiar/ to familiarise the reader with unusual phenomena. In London Snow, Bridges both de-familiarises London streets ("the city brown" has become white) with an acute observation of the action and transformational effect of snowfall. He familiarises the reader with the phenomenon of snow, which is infrequent enough in the South of England to cause a frisson of wonder and excitement ("The eye marvelled- marvelled at the dazzling whiteness").
The poem addresses four of the five human senses - vision, hearing, taste and touch, and employs a restrained use of metaphor. The reader is introduced to the sight of a protracted fall of snow unremittingly floating town to cloak the City and muffle the usual noises. The ear unusually 'listens' to stillness - an oxymoron. Schoolboys put out their tongues to catch snowflakes, metaphorically described as manna (.ie. food from Heaven), and make snowballs, freezing their tongues and hands. The snow lying on the ground is "white-mossed wonder"
Alliteration in London Snow by Robert Bridges
There is a great deal of alliteration in London Snow.
Note: Alliteration is the repeated use of a letter or a syllable, usually, not always, at the start of a word.
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Example: Lines 1-15
Note, for example, the sibilant consonant s, which slows the pace - asleep, snow, stealthily, settling, Silently sifting
Sibilance in poetry is a stylistic device in which consonants, used in quick succession, draw emphasis on words.
Adverbs as a Stylistic Device in 'London Snow'
- Most adverbs end with the letters ly.
- Adverbs tell us more about the action described in a verb.
- Bridges has used adverbs of manner extensively in 'London Snow'. They tell us how an action was performed - in this case the manner in which the snow arrived. See lines 1-9 and pick out the adverbs.
Use of the -ing Verb Form in 'London Snow'
- A verb ending in ing is a present participle when used with a verb of movement. It describes to us how an action was performed. For example, in line 1 the snow came flying. (Came is the past tense of the verb to come and flying is the present participle of the verb to fly).
- Bridges has used the present participle extensively, as a poetic device of repetition, in lines 1-9 to describe how the snow came. e.g. settling, hushing, deadening.
What is a Poet Laureate?
The British Poet Laureate is an honorary role, nowadays awarded by the reigning monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister after appropriate consultation. There are no specific responsibilities but there is an expectation that an incumbent poet laureate will write poems to mark significant national occasions. If you enjoyed reading London Snow and would like to read more poems by Robert Bridges, a former Poet Laureate, I recommend this collection of his works.
The origins of the laureateship date back to 1616, when a pension was provided to Ben Johnson by the reigning monarch, King James I.
Each poet laureate is awarded a modest annual honorarium. The tradition of also providing a barrel of sherry continues to the present day.
Creative Writing, A Workbook with Readings, Part 3. Herbert W.N., Routledge in association with the Open University (2006), Abingdon, Oxon, UK
Questions & Answers
Question: What are the themes of Bridges' poem "London Snow"?
Answer: The theme of London Snow is the positive impact of the natural phenomena of snowfall on the residents of London.
Question: How does Robert Bridges describe human emotions in "London Snow''?
Answer: The first reference to human reaction to the snow is in line 15.
The physical reactions described are an indication of the emotions that the snow arouses. People gaze in wonder. Then they employ their sense of hearing, listening to the unnatural silence. The snow is a natural phenomenon that surprises, moves, and excites them. People "marvel," i.e., they are amazed and moved by the sight of the snow. Excitement and curiosity are aroused in the schoolboys. They experiment with their senses of taste and touch, catching the snow on their tongues, packing it into snowballs, and plunging into the drifts. The men trudging to their daily jobs are temporarily diverted from their normally somber mood - the beauty of the snow has lifted their spirits and made them happier.
Question: What lines in Robert Bridges' poem, "London Snow," refer to Christianity and god?
Answer: Line 12 refers to snow falling from heaven, and line 20 speaks of 'crystal manna' - manna is referred to several times in the Holy Bible as food from heaven (i.e. food from God).
To me, the allusion seems to be that the snow has been heaven-sent and though it is not food for the body, its beauty feeds the spirit.
Question: What are the five senses described in the poem "London Snow" by Robert Bridges?
Answer: Sight, hearing, touch, and taste are four of the human senses. How each of these are affected by the snow is described in the poem. Read the lines carefully to discover how the children and adults use their senses to react to the snow. Smell is the only one of the five senses that is not referred to in the poem.
Question: In which way does the author bring out his main ideas in the poem "London Snow"?
Answer: Well, you first need to identify what you believe the author's main ideas are. Once you have done this you need to look at the poetic devices that he has used e.g. has he used alliteration, rhyme, repetition, co-ordinating conjunctions, imagery, metaphor, simile?
Question: Can you explain how the poem "London Snow" by Robert Bridges is a celebration of snowfall in London?
Answer: The poem is a celebration of the impact that the beauty of an unexpected snowfall has on Londoners. It temporarily takes the minds of commuting workers away from their usual everyday cares. Schoolboys use all of their senses when playing and experimenting with the snow, thereby learning about the properties of it as well as having fun.
Question: Do you think Bridges was making a political point about the power of collective action, or the way humans have a negative impact on the environment?
Answer: Personally, I cannot detect a political point about the power of collective action in Bridges's poem, London Snow.
The only impact on the environment that is suggested in the poem is the way in which pristine snow turns to brown slush when it is repeatedly trodden, but I do not think that this suggests that humans 'have a negative impact on the environment.' However, any poem is subject to interpretation by the reader so if you can make a strong case, with examples from the text, that Bridges makes points about the power of collective action and the negative human impact on the environment, then nobody can argue that you are wrong.
Question: In what way is the poem ‘London Snow’ a celebration of the snowfall in London?
Answer: If you read 'London Snow' carefully you will see that the poem is celebrating how the changed landscape temporarily lifts the spirits of Londoners trudging to work and how the snow is a source of wonderment to the school children, giving them the opportunity to test the snow against their senses.
Question: Why does Bridges refer to as long brown paths in the snow in his poem "London Snow"?
Answer: The long brown paths are caused by dirt accumulating in the melting snow, turning it to sludge. The dirt could have been transferred from shoes (which may have picked up droppings from the horses that still drew buses at the time the poem was written). The pavements underlying the snow would also have been dirty, and that dirt would mingle with the snow - turning it brown. Also, at the time that Bridges wrote this poem London was heavily polluted, so the polluted air, caused by soot from chimneys, may have contributed to the snow becoming dirty.
Question: how do seasons affect humans according to Robert bridges in his poem, "London Snow"?
Answer: Winter is the only season referred to, albeit by implication, in "London Snow." (In normal weather conditions, snow only falls during the winter months in England). Bridges describes the transformational effect that snow has upon the population of London. They are amazed and distracted by the snow from the normal daily routine of the trudge to work and school. The snow brings out the playful and experimental nature of the schoolboys in the poem and the adults forget temporarily about their everyday cares and worries. But there are also negative effects - the carts carrying goods into the city must bear lighter loads so that they do not get stuck in deep snow. Although Bridges does not pursue the implications of this problem there are likely to have been economic and domestic consequences of deep snow at the time that he was writing -everyday foodstuffs that were brought into the city from the surrounding countryside may have been in short supply until such time as the snow cleared - increasing prices or reducing the profits of the producers.
Question: Identify 3 stylistic features used by Robert Bridges and state their effect on the meaning of the poem?
Answer: Please refer to the text of the article. Bridges uses alliteration; extensive use of adverbs and the present participle of verbs to describe the movement of the snow, rhyme, and imagery in London Snow.
Question: What Is the theme in the poem ‘London Snow”?
Answer: The theme is the transformational effect of snow on buildings and the improvement in spirits of of those who see and experience the snow.
© 2017 Glen Rix