Wendy is an online writer and avid reader who enjoys sharing her knowledge with the world.
Men and Monsters
Many classic monster stories encourage the read to ask, "Who was the real monster?" Is the monster of the story the giant, terrifying creature, or is it perhaps the knight who seeks to kill the creature for no clear reason?
"Beowulf" is not one of those stories. From beginning to end, this story has nothing but praise for its main character and his heroic deeds, culminating in a lavish and mournful funeral that celebrates him as a cherished and now-lost king. Beowulf represents the ideal man.
What Traits Should a Man Have?
The first trait that the story believes a man should have is bravery, present in Beowulf and absent in his enemies. Beowulf makes a habit of ordering his men to sit on their hands while he takes on inhuman beasts all on his own. Before the battle against the dragon (which will be the death of him), he says to his men, “this fight is not yours,/ nor is it up to any man except me/ to measure his strength against the monster/ or prove his worth. I shall win the gold/ by my courage, or else mortal combat,/ doom of battle, will bear your lord away.” He is prepared to enter into a fight alone and accept the deadly consequences if he fails.
Grendel (an enemy), however, provokes a fight and then runs off to his hidey-hole when his arm and shoulder get torn off instead of staying until the bitter end of the fight. Unferth too betrays cowardice and therefore loses manliness as far as this text is concerned. Unferth “was not man enough,” the text confides, “to face the turmoil of a fight under water/ and the risk of his life.”
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Much can be seen about the ideal characteristics of a man by looking at the role of women in this story. Characters like Wealhtheow and Hygd perform a role that’s limited to support. They serve mead and at most give speeches of congratulation, whereas Beowulf’s action in the plot is more direct and more independent. The same also applies to the women used largely as tokens to quell feuds. Beowulf ends blood feuds by war, not marriage.
Looking at the most major female character in this story, however, presents somewhat different results. The sharp contrasts that existed between the supportive queens and the truce-brides and Beowulf are not quite so prevalent between Beowulf and Grendel’s mother. Sure, they are fighting against one another, but they are certainly a match for each other in fierceness and strength (only a miracle sword was able to turn the tide in Beowulf’s favor during their battle). As well as that, they are both attempting to, in Beowulf’s own words, “avenge dear ones” instead of “indulg[ing] in mourning.” Beowulf is fighting for revenge after Grendel’s mother has killed some of his men and a dear friend of Hrothgar; Grendel’s mother is fighting for revenge after the death of her son.
So where does that leave Grendel’s mother in this equation? Has she strayed into the masculine? In the author and translators’ eyes, she’s betrayed her femininity and is not afforded very much respect as a result. Her name isn’t even given and she exists in a terminal translational uncertainty between a damned woman and an inhumane beast. Unlike Beowulf, who she matches in courage, independence and strength, she is demonized and killed without mourning.
In the end, "Beowulf" is very clear about what it considers the formula for a man to be. He should be brave, self-sufficient, and powerful (he should also be able to hold his breath for insane amounts of time/breathe underwater and have a nasty habit of breaking swords with his unrestrainable machismo). Unferth proves in this text that biology is not the only prerequisite for masculinity, and Grendel’s mother proves that ovaries are an automatic disqualification.
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