Sock Hops of the 1950s – What Were They?

Updated on November 24, 2018
MizBejabbers profile image

Miz Bejabbers is a child of the '50s and writes this article from personal experience.

A Very Popular Past Time for Teenagers

A wise man once said that necessity was the mother of invention. If that is so, the sock hop had to have been a brainchild born of necessity. The sock hop was a social dance originating in the 1950s, usually put on by school groups, in which no shoes were worn on the dance floor. The dancers danced in their socks. The original sock hops were held in gymnasiums where street shoes were forbidden. Even tennis shoes were not allowed because someone invariably would sneak in wearing conventional shoes and scratch the hardwood floor. Chaperones were often the worst culprits of all, so even they were required to wear socks unless they observed from the bleachers.

There is very little written on the history of the sock hop of the 1950s, and most of it is from someone’s imagination. The writings center on being hip, preppys, greasers, saddle oxfords, and other things someone read in a book. One wrongly held view is that kids held sock hops because they could do the twist better in socks. Sorry, but we never heard of the twist in the 50s, and Chubby Checker and his version didn’t come along until the 1960s, after the sock hop became popular.

No one seems to know exactly who originated it or where, but it probably began in small towns or perhaps even suburbs without community centers or good places for teens to congregate and dance. At least that’s why my friends and I sock hopped.

Chubby Checker: Still Going Strong After All These Years

Chubby Checker wows the crowd at a concert in Philadelphia in 2009
Chubby Checker wows the crowd at a concert in Philadelphia in 2009 | Source

Our Dress Code Was Understood

Dress was simple. It was basically a come-as-you-are party in our school clothes. Guys dressed in clean jeans and shirts or tee shirts. Girls wore their mid-calf skirts with lots and lots of petticoats that looked cool swirling on the dance floor, or they wore jeans. A big fad for girls at the time was wearing their daddy’s white shirts, so sometimes a group of girls would decide to dress in jeans and their father’s shirts, which, unless the girl was tall, hung down to her knees like a dress.

Poodle skirts weren’t much of a thing to us because they weren’t that easily obtained in the rural South. A few girls bought them in Little Rock or Memphis and wore them. Oh, and the jeans—Levis were our “designer jeans.” They were still affordable at $2.98 a pair, while off-brands could be bought at $1.98 a pair. No self-respecting teenager of the 50s would show up wearing off-brand jeans, not even Lees. Levis made ladies jeans that were fitted at the waist, but that wasn't cool. Jeans had to fit low on our hip bones. We wore boys jeans and we wore 'em skin-tight. My mother claimed that we girls "looked like we'd been melted and poured into our jeans."

Guys wore their regular white socks, but bobby sox were a must for the girls, in white, of course. Bobby sox were long, to-the-knee socks that were folded down three times to make a thick roll at the ankles. Plain anklets simply weren’t hip. The saddle oxford phase was over by then, although they never went completely out of style. Pat Boone had popularized white bucks, so we preferred oxfords or penny loafers of white buck like our idol. Shoes were removed at the door, and there was always a scramble for shoes in a pile of white bucks after the dance was over. It was advantageous to wear unfashionable colored shoes because they were easier to find.

Small-Town Fun for Young People

My small town of 5,000 was typical of a sock hop town. There was no community center, and if we wanted to go outside the school to hold a dance, most places charged a rental fee that we kids couldn’t afford. Our very special dances and proms were held at the Country Club, while the Episcopal Church Parish house graciously allowed us to hold others. Either place had to be reserved months in advance. We usually could talk our principal into lending us the gymnasium with no more than one or two weeks’ notice as long as it was available and we obeyed the rules.

The rules were simple:

1. No shoes on the gym floor, socks only, and that included chaperones.

2. No smoking in the gym.

3. No drinking alcoholic beverages.

4. Respect the chaperones.

5. Everyone in school was invited.

Sock hops were usually held in cold weather when boredom set in, although there were other times like spring and early fall. Someone would beg the principal’s permission, an unofficial committee would set a date, and then came the task of finding sponsors or chaperones, Sometimes that was done in reverse order. It was easier to convince the principal when he knew enough parents were willing to chaperone. Our high school of 300 students usually had no more than 50 to 75 to show up, so we needed no more than a half dozen chaperones. There were usually a couple of teachers willing to sacrifice a Friday or Saturday night, and we had our choice of enough parents willing to help.

Someone, usually two or three interested students, would make poster board signs and place them in strategic areas around the school announcing the date. Then excited students would talk up the sock hop in the halls:

“Are you going Friday night?”

“Oh yeah, wouldn’t miss it!”

"Be there or be square!"

Dates were lined up, but it was okay to come single because there would be lots of others of the opposite sex without dates, too.

Fan Photo from My Personal File of 1958

Music

Music was provided by one of the students who had a phonograph and a good collection of 45s. Other students would lend their 45s also, and a sorting and claiming of the records occurred following the dance. The owner of the phonograph usually insisted on being in charge of the music and was aided by best friends who kept the requested records ready to go. A sock hop could not be held without Elvis, Carl Perkins, Little Richard, Bill Haley, Chuck Berry and Fats Domino to rock ‘n roll and Connie Francis and Pat Boone for slow dancing. Cries of “play something by Elvis!” or “how ‘bout Long Tall Sally?” rang out. “Rock around the clock,” “Blue Suede Shoes,” and “Blueberry Hill” were all favorites, too.

I don't recall a real disk jockey ever hosting a sock hop. I won't say that it never happened, but the days of the hired DJs came later, mostly in the 1960s and 1970s. Back then the presence of DJs was mostly in night clubs that served alcoholic beverages, and they transitioned into the discos of the 1970s. Yours truly, at one time, spent Saturday nights as a DJ at a disco lounge at one of the local Holiday Inns in Little Rock. But I digress, so let's get back to the sock hops.

From My Radio Days

Fats Domino personally autographed a copy of this fan photo for me at a concert in Lubbock, Texas, in 1962
Fats Domino personally autographed a copy of this fan photo for me at a concert in Lubbock, Texas, in 1962

Today's Look at Steve's Show

We Learned to Dance from Watching TV

It’s hard for me to even remember the names of the dances we did, in fact, we didn’t know the names of most of the dance steps. We watched Dick Clark’s American Bandstand and a local channel show from Little Rock called, “Steve’s Show” and imitated the dances we saw. The names of the dances came later.

I do recall one very popular dance movement at our sock hops because only the most foolish girl would attempt it in heels. After getting a good momentum going, the boy would cross the girl’s arms and then swing her head over heels over his left shoulder. Then, if the movement was properly executed, she would land on her feet, he would release one hand and swing her around to face him. It was a very athletic move still popular today in ice dancing. Since I weighed less than 90 pounds soaking wet, I was usually one of the girls chosen for this step. I don’t recall ever having an accident, but a couple of times I do remember a girl landing on her fanny and pulling her partner over backwards. The couple would land in an embarrassing pile on the floor.

Sock Hops Allowed Stress-Free Mingling

The sock hop was popular also because the anxiety and nervousness of the formal dance was not present. Girls danced freely in socks and didn't suffer achy feet or sprained ankles from high heels, and boys didn’t have to wear what they called their “monkey suits.” It was acceptable to snatch up a parent or a teacher to dance as long as the subject was willing to rock ‘n roll. Cuddling a mother or the algebra teacher in a slow dance was not socially acceptable, but I doubt that anyone would have wanted to.

Gosh, this brings back the memories. Dang, I’m old!

Did You Know What A Sock Hop Was?

Have you ever heard of or attended a sock hop?

See results

Questions & Answers

    © 2012 Doris James-MizBejabbers

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        3 months ago from Beautiful South

        -Indeed we do, Paula. I love this community because we (most of us) are so congenial. I don't belong to any local writer's groups because those here are made up of snobs.

      • fpherj48 profile image

        Paula 

        3 months ago from Beautiful Upstate New York

        Quite true, MzB....but I am so grateful for all my Hub Buddies...and feel a bond even though we've not met in person. IMHO, what we all have is that "writer's connection," which is stronger than your average online acquaintance. We each have a muse with heart & soul like no others !!

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        3 months ago from Beautiful South

        I love your comment, Paula. I agree, but I'm really glad to have met you through this website. I doubt that we would have ever got to meet in person, Girlfriend.

      • fpherj48 profile image

        Paula 

        3 months ago from Beautiful Upstate New York

        Oh My Gosh!! My former classmates and I from the '50's-'60's ALSO meet as a group for lunch and conversation, about every 3 months or so!! You know, MzB, I believe our small town bonds from our era have lasted half a century because we actually & LITERALLY interacted with one another!! We spoke face to face...NOT via facebook........we visited and chatted on our front porches....not sitting in front of a screen. We truly shared our lives......not just our "profiles." We actually had the nerve to touch one another and hold hands......we didn't SEND "likes & dislikes" through the airwaves....

        There's nothing like personal relationships IN PERSON. never has been. never will be.

        I'm forever grateful I am a proud and devoted BOOMER!!

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        3 months ago from Beautiful South

        Thank you, Sweet Paula. Just trying to redo it using today's HP requirement. Weren't sock hops fun! Our little town of 4,500 was poor and still trying to recover from WWII in the 1950s, so there was a lot of improvisation going on among teenagers. Socializing with our friends...now those were the days. We laughed, we loved, and we were interested in each other as people, not just numbers on social media sites. Like you, I still treasure those days. We have a group of us oldies from school in the 50s and early 60s who occasionally get together for lunch in our capital city. I'm happy to say that we still feel the bond. Thanks for your version of the walk down Memory Lane."

      • fpherj48 profile image

        Paula 

        3 months ago from Beautiful Upstate New York

        MzB....Glad this article of yours has been recycled. "Sock Hops," what a blast from the past. Those were great times and as I look back, I realize just how carefree & innocent we all were. I don't think I ever missed a single dance. Our wardrobes, the music (I still love it today) & the socializing with our friends, all of it such a vital part of our youth & how we bonded.

        Thanks for the walk down Memory Lane. Paula

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        3 months ago from Beautiful South

        Right, Katherine, you should. We all have stories to tell. Thanks for stopping by.

      • Kathryn L Hill profile image

        Kathryn L Hill 

        3 months ago from LA

        Thanks MizBejabbers. I always wondered what a sock hop was! This is such a fun and great article!

        I should write about my high school days which were a kind of daze in which I mostly waited for crazy summers. :-)

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        12 months ago from Beautiful South

        Jean, your high school had nearly as many students as the population of my small town. We had less than 5,000 in the whole town while I was in school. I was just a rural kid.

        I have to agree with your son. I find this prom extravagance for today's spoiled darlings disgusting. Maybe when I get the chance I'll do a hub about our own prom customs and show today's kids how "deprived" we were. We didn't even call it a "prom" then. I think that term caught on in our town after an influx of Northerners moved in during the 1970s when the town got several new factories during the Vietnam War. The population swelled to more than 10,000, then too.

        I'm really glad you stopped by and read my article. Even gladder that you commented. Thanks!

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        12 months ago from Beautiful South

        Skyster, "sock hopped" became a verb when I decided to make it one. After all, people coin verbs from nouns all the time and they become buzzwords, so why not me! And what's funny, I didn't notice that I did it; it came so natural to me. We all did it. Yep, there are plenty of regional differences. I doubt if we ever used the word "shoes" unless we were wailing "mom, I can't find my shoes." Kind of like we say "wanna coke?" If the answer is "yes," we say "what kind", co-cola or RC? Maybe even a big orange. I was corrected once for using the colloquial spelling of "Hillbillys" (hillbillies) in a vernacular article. Imagine that!

        Thank you for reading and commenting. P.S. As a Southerner, I find your question amusing. Come back any time.

      • Jean Bakula profile image

        Jean Bakula 

        12 months ago from New Jersey

        I came from a HS that had 3,000 kids in it, and couldn't even fit the Freshman class until it was enlarged to accommodate the baby boomers. Now that I see kids spending hundreds of dollars on proms, to get their hair, mani pedis, expensive gowns, limos, etc. I think the old fashioned proms should come back and be held in the gym. My son is a teacher and once discussed how if you think prom night is the best night of your life more than two or three weeks later, you are doing something wrong!

      • profile image

        Skyster 

        12 months ago

        Please! You sock hopped! When did sock hop become a verb?

        Seriously, I remember the dances at our school that were put on by the PTA. Unless you were “going steady” you never wanted a date. The fun was in meeting new boys and perhaps ending up in a group at the local XXX. For those who don’t know of them, XXX (or triple X) were drive-ins with car-hops, NOT porno spots!

        BTW in the north we wore saddle shoes not saddle oxfords. Love regional differences.

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        2 years ago from Beautiful South

        What fun! I didn't know they were still around then, Jean. I remember when saddle oxfords rolled back around in the 1970s. I always wanted a poodle skirt, but I never could find one tiny enough for me. I was the smallest girl in my high school. Thank you for reading and commenting.

      • Jean Bakula profile image

        Jean Bakula 

        2 years ago from New Jersey

        I used to go to sock hops in the 1970s, they were still popular with the greaser set, guys who loved to tinker with cars. Most of the girls wore saddle shoes though. The woman who later became my Mother in law had a poodle skirt I used to borrow, and some girls wore cheerleader outfits. They were so much fun, and a lot of the music was so upbeat (a few slow, romantic songs too).

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        2 years ago from Beautiful South

        So sorry I didn't see this. I was recuperating from surgery. Fashion trends do get recycled. I'm wearing very fashionable earrings now that I bought back in the 60s and 70s. Thanks for your cool comment.

      • kalinin1158 profile image

        Lana Adler 

        2 years ago from California

        It's funny how fashion trends get recycled...low rise jeans became popular again, and poodle skirts are considered very retro chic now. Thanks for that fun trip to the 50s, so cool!

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        3 years ago from Beautiful South

        So you know ... That's great. We really had fun, didn't we! Thanks for the read and comment.

      • B. Leekley profile image

        Brian Leekley 

        3 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

        I went to high school in a small town in Illinois in the late 1950s. A sock hop would follow a basketball game in the gymnasium.

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        5 years ago from Beautiful South

        Phyllis, oh boy, weren't they fun! We met our friends, flirted with the opposite sex and just had a grand time. Thank you for the memories and the awesome votes!

      • Phyllis Doyle profile image

        Phyllis Doyle Burns 

        5 years ago from High desert of Nevada.

        Ohhhh myyyyy gosh! Do I ever have memories of the sock hops. Our junior high school had at least one sock hop a month. Not only was it fun and affordable, but kept teens off the streets.

        Thank you, MizBefabbers, for this wonderful hub packed with golden memories.

        Voted up, awesome, beautiful and interesting.

      • Cantuhearmescream profile image

        Cat 

        5 years ago from New York

        MizBejabbers,

        Knowing what I know of you... it probably won't ;-)

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        5 years ago from Beautiful South

        Thanks, I'm just waitin' for mine to slow down.

      • Cantuhearmescream profile image

        Cat 

        5 years ago from New York

        MizBejabbers,

        Hey, now that's now way to talk ;-)

        You're a ball of fire and look at what you have to share with others!

        At least the first half of your life was exciting... I'm hangin' on waiting for mine to start... the clocks ticking! :-)

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        5 years ago from Beautiful South

        Thanks, at least the first half of my life was exciting.

      • Cantuhearmescream profile image

        Cat 

        5 years ago from New York

        MizBejabbers,

        The stories you must have... I'd love to be a fly on your wall :-)

        Cat

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        5 years ago from Beautiful South

        Yes, C. I kind of miss those days. I love the Beach Boys, but I've never had the opportunity to see them live. Taking that photo of Chubby in Philly in 2009 really brought back old memories. A few years ago, I saw a band in Little Rock that was a composite of some big names, including Ringo Starr and Joe Walsh, but I didn't get to meet them. It was great fun. I miss those days. By the way, I never met Elvis, but he drove a truck for my father-in-law's business in Memphis at one time. Thanks again.

      • Cantuhearmescream profile image

        Cat 

        5 years ago from New York

        MizBejabbers,

        How cool the people you've had the opportunity to meet! My first concert was the Beach Boys... I was about 20 and most people my age didn't even know who they were :-) Other than that, I can count famous people that I've been in the same room with on about 2 fingers.

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        5 years ago from Beautiful South

        Yes, there was a lot of innocent fun back then. No drugs, but sometimes the boys got in trouble for drinking. Notice I said "boys" because we girls didn't drink. Dick Clark was one of our favorites, of course. I met him in person in Lubbock, Texas, many years ago. I wish I had an autographed photo of him, but I don't think I got one. I"ve misplaced my box of photos and autographs, and I can't remember. Thanks for your wonderful comment and vote.

      • Cantuhearmescream profile image

        Cat 

        5 years ago from New York

        MizBejabbers,

        This is great! I've always said that I must've lived a previous life in this era or I should've been born then; there is just something about that time and place that I connect with. I love anything 50's and 60's and that material is getting harder and harder to come by. I grew up on records and 8-tracks so I have a huge appreciate for the music of that time. Your pictures are great; I'm envious... the things you must have seen! I'm so glad to see you debunk inaccurate accounts of Sock Hops! Dick Clark was born, raised, went to college, and worked in radio and TV minutes from where I was born and raised.

        What I wouldn't give to have days like this come back. Throw away most of our technology, hang out in malt shops, spend Sundays with our families and attend Sock Hops!

        Voted up, Awesome and Interesting!

        Cat

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        5 years ago from Beautiful South

        Glad you like it AJ. It was fun, and back then I kept a 20 inch waistline. All the girls had wasp waists then, and a lot of it probably was from dancing.

      • ajwrites57 profile image

        AJ 

        5 years ago from Pennsylvania

        MizBejabbers--"Thank you, thank you very much!" Love this Hub! This was before my time but it sounds like great fun! Twistin' your way down memory lane is bittersweet. When we had dances, it was in our socks and shoes--in the school cafeteria or our friends basements and the moms yellin' down the steps, "Turn those lights back on!" :0) Sigh...compared to today, those were innocent times. Again I say, "Thank you, thank you very much!"

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        5 years ago from Beautiful South

        Thanks, friend Bill, they really were neat and a lot of fun. Back then the gym floors were varnished with gym seal, which scuffed easily, so we had to take off our shoe. I especially enjoyed the "over the shoulder move" and that probably the only time in my life I enjoyed being a tiny person. Sock hops were also the only advantage I could think of as a teen ager living in a small town.

      • billybuc profile image

        Bill Holland 

        5 years ago from Olympia, WA

        It does bring back memories and dang, I'm old too! LOL I grew up in a city of 100,000, and sock hops were not as plentiful there. I did attend a couple out in the country, and they were a blast. Exciting times then as the 50's gave way to the 60's and then all hell broke loose. :) Great hub which I thoroughly enjoyed!

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        6 years ago from Beautiful South

        Wow, you went to one in the 80s! Neat! I don't know if the kids still have them or not. I haven't heard of any, but my kids are grown. Thanks for stopping by.

      • Ciel Clark profile image

        Ciel Clark 

        6 years ago from USA

        I was just about to ask questions about sock hops, but you answered most of them. Great hub! I remember going to a sock hop as a teen in the 80s, and wondering why. Still not totally sure. Do they have them anymore?

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        6 years ago from Beautiful South

        Thanks for the vote up, Kashmir56. The good old days were a lot of fun, and a heckuvalot safer for young people! Be seeing you around!

      • kashmir56 profile image

        Thomas Silvia 

        6 years ago from Massachusetts

        Hi MizBejabbers,I really enjoy reading this hub it sure did bring back memories of the good old days.Sock hops were a lot of fun,dancing and listen to the latest hits .

        Vote up and more !!!

      • MizBejabbers profile imageAUTHOR

        Doris James-MizBejabbers 

        6 years ago from Beautiful South

        Thank you! I enjoyed writing it. I was so surprised to find that there really is no real information on the web about sock hops, so I thought I'd add my two cent's worth from my memories. And thanks for the UP!

      • fpherj48 profile image

        Paula 

        6 years ago from Beautiful Upstate New York

        MizBejabbers....Thank you so much for such a wonderful and FUN walk down Memory Lane. I may not have come into full bloom until the '60's....but I had an older sister I was very close with and so....I was somewhat of a "tag-along", always under her feet and looking up to her, being in awe of her and her "friends."

        I may have only participated as part of the audience, but I remember it well. She taught me to "jitterbug" and she was simply the BEST big sister! I loved his hub for more than one reason!! UP+++

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://owlcation.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)