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Fairy Tale King Ludwig II of Bavaria: Mad or Murdered?

Anna is a history graduate from Scotland. She is interested in cultural history and how myths have developed over time.

Portrait of Ludwig II


King Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845-1886) was found dead in a lake on 13 June 1886. The death was officially declared a suicide, yet many believe that Ludwig was murdered, most likely on the orders of the Bavarian government which had declared that Ludwig was mad and incapable of ruling only three days earlier.

This is the story of the life of King Ludwig II of Bavaria, one of the most intriguing, eccentric, infamous and tragic nineteenth-century kings.

Kingdom of Bavaria map

Map showing the nineteenth century Kingdom of Bavaria.

Map showing the nineteenth century Kingdom of Bavaria.

Where is Bavaria?

Bavaria is the English name for Bayern, one of the states that makes up modern day Germany. Bavaria used to be an independent kingdom. It joined with other German speaking kingdoms, duchies and principalities to form Germany in 1871, although Bavaria had its own kings until 1918, and retains its own sense of identity.

Ludwig and his brother Otto as children


Ludwig was born near Munich on 25 August 1845, the oldest son of Prince Maximilian II of Bavaria and Princess Marie of Prussia. His grandfather was King Ludwig I of Bavaria.

Accounts of his childhood suggest it was often an unhappy and withdrawn one. He was often reminded of his royal position, and educated through a strict regime of exercise and study. He is thought to have spent his happiest times at Schloss Hohenschwangau near Füssen, a castle his father had built amongst the stunningly beautiful scenery of Southern Bavaria.

In 1864 Ludwig's father Maximilian I died, and the eighteen year old Ludwig became King of Bavaria.

The Fairy Tale King

Ludwig II became known as der Märchenkonig or in English, the fairy tale king. Throughout his reign he embarked on a programme of building over the top ornate castles, inspired by fairy tales, ancient Germanic sagas, and the works of the composer Richard Wagner who he greatly admired.

These castles include:

  • Schloss Neuschwanstein, which was built near Castle Hohenschwangau his childhood home
  • Schloss Herrenchiemsee, modeled on the famous Palace of Versailles near Paris
  • Schloss Linderhof, an ornate palace in Rococco style with its own grotto

He also extended the royal apartment in Residenz Palace in Munich including a conservatory with an ornamental lake, and funded the construction of an opera house (Festspielhaus) in the town of Bayreuth.

Schloss Neuschwanstein

Ludwig II was responsible for Neuschwanstein, widely believed to have inspired Walt Disney's depiction of Palaces. This is a photochrom print of the palace dating from between 1890 and 1905.

Ludwig II was responsible for Neuschwanstein, widely believed to have inspired Walt Disney's depiction of Palaces. This is a photochrom print of the palace dating from between 1890 and 1905.

Herrenchiemsee Castle

1890-1905 Herrenchiemsee Castle - royal bedroom

1890-1905 Herrenchiemsee Castle - royal bedroom

Linderhof Palace


Sun King versus the Moon King

Ludwig II saw himself as a "moon king", a shadow of King Louis XIV of France (1638-1715) who was famously known as the Sun King.

Louis XIV was an absolute monarch who believed in the divine rights of monarchs to govern with unrestricted powers over government and state. One of his most famous legacies is the great Palace of Versailles, just outside of Paris.

In contrast King Ludwig II of Bavaria was a constitutional monarch, meaning there were constraints on his powers, and in terms of wealth and power he did not come close to reaching that which had been held by Louis XIV in France.

Ludwig II does not seem to have desired the political power of a divine ruler like Louis XIV. He was not particularly interested in government affairs, and avoided official functions as much as possible. He tended to ignore government and focused his attentions on building extremely grand opulent and expensive castles.

In castle building Ludwig certainly took some inspiration from Louis XIV. His famous Palace of Versailles inspired Ludwig, for example Ludwig built his own "Hall of Mirrors" in Schloss Linderhof, copying Louis XIV's famous version.

Ludwig vs Louis

 Type of rulerFamous for

Louis XIV

Absolute ruler who believed in the divine right of monarch to govern

The Palace of Versailles

Ludwig II

Constitutional monarch whose powers were constrained by parliament

Lavish fairy tale castles, some which were influenced by Versailles

Ludwig and Louis's Halls of Mirrors

Ludwig's Hall of Mirrors in Schloss Linderhof was modeled on one of the most famous rooms in the Palace of Versailles.

Ludwig's Hall of Mirrors in Schloss Linderhof was modeled on one of the most famous rooms in the Palace of Versailles.

The Original Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles

The Original Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles

Inside Neuschwanstein Castle

Inside Neuschwanstein Castle

Loss of Bavarian Independence

In the early years of his reign Ludwig II played some part in politics. During the Seven Weeks War, Bavaria, joined the side of Austria along with other German speaking states, including Saxony, Wurttemburg, Hanover, Hesse-Darmstadt against Prussia and its allies. This war was settled by a peace treaty agreeing that Bavaria would support Prussia. This meant that Bavaria became involved in the Franco Prussian war, and was eventually to lead to the creation of a new German state. In 1870, in return for financial concessions Ludwig II was forced to sign a letter declaring that Bavaria was no longer an independent state and now part of the German empire that was just forming. Ludwig's uncle Wilhelm I was declared German emperor.

Expensive castle building

From this period onwards Ludwig II's attention was increasingly focused on castle building, the arts and theatre, and away from government. The problem with this focus was that castle building was expensive, and led to Ludwig borrowing a great deal of money to finance his plans. He used his personal money initially then turned to borrowing more and more from his family. Despite using personal money and borrowing, this was a problem for the Bavarian government as having a King in debt to a significant proportion of the royal families in Europe was not helpful. By the time of his death he was 14 million marks in debt, and busy drawing up more plans for lavish castles. He had no intention of stopping.

In 1885 displeased by the government's unwillingness to assist in his castle building plans, he threatened to sack the whole cabinet. The government reacted by moving to declare him insane.

Was he insane?

Whether he was insane is still hotly debated. He certainly was eccentric, reclusive, and perhaps not really in touch with reality, but this does not mean he was medically insane. He was also homosexual at a time when not all people were accepting of such things. This was a particular problem as a King was supposed to produce heirs. No doubt this contributed to the impression of insanity.

Inside Neuschwanstein

Inside Neuschwanstein


Timeline Leading to Death

10 June 1886

Ludwig was declared incapable of rule by the Bavarian government and overthrown

12 June 1886

Ludwig was seized by the Bavarian government and taken to Castle Berg by Lake Schwanstein

13 June 1886

Ludwig went for a walk at 6pm round the lake. His body was then found.

Last Walk of the King Before His Mysterious Death

The text of this postcard translates to "Castle Berg: On evening of the 13 June 1886 (Last walk of King Ludwig II)

The text of this postcard translates to "Castle Berg: On evening of the 13 June 1886 (Last walk of King Ludwig II)

Declaration of Insanity

On 10 June 1886 the government had had enough and declared that Ludwig's uncle Luitpold was the Prince Regent with Ludwig II incapable of rule.

Ludwig II was popular with the Bavarian people. Some suggest if he had acted quicker he may have got them to rally in his support. However he dithered for a couple of days, until on 12 June the Bavarian government seized him and took him to Castle Berg, near Lake Starnberg. The castle had been redesigned in neo-gothic style by Ludwig's father Maximilian I, and Ludwig II had stayed there some summers.


On 13 June at 6pm, Ludwig II asked to go for a walk around the lake. He set off along with one of the psychiatrists who had declared him insane, Dr Bernard Van Gudden. The men never returned, and were eventually found dead. Ludwig's death was officially declared to be suicide by drowning, yet there are inconsistencies in the story. The autopsy said that there was no water in Ludwig's lungs making drowning as a cause of death seem unlikely. There was also evidence that Dr Van Gudden had been strangled and hit on the head. Notes found on the death bed of a local fisherman who died in 1933 claimed that Ludwig had been shot. The fisherman, Jacob Lidl said he had witnessed this while hiding behind a bush waiting to help Ludwig II escape, and that he had been forced to sign a statement swearing he would never tell this to anyone.

What is the truth?

Is this true? Despite all the speculation no one really knows. Perhaps Ludwig II murdered Dr Van Gudden in an attempt to escape, then died himself of natural causes? Or was the party followed by a government hitman sent to dispose of Ludwig II?

Whatever the case, it is a fascinating and intriguing story, and anyone who visits Bavaria should make sure they go and see some of his castles. Despite almost bankrupting Bavaria at the time, the magnificent palaces now bring many tourists to Bavaria.

Memorial Cross

This memorial cross can be found at the site on Lake Stamberg where Ludwig's body was found

This memorial cross can be found at the site on Lake Stamberg where Ludwig's body was found

Schloss Neuschwanstein, 1886 or 1887

Schloss Neuschwanstein, 1886 or 1887


Louis II | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts | Britannica

Bavarian King Ludwig II (

The death of King Ludwig II | Cambridge University Library

Questions & Answers

Question: Wasn't Ludwig II engaged to some girl?

Answer: Yes, he was engaged to Duchess Sophie Charlotte of Bavaria. Their engagement was announced on 22 January 1867. However, Ludwig II postponed the wedding several times before eventually canceling it. According to rumor, the Duchess was in love with Edgar Hanfstaengl, the court photographer, and as mentioned in the article some historians believe that Ludwig II was gay.

Duchess Sophia had plenty of other suitors and married Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Alençon a year later in September 1868.

Question: Do you think that King Ludwig's family killed him, or was it a local?

Answer: No one knows who killed him (if someone did murder him). The rumor is that Ludwig was killed on order of the government, so probably someone hired by the government, not his family.

Question: Is it true, as It is rumored, that at least one of Ludwig's guards fled to America after the King's death? If so, is it possible to learn which of Ludwig's guards it was?

Answer: I've not heard that rumor, and I can't find it in my sources. If you can tell me more about where you heard it I might be able to help.


Francis P Gilman on November 04, 2019:

was it also true, that Ludwig II did not wanted the public to visit his castle even after his death?

Cynthia Zirkwitz from Vancouver Island, Canada on April 22, 2019:

Fascinating piece of history. You did a very nice job of writing it up with lush, interesting photos. His personality sounds very much like that of my friend's son-- I wonder if Aspurger's existed in those days?

Elsie on March 27, 2019:

I don't belief any off the rumors,after reading up on the subject,i feel that Ludwig was a recluse, did not entertain frivolities of men and as such politics. He bought Wagner's genius to us the people and I seriously doubt if he was gay, but should he have been,no problem. He was a fragile soul besotted with architectural beauty and fantasies that he was able to realize......He was murdered.....poor man! The agony of his last days.....

Femia on August 25, 2018:

Look at that "madness", to be able to produce not only a national treasure, but a world treasure. Everyday those castles are visited by people from all over the world. Busloads of people get in line to see the glimpse of the beautiful castles, the fairytale castles.

Now the government of Bavaria, in Germany are making so much money to seer these splendour out of the young king Ludwig''s so called "madness".

Gemini on May 05, 2018:

Major lack of windows up in that joint

Colin on August 15, 2017:

Brilliant, what imagination to have fairy tale castles built.

Great reading,


Mel Carriere from Snowbound and down in Northern Colorado on December 12, 2016:

His palaces may be extravagant wastes of money, but they are lovely to look at and I would love to go to Bavaria and see them. Great hub.

Anna Sherret (author) from Scotland, UK on January 07, 2014:

Thanks - glad you like it - he's an interesting person so bet there are thousands of articles about him around.

Carolyn Emerick on January 05, 2014:

Oh geez, I just wrote an article on King Ludwig... and when I published it, HP linked me to yours... and I think I like yours better! :-)