Virginia has been a university English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier.
Here are two examples of parallel sentences:
- The cow jumped over the moon, walked across a rainbow, stepped into the stardust, and traveled across my dreams.
- Moving into the dorm, meeting my new roommate, walking across campus and getting my books at the bookstore, I felt both exhilarated and scared at the sudden change in my life.
Parallelism Makes Your Meaning Clear
Ever had an instructor tell you that your sentences were awkward? Unclear? Hard to understand. Using parallelism can help your reader understand what you want to say so they don't have to re-read your sentences.
When to use: When you are writing a list of things. One of the most difficult and yet most effective types of sentences you can write is an extended list of examples.You can avoid having to write parallel list sentences by writing lots of shorter sentences, but that does not make your writing seem mature and professional.
An example of using short sentences: I am going to the store to run errands. I am going to pick up my laundry at the cleaners. I am picking up my kids from school. Then we will be going to the park.
Revision: I am going to the store to run errands, picking my laundry up at the cleaners, getting my children from school, and then going to the park.
Writing Complicated Lists
Writing and an extended list of examples in one sentence is effective because it allows you to pack a lot on information into one sentence. However, these sentences are difficult to write correctly because often the items in the list don’t easily fit into the correct grammatical structures. Luckily, you can write these types of sentences easily if you just keep in mind a couple of simple rules.
Rule 1: Verbs Must Be the Same
All items in the list must be in the same grammatical format.Usually, this means they will all be in the same verb form (ing, to xxx, ed, s) or all nouns of the same type.
Example of Gerund Verbs (ing verbs)
- Mentors are rewarded by sharing clinical knowledge, developing necessary skills, helping others succeed, and supporting the profession.
- The obstacle course for the birthday party had the children running across a field, jumping rope ten times, going through three hoops, walking along a fence, pushing a friend in a wheelbarrow, singing "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star" while standing on tiptoes, and finally rolling across the grass to the finish line.
Example of Present Tense Verbs
The obstacle course for the birthday party required the children to run across a field, jump rope ten times, go through three hoops, walk along a fence, push a friend in a wheelbarrow, sing "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star" while standing on tiptoes, and finally roll across the grass to the finish line.
Example of Past Tense Verbs
Notice that many of these verbs are irregular and so they have a past form which is not "ed" but instead has a different form like sing/sang or go/went:
At the obstacle course for the birthday party, the children: ran across a field, jumped rope ten times, went through three hoops, walked along a fence, pushed a friend in a wheelbarrow, sang "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" while standing on tiptoes, and finally rolled across the grass to the finish line.
Example of Infinitive Verb ( "to" form)
Note: in a list the "to" only appears before the first verb, but all the other verbs are written as if "to" was in front.
Mentors are expected to share clinical knowledge, develop necessary skills, help others succeed and support the profession. (Notice that you don't need to repeat the "to" in every item of the list)
Rule 2: Parallelism and Nouns
You can also have a list of noun phrases but these need to also be in the same format and you should not mix up items that are verbs with items that are nouns.
To make a list with several nouns rather than verbs, the nouns need to be in the same format. In this example, the people are all described by how they relate to the writer:
When it came time to set up the obstacle course for the birthday party, everyone helped out: my brother, my sister, our neighbors and my parents.
In this sentence, all of the nouns use the same pronoun, "his," so you only need to use it before the first one:
The best athlete at our school always wore his matching colored Nike shoes, hat, socks, shorts and shirt to every meet.
- We needed several items for the obstacle course: a field, a jump rope, a fence short enough to walk on, a wheelbarrow, a roll of tape to mark where they would stand on tiptoe, and a strip of grass the kids could roll on to the finish line.
- Are you ready to go? I have already gotten a picnic lunch, a towel to sit on, a set of sand toys and a large gallon of water.
- Cheryl bought five chocolate donuts, a cinnamon bun, three donut holes, and two twists.
- Serena almost forgot to bring what she needed for the art field trip: one sketchbook, two sets of paints, three pencils, one rubber eraser, five paint brushes of various sizes, an easel, two water cups and her imagination.
You want your list to be easy to read. One way to do this is to put a colon before the start of the list. Sometimes, you might use cue words like "include" or "the following" to start your list.
- Benefits of mentoring relationships include: sharing clinical knowledge, developing mentee’s skills, helping others, and supporting the profession.
- My brother helped us out at the birthday party. His work included: marking out the course with blue painter's masking tape, getting all the supplies ready ahead of time, timing all the kids as they went through the obstacle course, and cheering the winner.
- All the kids eagerly participated in the obstacle course at the birthday party. Here are the main reasons they said they enjoyed it: they enjoyed racing one another, they loved the challenge of going through the hoops, everyone liked watching the other contestants mess up, and no one left without a prize!
- Our prizes weren't expensive and included the following choices: balloons, candy, sour pickles and popcorn.
Using Semi-colons With Colons
To write the most complicated type of sentence which contains a long list of items which include phrases describing each item, you will need both a colon to introduce the list and semi-colons in between each item.
- Mentors are rewarded by knowing they are: sharing clinical knowledge, which they have learned through their own experiences; developing another worker’s skills through spending time with them in work situations; helping others succeed by giving them assessment skills and practice; and supporting the profession by raising up the next generation of trained professionals.
- Our first day in China was a whirlwind tour which included: climbing the Great Wall, which everyone reminded me can be seen from space; going to the Summer Palace, which was so foggy I don’t remember much of it; strolling Tienanmen Square, where I almost got in trouble for photographing a guard; and seeing the Pandas at the Beijing zoo, where I took pictures for my father who is involved with the Pandas at the San Diego zoo in California.
- Check the sentences in your paper that are making a list.
- Look for the words “and” and “or” to see if the items are parallel or not.
- Look at the first word of each item on the list. You might want to underline them. Are they the same sort of word? You might try reading the sentence aloud if you aren’t sure it is correct.
- If your sentence isn’t parallel, then change the sentence around to make sure that you are using the same format. Sometimes, you might want to re-write the sentence into a couple of sentences.
- Remember that we have several ways in English to write verb forms:
- I am going to run.
- I am running.
- I run.
You can use all of these forms correctly, but when you make a list, each part of the list should be the same form.
Finish the following sentences by using parallel format to make a list of at least three things. Try to make each item in the list more than just one word on at least some of them.
- The reason my ex-girlfriend/boyfriend is my ex is because:
- The five things I most remember about growing up are
- My mother always
- My best friend reminds me to
- You know you’re in Texas when you see
- I chose to go to this college because
- No one should ever have as bad a day I as did when
- Four things I learned when I got to college were
- When I’m fifty-five, I hope that
- Three things I learned in high school that I’ll always remember are
Correct These Sentences
- The English teacher spoke in a clear voice, distinctly and was vivid in describing. The coach told his players that they should get plenty of sleep, to not eat cookies, and stop talking.
- The coach told his players that they should get plenty of sleep, to not eat cookies, and stop talking.
- My mother likes watching "Chopped," to eat out with her family at a restaurant, and has her family over to cook too.
- My roommate and I are going to eat at McDonald's for lunch, planning to study in the library after that and like to meet a friend maybe at Starbucks later in the afternoon.
- Speaking loudly, the security guard is telling the people where to stand, repeated information we already knew, gestures towards someone and generally got in the way of the traffic.
- Volunteers do all kinds of work for Talitha Koum, such as playing with the children, administrative assistance, swimming pool program, donations and mentor the kids.
- They use political tactics to get lawmakers on board with their plan, such as boycotts, demonstrations and negotiate with those who fund them.
- People with musculoskeletal conditions have difficulty moving, walk, stand, sit and use their hands and feet.
- Victims may also return to their abusers because their partner promises to change or apologizes, the women lacks money or a place to go, they have a fear of loneliness, or they even have the hope that the thing will change someday.
- Nine categories measure the company’s performance in different areas including client screening, the quantity of food given, how much of the funds is used to purchase food, the variety of food offered, and how aware their clients are of other help they can get and advice to improve living.
Why don't you give it a try? Writing complicated sentences isn't as hard as it looks if you understand the structure behind them. In your next writing project, try making a longer list and see how this can help you pack your writing with more concrete information. I'd love to have you write some examples of your efforts in my comments section!
Questions & Answers
Question: Is this in the correct parallel form? " In our quest to learn how things move, the experience of hiking and other motion leads us to introduce the concepts of velocity, time, length, kilograms, and temperature."
Answer: The sentence could be improved as follows:
In our quest to learn how things move, experiencing hiking and other physical activities can help to introduce us to the concepts of velocity, time, length, kilograms, and temperature.
Question: What will be the correct parallelism for this sentence: Stress makes it difficult to exercise regularly, have a relationship that is stable, and be eating food with benefits to one's health?
Answer: The problem is that you are using different verb forms for each item. Each of the 3 items must be able to follow the "to." Here is a rewrite:
Stress makes it difficult to exercise regularly, have stable relationships, and eat healthy food.
Question: How should I rewrite this sentence: "I hate washing the linen by hand and to cook"?
Answer: You should rewrite that sentence this way: "I hate washing linen by hand and cooking dinner."
Question: Is this thesis parallel? "Raising the federal minimum wage is not beneficial for the economy because it negatively impacts businesses and does not help poor people."
Answer: Yes, your statement is parallel. You can check this by going back to the beginning of the phrase and seeing if it works for each item:
because it negatively impacts...
because it does not help...
Question: Is this sentence parallel?:
"It serves the purpose of pulling the sheet off the coil and to straighten or guide the sheet through the rest of the machine?"
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Answer: No, this sentence is incorrect. You need each item in the list to start with the same format. Here is one re-writing using "to":
"Is the purpose of this instrument to pull the sheet off the coil, to straighten the sheet, or to guide the sheet through the rest of the machine?"
Here is another example, using the gerund "ing" form:
"Is the main purpose of the instrument pulling the sheet off the coil, straightening the sheet, or guiding the sheet through the rest of the machine?"
Question: Is this correct as a Parallelism? My seatmates is smart, kind and generous.
Answer: Almost. Here is the correct version:
My seatmates are smart, kind, and generous.
My seatmate is smart, kind, and generous.
Question: Is this correct? We search the plaza, the market, even where the police officers stay, but still we could not find the lost puppy.
Answer: Almost, but here is a better version:
We searched the plaza, the market and the police officer station, but we still could not find the lost puppy.
Question: Is this sentence correct? My job includes checking the inventory, initialing the orders, and to call the suppliers?
Answer: To keep a sentence parallel, each item in a list needs to be in the same verb format. Here you have "checking, initialing, and to call." Mixing up the gerund (ing) verb and the preposition (to) verb form is the most common parallelism mistake. It happens because some words work better in "ing" and others usually are used with the "to." However, there are several possible ways to correct this. The first thing to try is to switch all of the items to one form:
1. My job includes to check the inventory, to initial the orders and to call the suppliers.
2. My job includes checking the inventory, initialing the orders and calling the suppliers.
Usually, you can do this in your head (or you can write it out as I did here) and it is frequently easy to see that one of these sounds better than the other. In this case, the second sentence sounds more natural because "includes to check" doesn't sound correct. There is another way to fix this sort of error, and that is to put one of the items in front of the verb in an introductory phrase. Here's a sample:
Along with checking the inventory, my job includes initialing the orders and calling suppliers.
Along with checking the inventory, my job is to initial the orders and call the suppliers.
Notice that in the second example, I did not repeat the "to." If the same preposition (or verb) could be used in front of each item in the list, you don't have to repeat it. Here are some examples:
1. Before we go to the movies, I need to walk the dog, take out the trash, reply to Grandma's email, make my lunch for tomorrow, and water my plants.
2. Before our trip abroad, I am planning on: packing my bags, finding someone to take care of the pets, locating my passport, buying my tickets and making sure we have enough cash for the trip.
Notice that in the last example I used a colon to tell the reader that I was going to write a list. A colon is especially useful if you have a longer list.
Question: How should I rewrite this sentence: after the concept drawings for the building are completed, but before we submit them to the planning department, the design committee will take one more look at them?
Answer: After the concept drawings for the building are completed, the design committee will take one more look before we submit them to the planning department.
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on April 22, 2020:
I'm not exactly sure what your instructor wants on this sentence but it might be that they would like you to include a subject after the introductory element. Another problem may be that "length" is a subset of the main category of "measurement." Similarly, "kilograms" is in the category of "weight." Like this:
In our quest to learn how things move, we can experience hiking and other physical activities that will help introduce us to the concepts of velocity, time, measurement, weight, and temperature.
ssaripel on April 22, 2020:
Hi am actually working on an assignment and I got stuck with parallelism. Request you to give some inputs.
The question is: In our quest to learn how things move, the experience of hiking and other motion leads us to introduce the concepts of velocity, time, length, kilograms and temperature.
You said an improved sentence could be:In our quest to learn how things move, experiencing hiking and other physical activities can help to introduce us to the concepts of velocity, time, length, kilograms, and temperature.
However it says the answer is faulty.
How about this?? - In our quest to learn how things move, experiencing hiking and other physical activities can help to introduce us to the concepts of velocity, time, length, kilograms, and temperature.
Can you please help me modify the sentence. I will be very grateful for the help extended.
virginia on November 19, 2019:
very well explained and helpful !!!
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on June 28, 2017:
Jaiza, Both of these can be correct but the meaning is different. If you want to say she is a loving person when she is a student, a daughter, and a grandchild, then use the second example. If you wanted to say she is a student, a daughter and also a loving grandchild, then the first is correct. However, it would probably be a better sentence if you had an adjective before each of the nouns. Here is a sample: Jessica is a highly-motivated student, a thoughtful daughter, and a loving grandchild. By the way, I would put a comma after "daughter" in both of your examples, although this is optional.
jaiza on June 28, 2017:
please tell me if this is. correct.
she is a student, a daughter and a loving grandchild.
"she is a loving student, a daughter and a grandchild".
Mekayla Danielson on April 10, 2017:
How are these sentences being used in parallelism?
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on January 10, 2015:
Lauren--you've asked an excellent question. Yes, you do need semi-colons to separate items in a list if even one of the items has a descriptive phrase requiring commas. Here is an example:
Janet relayed to us her frustrating day at the office which included: running out of Starbucks Pike's Peak blend and having to use Maxwell House; being yelled at by her boss, Judy, who, even in the best of moments, is difficult to endure without large doses of caffeine and chocolate; and losing her best client to the cheerleader she hated in high school.
Lauren on January 10, 2015:
This was a very interesting read! In the case of using semi-colons when constructing a list, is it possible to have descriptive phrases for some of the items but not all? Additionally, if it is possible, would you then continue to use semicolons for the entire list or commas? I recognize using a similar structure for all the items would certainly be ideal, however, sometimes only a few items require additional detail, and I was curious how that could work. Thanks!
sachin on May 12, 2012:
i am having to go to delhi.
Penney on November 01, 2011:
I don't understand can someone help me.
Virginia Kearney (author) from United States on August 16, 2011:
Thanks! I like to try to help make grammar easier for people to understand.
Rose Clearfield from Milwaukee, Wisconsin on August 16, 2011:
GREAT topic. I always get frustrated when I see people with flawed sentence structure. Hopefully this will be helpful for many!