Tina's passion for creative writing began in her teens. She holds a Master of Arts (writing) and works as a freelance writer.
The Romantic Poets
You can be forgiven for thinking the Romantic poets are people who write love poems. The name given to describe this famous group of predominantly English poets is deceptive. Specifically, it applies to their works created from 1790 through 1820 in England, although the period given to the Romantic movement is much broader in other Western countries. These poets hold a special place in my personal education and artistic development. I find their lives as intriguing as their poems.
Romantic poets are not famous for their poetic expressions of unrequited or true love. Rather, the poets were political, economic and socially driven reactionaries.
In England, the Romantic movement coincided with the Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18th century and lasted until the early 19th century. While the Industrial Revolution improved living conditions for the middle and upper classes, it created a larger gap in living standards between the middle and lower classes.
The manufacturing of goods previously created in people's homes using hand tools and basic machines were replaced with mass factory production creating ugly landscapes. Poverty, political oppression, poor working conditions and dirty steam-driven landscapes replaced a simpler rural life.
Who Are the English Romantic Poets?
- William Blake (1757 - 1827)
- William Wordsworth (1770 - 1850)
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772 - 1834)
- John Keats (1795 - 1821)
- Percy B Shelley (1792 - 1822)
- George Gordon (Lord Byron) (1788 - 1824)
- Robert Burns1 (1959 - 1796)
Though Burns, Blake, Wordsworth and Coleridge lived outside 1790 - 1830, their greatest works were written during these thirty years.
1Robert Burns is an important Scottish poet often linked to the Romantic movement.
"The Age of Revolution"
The Romantic poets were only a small part of a much larger cultural movement. This movement affected the whole of Europe and America. Great painters such as David, Gericault, Constable and Goya and great composers such as Beethoven and Schubert also arose during this time, influenced by the same revolutions, ideas and feelings as the Romantic poets.
Aside from the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on the working and lower classes, the Romantic poets lived through an era of great political change, which influenced their poetic thoughts. The period is sometimes coined the "The Age of Revolution."
The American Revolution began in 1765 with Americans rejecting the imposition of taxes by the British Parliament. This resulted in:
- Boston Tea Party in 1773,
- American Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1783, and
- American Congress signing the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
The French Revolution of 1789 actually started two years prior, in 1787, with the summoning of notabilities to discuss the increase of taxes of the privileged classes. The Revolution did not reach its first climax until two years later in August 1789. The National Constituent Assembly made two significant legal announcements:
- the abolition of the feudal regime and tithe
- the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
The French Revolution continued until 1799. New political ideas generated from these wars emphasized:
The revolutionary wars promised a great future for arts and humanity in a free society. This excited the Romantic poets and is reflected in the themes of their poetry, especially in poems by Blake, Wordsworth and Shelley.
Six Significant Ideas of Romantic Poetry
- Feelings of empathy and respect for people of the lower economic classes.
- People are generally good even though society can be cruel and degrading.
- A love of nature drawing inspiration from the countryside and other rural landscapes.
- Emphasis on showing feelings, not hiding emotions.
- Deep interest in the irrational, the supernatural and horror.
- Imagination is a rare gift that seizes the moment.
The Lives of the Romantic Poets
One of the key ideas of the Romantic poets was respect for the simple lives of uneducated country folk, which they upheld to be more noble and honorable than the rich. The poets themselves were not uneducated.
- Wordsworth and Coleridge were educated at Cambridge.
- Shelley attended Eton and Oxford.
- Keats trained as a surgeon.
- Blake attended the Royal Academy of Arts, a private institution in London.
- Gordon attended Trinity College, a college of the University of Cambridge.
- Burns hailed from Scotland and was the only contemporary poet whose schooling and background were not as lavish.
Many believe Wordsworth (b.1757 - d.1827) to be one of England's greatest poets. With an early interest in politics, he went to France during the revolution (1791-1792) and came close to being executed in the Jacobin terror. Until the rise of Napoleon, Wordsworth was a firm believer in the benefits of the revolution. He returned to England and moved to the Lakes District, where he met and became friends with Coleridge.
An Extract From 'Lines Written in Early Spring'
I heard a thousand blended notes,
While in a grove I sate reclined,
In that sweet sound when pleasant thoughts
Bring sad thoughts to mind.
To her fair works did nature link
The human soul that through me ran;
And much it grieved my heart to think
What man has made of man.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Coleridge (b.1772 - d.1834) was the most productive and influential of the Romantic poets. He wrote his best works during the time of his friendship with Wordsworth. His poem Kubla Kahn composed in 1797, was inspired by an opium-induced dream, which stimulated Coleridge's imagination. Unfortunately, opium became Coleridge's fixation for a period and almost destroyed his friendship with Wordsworth, as it did his marriage and health.
Both Keats and Shelley died tragically at an early age. Keats (b.1795 - d.1821) resigned his position as a surgeon after finding it impossible to perform operations on people who were cognizant of their pain. At the age of 23, he contracted pulmonary tuberculosis. He moved to Italy, hoping the warmer weather might improve his health. In Italy, he was inspired to write his greatest works. He succumbed to tuberculosis at the age of 25.
George Gordon (Lord Byron)
Considered one of England's greatest poets, Gordon (b.1788 - d.1824) was born into the English aristocracy. Prior to his self-exile in 1816, he lived a flamboyant life in London filled with numerous love affairs, indulgent parties and scandalous rumors about his love interests.
Gordon left England for Italy to escape the castigation of English society. It was here he met Shelley through Mary and her sister Claire. Claire was Gordon's latest love affair. Like Wordsworth, Gordon became embroiled in revolutionary politics joining the Greek War of Independence.
Blake (b.1757 - d.1827) was not a popular poet of his time. His works entered public recognition in the early twentieth century. Most of Blake's life was lived in poverty in South England. Like most Romantic poets, Blake had an eccentric manner believing himself to be a Christian prophet and visionary. He used poetry and painting to spread his religious message. A message his readers often found confusing and bewildering as his works were original and distinctive.
An extract from 'London'
I wander through each chartered street,
Near where the chartered Thames does flow,
And mark in every face I meet
Marks of weakness, marks of woe.
In every cry of every Man,
In every Infant's cry of fear,
In every voice, in ever ban,
The mind forged manacles I hear.
Celebrated as Scotland's greatest poet and lyricist, Burns' (b.1759 - d.1796) poetic works influenced Wordsworth, Coleridge and Shelley. His poetic themes, like his contemporary English Romantic poets, touched on poverty, class inequities and radical reform. Burns' poems also show a varied emotional landscape which has been attributed to a mentally depressive state. Burns died of ill health at the age of 36 following a dental operation.
The Study of the Romantic Poets
To fully appreciate poetry through its recitation and the writing of prose and lyrical words, it is important to understand the poet's life. Having knowledge of their social and physical environments and understanding the themes that influenced their outpouring of words lends to their writing a depth of understanding that may otherwise be lost in the ink that graces torn textbooks and borrowed pages. All the better are we to contemplate the true virtues of the Romantic poets' song.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Shelley's (b.1792 - d.1822) life was taken tragically in a storm while sailing his schooner in Italy. Shelley lived an emotionally charged life. Expelled from Oxford for writing and distributing an essay supporting atheism, Shelley chose to live on the whim of his emotions. He eloped to Scotland with his first wife, Harriet, at the age of 19. Harriet was just 16. He saw his role in their elopement perhaps as that of a knight in shining armor, rescuing the young student from a life she abhorred.
Shelley was not content with his marriage, and he continued to have other female dalliances. Shelley remarried Mary Wollstonecraft, better known as Mary Shelley, the famous author of the Gothic novel Frankenstein. With friends, they traveled abroad and met up with Lord Byron.
Sonnet: England in 1819
An old, mad, blind, despised, and dying king,-
Princes, the dregs of their dull race, who flow
Through public scorn, -mud from a muddy spring,-
Rulers who neither see, nor feel, nor know,
But leech-like to their fainting country cling,
Till they drop, blind in blood, without a blow, -
A people starved and stabbed in the untilled field,-
An army, which liberticide and prey
Makes as a two-edged sword and to all who wield,-
Golden and sanguine laws which tempt and slay;
Religion Christless, Godless-a book sealed;
A Senate,-Time's worst statute unrepealed,-
Are graves, from which a glorious Phantom may
Burst, to illumine our tempestuous day.
The Romantics - Eternity (BBC documentary)
© 2014 Tina Dubinsky
What are your favorite poems by the English Romantic poets?
Nady Khan on May 19, 2018:
Wow It is a great and helpful for me the student of BS Language And Literature.
Thanks Tina Dubinsky For Your Such preciouse Work God Bless You
Patricia Scott from North Central Florida on November 15, 2015:
Congrats on HOTD Romantic poets...of course that name works for me...they are some of the poets I LOVE. and enjoyed so much reading their works in yesterday and continue to today. Well done
Angels are on the way to you this evening. ps
Kristen Howe from Northeast Ohio on November 15, 2015:
You're welcome Tina. That sounds inspirational to me. I hope it does spark a creative bug in you too.
Tina Dubinsky (author) from Brisbane, Australia on November 15, 2015:
Thanks Kristen. I feel their themes are still very relevant today. When writing, I like to read over their poems for inspiration and to help with finding my own writerly voice.
Kristen Howe from Northeast Ohio on November 15, 2015:
Tina, this was a compelling and interesting hub on the famous Romantic poets of all time and a brief glimpse of their life, though some were tragic and cut short. This was a great overview of it. Thanks for sharing and congrats on HOTD!
Tina Dubinsky (author) from Brisbane, Australia on January 24, 2014:
Thanks for your encouraging comments Christy and Anne! I admit I grew more attached to Shelley too as I wrote this hub and read through more of his poems. I find reading their poetry while researching the poets background helps to develop a greater understanding and awareness of the poems meaning and intent. Overall, it makes for a much more thoughtful and enjoyable experience.
Christy Kirwan from San Francisco on January 20, 2014:
What a great overview, Tinsky! Percy Shelley is a personal favorite of mine.
Anne Harrison from Australia on January 17, 2014:
An excellent hub, thankyou. I love the way these men (and women) fought against the inconsistencies and failings of society by writing poetry; in our too violent age, its good to remember there are other ways in which to make our world better.
Tina Dubinsky (author) from Brisbane, Australia on January 17, 2014:
Thanks Jamie, do you have a favorite? Keats' To Autumn and La Belle Dame Sans Merci are among my favorite poems.
Tina Dubinsky (author) from Brisbane, Australia on January 17, 2014:
Thank you pochinuk! I enjoy researching and writing about the Romantic poets. It is an on and off hobby since I began speech and drama lessons as a teenager and began reciting their poems. I've carried around many handwritten notes over the last thirty years, as well as dog eared poetry collections of the English romantics. I've been eagerly waiting for this article to emerge and it finally came to fruition this week. They are wizards with words and continue to be a great inspiration. Glad you enjoyed!
Jamie Lee Hamann from Reno NV on January 17, 2014:
Some of my favorite poets, what a great job in researching the period and the poets whose words have helped shape me as a writer. Thank you. Jamie
pochinuk on January 17, 2014:
Bravo! Please stand up and take a bow.
Your writing took me to my childhood: 811 library stacks.
Excellent, a very high standard piece of writing.
Thank you so much for Title, Subtitle, General Text, Portraits, Videos, Lists: all these things together to form a magnificently helpful whole.
I am a well-skilled, sound minded women living in perplexing, yet promising times. I enjoy the beauty and intensity of poetry, and like to write it when I can.
"...The Romantic poets are not famous for their poetic expressions of unrequited or true love. Rather, the poets were political, economic and socially driven reactionaries..."
To to hear the truth concerning Romantic Poets is preeminent for all contemporary poets seeking to make words dance a performance to be seen, heard and offer a rhythm of hope in this period of time.
(my pen and "art" name)