Review: "The Killing Zone: The United States Wages Cold War in Latin America"
Throughout historian Stephen Rabe’s work, The Killing Zone: The United States Wages Cold War in Latin America, the author provides a detailed analysis of Cold War politics (and policies) in Latin America as well as the United States’ struggle to cultivate (and preserve) potential allies within this region during the 1950s. In their attempt to stymy the expansion of communism in Central and South America, Rabe argues that the United States often betrayed its underlying principles of “liberty” and “democracy” as the American government often sought to aid in the destabilization of countless Latin American governments that stood opposed to its policies. Through the use of the CIA and covert military operations, Rabe argues that the United States helped to overthrow and weaken these countries through the financial-backing of rebel groups and repressive regimes.
According to the author, many of the American-backed rebel groups relied heavily on terrorism, murder, assassinations, torture, and bribery to maintain power and control over their citizens. Consequently, Rabe’s work makes the case that American foreign policy often resembled many of the same tactics and strategies used by the Soviet Union and its agents; thus, posing the question, what ideals were the Americans fighting against (and trying to protect or preserve) in the Cold War? More importantly, was the fight against Communism always righteous?
Rabe’s work relies on an impressive array of primary sources that include: personal memoirs, oral-history interviews, CIA documents, letters, U.N. Commission reports, newspaper accounts (such as the New York Times), as well as reports and documents from the National Security Council and the United States Senate. A clear strength of Rabe’s account lies in its extensive discussion of the historiography that surrounds this particular field, as well as the author’s ability to transmute the large array of primary documents that he uses into a compelling, well-written, narrative-driven format. However, one downfall of this work lies in the fact that Rabe’s conclusion feels a bit rushed. Moreover, Rabe often provides an uneven analysis of various subjects throughout this work as well. Even with these small issues though, Rabe’s book is important to consider for this field of study as it highlights a negative aspect of American foreign policy that is often relegated or overlooked by scholars.
All in all, I give Rabe’s work 5/5 Stars and highly recommend it to anyone interested in a Latin American perspective of the Cold War. You will not be disappointed. Definitely check it out if you get the opportunity!
Questions to Facilitate Group Discussion
1.) What was Rabe's thesis? What are some of the main arguments that the author makes in this work? Is his argument persuasive? Why or why not?
2.) What type of primary source material does Rabe rely on in this book? Does this help or hinder his overall argument?
3.) Does Rabe organize his work in a logical and convincing manner? Why or why not?
4.) What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of this book? How could the author have improved the contents of this work?
5.) Who was the intended audience for this piece? Can scholars and the general public, alike, enjoy the contents of this book?
6.) What did you like most about this book? Would you recommend this book to a friend?
7.) What sort of scholarship is the author building on (or challenging) with this work? Does this book add substantially to existing research and trends within the historical community? Why or why not?
8.) Did you learn anything after reading this book? Were you surprised by any of the facts and figures presented by the author?
Do the events in Latin America represent a failure of American foreign policy during the Cold War?
Rabe, Stephen. The Killing Zone: The United States Wages Cold War in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
© 2017 Larry Slawson