Poetry became my passion after I fell in love with Walter de la Mare's "Silver" in Mrs. Edna Pickett's sophomore English class circa 1962.
Introduction: Laurence Perrine’s "Rime"
In 1956, Professor Laurence Perrine of Southern Methodist University began publishing a textbook, Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry, which has never been out print, and reached its 15th edition in 2017. In his first 9 editions, the professor employed the spelling, "rime," in his discussion of that literary device. With the 10th edition, the new editors, Thomas A. Arp and Greg Johnson, in their postmodern wisdom, have changed Professor Perrine’s spelling to "rhyme."
In succumbing to this etymological error, Arp and Johnson, are repudiating the wisdom of such literary geniuses as William Shakespeare (Sonnets 16, 17, 32, 38, 55, 106) and Samuel Taylor Coleridge ("The Rime of the Ancient Mariner") in Perrine’s classic work that has introduced several generations of students to poetry.
Unfortunately, these editors are not the only ones who are foisting this error upon the world of poetry. Many (more likely most) editors insist upon the erroneous spelling.
The Editorial Choice
While many, if not most, non-literary readers likely believe that the term "rime" refers only to a type of ice, too many poets, writers, printers, editors, and publishers insist on the altered spelling of that perfectly good English word. Of course, some editors will consider the term interchangeable, but many actually demand that the awkward "rhyme" be used.
For many decades, editors and publishers have preferred Dr. Johnson’s error, "rhyme,"to the original clean spelling, "rime." For example, because I continue to employ the original spelling instead of the Johnsonian error on my poem commentaries here at HubPages, I am required by the HubPage editors to offer the following disclaimer in my articles that use that term:
Please note: The spelling, "rhyme," was introduced into English by Dr. Samuel Johnson through an etymological error. For my explanation for using only the original form, please see "Rime vs Rhyme: An Unfortunate Error."
At least, the HubPages editorial policy allows my choice, and refreshingly allows me to explain my seeming idiosyncrasy.
Prior to publishing my online written interview with poet and editor, Vince Gotera, I engaged in a pre-interview correspondence with the poet. In his message, he used the term three times all spelled, "rhyme." When I queried his usage, suggesting that that usage was derived from an error, he simply shrugged it off, implying that getting published and understood by the majority of readers is more important than historical accuracy of individual words.
Gotera’s attitude, of course, sums up the attitude of most editors regarding this issue. Mind you, Gotera is also a poet, not just an editor, but in this case the editor’s hat sat more firmly than the poet’s, even though I would venture to guess that his pride of stature as poet far exceeds in his mind and soul that of editor. Poets used to be sticklers for accuracy of word and image—not for what the collective will think of their usage.
(Food for thought: Gotera also opined about poetry in general: "Writing is a political act even if you’re consciously trying 'not' to be political. So poetry can be ... no, 'must be' ... used for activism." While some might think the idea that poetry must promote activism is hogwash, others will remain true believers.)
Origin of the Term, "Rhyme"
From the Old English, "hrim," the term had become "rime" in Middle English, the time of Geoffrey Chaucer. The term remained "rime" through Shakespeare’s time, on through the Victorian era, until the 19th century. English printers then started spelling the perfectly fine term, "rime," as the erroneous,"rhyme."
Those misguided printers were led astray by Dr. Samuel Johnson, most noted for his 1755 classic work, A Dictionary of the English Language, who mistakenly thought the term, "rime," was a Greek derivative of "rhythmos," and therefore contended that the proper spelling should be based on that derivation.
Shakespeare Sonnets’ Use of "Rime"
Originally, in the Shakespeare sonnets, the spelling was always "rime," as the first published edition in 1609 attests. Of course, the sonnets were composed two centuries before the Johnsonian spelling error was introduced into the lexicon.
Unfortunately, nowadays, readers will find that many editors have altered the spelling of Shakespeare to comply with the good doctor's error. Shakespeare! The world’s foremost literary genius! The bard for all time—modern editors think they are equipped to correct the spelling of the most admired poet of the Western world.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
Search engines point heavily toward the Coleridgian original spelling of "rime" in his classic work, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Some editors have succumbed to Johnsonian error—even a page from the Gutenberg Project uses "rhyme—but most editions of Coleridge’s "Ancient Mariner" keep the spelling "rime." All of the authoritative texts, including those featured at Poetry Foundation, Bartley.com: Great Books Online, and Academy of American Poets, present Coleridge’s original, spelling, "rime."
How does Coleridge go relatively unscathed, but Shakespeare gets corrected? Coleridge’s title was not indicating a type of ice; it was referring metonymically to the poem itself whose 626 lines are displayed in an ABAB rime scheme.
Why I Prefer Rime, Not Rhyme
As a poet, commentator, and seeker of truth and accuracy, I always opt for the spelling of "rime" for two basic reasons: (1) I cannot in good conscience participate in the continuation of an error. (2) A basic rule of all written discourse calls for brevity in use of language: day-one writing instruction will deliver the admonition, never use a big word, when a small one will work as well, and never employ two words when one will work.
Compare by sight the two terms: rime and rhyme. The former is crisp, clear, four letters without one superfluous mark. The latter has one more letter, a silent "h," and a "y" resting in place where the more convenient and identically pronounced "i" should reside. "Rime" is simply the better choice than the bulky "rhyme."
The unfortunate perpetuation of Johnson's error will likely continue to liter the landscape of poetry with the ugly spelling, "rhyme," while the clean, crisp spelling, "rime," in my opinion, should be taking its proper place in the literary world of poetry.
Insults for My Opinion
I have received many insulting messages, advising me on how stupid I am to be taking the originalist position on this term. Yes, I understand the point that because the error is so entrenched, it would cause untold heartache to try to buck it. As I have mentioned above, so many editors have boarded this train, that writers who need to be published have no choice to board it too.
Also, I am aware that language does change over the centuries, but those changes are not usually based on errors; instead, they are based on convenience that shortens words instead of lengthening them and adding silent letters.
The following insightful suggestion is from a site, which has now disappeared; it suggested "11 spelling changes that would make English easier," including the following:
6. rhyme to rime
Poetry and music lovers know how much trouble this word can cause. With y taking the role of a vowel and h making a ghostly appearance, the word rhyme would be greatly improved by the alternate spelling rime. In fact, rime was the original spelling of the word, changed in the 17th century by association with the Latin word rhythmus. (my emphasis added)
Instead of those useful suggestions, the link now points to a bland site that promises an exploration of the English language. I suggest this disappearance further demonstrates the tyranny involved in the editorial use of "rhyme" instead of "rime."
A Diminishing Device
Poetry has long ceased to rely heavily on the poetic device known a "rime." And even as I comment on earlier poems that do employ that device, I am not required to speak about that particular issue. Going forward, unless a rime scheme, or other use of rime, is a salient feature of the poem influencing meaning or aesthetics, I plan to ignore rimes and rime-scheme.
"Rime" has long been my least favorite poetic device because it has so often been employed in ways that blur meaning rather than clarify it. When choosing a "rime" word becomes more important than choosing a more exact word for its meaning, then the poem suffers.
I believe that choice of rime-over-meaning happens all too often, especially with postmodern poetry. Masters like the Shakespeare writer, Emily Dickinson, and James Weldon Johnson have been able to use "rime" masterfully to enhance rhythm as well as meaning. But the postmodernists put an end to any serious focus and genuine aesthetics in literary works.
So in the long run, I concede that the issue is not worth staging a full on campaign to alter minds, hearts, and usage. But during those times in which I find it necessary to address the issue, I shall continue to use "rime" not "rhyme," simply because it is the original and—to my mind—the accurate spelling.
- William Shakespeare. "Shakespeare's sonnets: being a reproduction in facsimile of the first edition, 1609, from the copy in the Malone collection in the Bodleian library." Sonnets 16, 17, 32, 38, 55, 106. Internet Archive. Accessed April 4, 2021.
- - - -. "Shakespeare’s Sonnets." Oxquarry Books Ltd. Accessed April 4, 2021.
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Poetry Foundation. Accessed April 4, 2021.
- Pall Mall Gazette. "Rhyme, Ryme, or Rime." New York Times. August 22, 1880.
Questions & Answers
Question: Is English a Romance language, like French?
Answer: No, English is a Germanic language like German, although English does employ many Latin cognates. But the basic grammatical forms are Germanic.
Question: How likely is it that the original spelling of "rhyme" will ever become widely used?
Answer: Not very. The art of poetry itself is becoming more and more insular. It is unlikely that editors will ever care enough about such an arcane issue that they would encourage a change in the prevailing spelling.
Question: When did Samuel Johnson live?
Answer: Dr. Samuel Johnson lived from 1709 to 1784.
Question: Did Samuel Johnson study Greek?
Answer: Dr. Johnson was quite a learned man; he studied both Latin and Greek, and his translations from those languages remain extant. The status of the man's erudition makes it quite puzzling how he could have made such a grievous error and should alert scholars that they might want to remain vigilant in accepting the verity of other issues the good Dr. addressed.
© 2015 Linda Sue Grimes
Linda Sue Grimes (author) from U.S.A. on July 23, 2020:
Dr. Johnson died in 1784. The Oxford English Dictionary began publication in 1884.
katpat23 on July 23, 2020:
The problem with your thesis is that the Oxford English Dictionary has numerous examples of "rhyme" prior to Dr Johnson.
Linda Sue Grimes (author) from U.S.A. on January 12, 2020:
Thank you, Muhammad Fahad, aka Marcus Julius Brutus, for your comment!
Nothing we do is “futile.” I am not trying to change any minds; I’m simply offering my humble take on things. Others can accept that take or reject it, as they feel they must. That is what freedom of speech is all about. The “us” vs “them” dichotomy is a delusion, but one with which we must contend on the material, physical level of being.
Happy to know you are “sober” and seeing the “light.” Glad you will be following my articles! And hope you will continue to feel free to opine in response to them.
Muhammad Fahad from Lahore on January 11, 2020:
Well, Linda, everything aside, I think you doing what very few people did or still do throughout history. It may seem futile but at least I wouldn't let any word of your blog go to waste. Even if everyone is drunk in an endlessly wrong world, some of us, being sober, need to see the light. Please keep writing all sorts of literary content. Will be following your blog closely from now on!
Linda Sue Grimes (author) from U.S.A. on January 11, 2020:
Marcus Julius Brutus, thank you for your response. I'm glad to have offered you an informative piece regarding the unfortunate use of the term, "rhyme."
I have to disagree vehemently with your claim that we must "bow down" to the "stubbornness of the editors." However, I suppose that if I were financially dependent on such an editor, I might rethink my vehemence.
Also, the shorter form "rime" over "rhyme" is not equivalent to "congrats" for "congratulations." You are correct that the former is a "blunder," but the later is a simple informal abbreviation and never would be used in formal discourse.
I believe with you that it is unlikely that the original/accurate form will ever become standard. The reason is that literary studies especially poetry are likely to remain an out of the mainstream, rather abstruse field of endeavor; thus not enough folks will ever likely care enough to sue for accuracy in literary criticism.
Muhammad Fahad from Lahore on January 11, 2020:
This is just splendid!
I just came to read a few explanations of the poem "Leisure" By W.H. Davies but my word! This is just too good. Being a literary person, I often find such errors even though, I am not even close to what you found. I am just blown away by all the evidence that such a word was changed erroneously and we use it today like it's a no big deal. Although, I must say that due to the stubbornness of the editors, we have to bow down. Editors and critics are always godly when they have to judge the writings of other people. But this is no less than an eye-opener. Even though I don't like how every word is shortened from its original form e.g congratulations, but this is no less than a blunder. There is no way that we can revert back to the simple form "rime" but I truly believe that we should know we are writing something that was introduced wrongly. Maybe, in times to come, people might shorten the word "rhyme" to its original word and present the word as it should be.
Absolutely fantastic discovery for me.