Shakespeare Sonnets 8 - 12

Updated on June 3, 2020
Maya Shedd Temple profile image

Poetry became my passion after I fell in love with Walter de la Mare's "Silver" in Mrs. Edna Pickett's sophomore English class circa 1962.

Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford

Source

Sonnet 8: "Music to hear, why hear’st thou music sadly?"

In Shakespeare sonnet 8, the speaker again employing his finest logic and analyses to convince the young man that he should wed and produce beautiful offspring.

Introduction and Text of Sonnet 8: "Music to hear, why hear’st thou music sadly?"

In "Marriage Sonnet 8," the speaker compares a happy marriage to musical harmony, hoping to evoke in the young lad the desire to attain that harmony in his life. The speaker will be offering many different strategies for the same argument for why the youth should hurry up and marry before old age sets in, destroying his youthful beauty. And the speaker particularly encourages the young man to begat children as a way for his fine physical qualities to be passed on to the next generation.

Sonnet 8: "Music to hear, why hear’st thou music sadly?"

Music to hear, why hear’st thou music sadly?
Sweets with sweets war not, joy delights in joy:
Why lov’st thou that which thou receiv’st not gladly,
Or else receiv’st with pleasure thine annoy?
If the true concord of well-tuned sounds,
By unions married, do offend thine ear,
They do but sweetly chide thee, who confounds
In singleness the parts that thou shouldst bear.
Mark how one string, sweet husband to another,
Strikes each in each by mutual ordering;
Resembling sire and child and happy mother,
Who, all in one, one pleasing note do sing:
Whose speechless song, being many, seeming one,
Sings this to thee: ‘Thou single wilt prove none.’

Reading of Sonnet 8

Commentary

The Shakespeare sonnet 8 finds the speaker employing a music metaphor along with his best logic and analyses to convince the young man that he should wed and produce offspring.

First Quatrain: The Metaphor of Music

Music to hear, why hear’st thou music sadly?
Sweets with sweets war not, joy delights in joy:
Why lov’st thou that which thou receiv’st not gladly,
Or else receiv’st with pleasure thine annoy?

The speaker employs a metaphor of music in attempting to persuade the young man to realize that both marriage as well a music produce a lovely harmony. The first quatrain finds the older speaker observing the young man’s glum response to some piece of music they have experienced.

The speaker asks the young man about this gloomy expression, stating, "Sweets with sweets war not, joy delights in joy." According the speaker, the young man is a pleasingly handsome, therefore,"sweet" man; thus the speaker asserts that the young lad should discern the same qualities in the music that he himself possesses.

The speaker continues to query the lad about his response to the music by asking him if he would like to receive that which he was glad to have or if receiving what pleases him would disappoint him. It sounds like a knotty question, but the speaker, as he always does, is attempting to influence the young man into believing that his status as a single, wifeless/childless man, is a negative state of affairs.

Second Quatrain: Marriage as Pleasing as Musical Harmony

If the true concord of well-tuned sounds,
By unions married, do offend thine ear,
They do but sweetly chide thee, who confounds
In singleness the parts that thou shouldst bear.

The speaker wishes that the young man comprehend, "the true concord of well-tuned sounds" is to be attained with a solid marriage; the metaphor of harmonious music seems to remain ineffectual because the young lad "confounds / In singleness the parts that thou shouldst bear."

The speaker hopes to make the young man realize that a harmonious marriage that produces beautiful offspring is as pleasing to the world as a piece of beautiful music, which has its various parts working together to produce the whole.

Third Quatrain: Strings That Play

Mark how one string, sweet husband to another,
Strikes each in each by mutual ordering;
Resembling sire and child and happy mother,
Who, all in one, one pleasing note do sing:

The speaker then compares the family of father, mother, and child to the strings that when played in the proper sequence result in the lovely song: "one pleasing note do sing." The speaker hopes that the young man will accept his fervent urgings to marry and take on a family, instead of allowing his good qualities to waste away in the frivolity of bachelorhood.

The speaker is convinced that if the young man fails to pass on his pleasing features he will have wasted his life. The speaker's use of the musical metaphor shows the speaker’s emphasis on physical beauty.

The speaker also alludes to the mother of those beautiful offspring. If the young man marries and produces those lovely heirs, the union will also be adding to the world a "happy mother." The pleasing family filled with grace and beauty will enhance the world as beautiful music from a symphony does.

Couplet: No Family, No Music

Whose speechless song, being many, seeming one,
Sings this to thee: ‘Thou single wilt prove none.’

The couplet finds the speaker as usual nearly begging the lad to understand that if he remains a bachelor, thus producing no family, no offspring, his life will have no music and will continue without the wonderful qualities of harmony and beauty.

Shakespeare Sonnet Titles

The Shakespeare Sonnet sequence does not feature titles for each sonnet; therefore, each sonnet's first line becomes the title. According to the MLA Style Manuel: "When the first line of a poem serves as the title of the poem, reproduce the line exactly as it appears in the text." APA does not address this issue.

Shakespeare Sonnet 9: “Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye”

In Sonnet 9, the speaker queries the young man about another possible reason for his remaining single: does he fear leaving some poor woman a widow?

Introduction and Text of Sonnet 9: “Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye”

The older and supposedly wise speaker is now querying the lad about another likely reason for the young man's remaining single: does he perhaps fear enrolling of some poor woman as a member of the widowhood? Of course, the speaker knows this is not true. He is merely conjuring up every accusation that he can hurl at the lad as he tries to influence the young man's behavior.

The speaker's dramas keep getting more and more stark as he seems to grow more and more desperate to have the young man marry and produce beautiful offspring. It seems that no accusation is too severe. Appealing to the young man's vanity seems to get him nowhere, so he decided to appeal to the lad's sense of shame. No young man would want to be accused of committing murder like a common misanthrope.

Sonnet 9: “Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye”

Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye,
That thou consum'st thy self in single life?
Ah! if thou issueless shalt hap to die,
The world will wail thee like a makeless wife;
The world will be thy widow and still weep
That thou no form of thee hast left behind,
When every private widow well may keep
By children's eyes, her husband's shape in mind:
Look! what an unthrift in the world doth spend
Shifts but his place, for still the world enjoys it;
But beauty's waste hath in the world an end,
And kept unused the user so destroys it
No love toward others in that bosom sits
That on himself such murd'rous shame commits.

Reading of Sonnet 9

Commentary

Sonnet 9 finds the speaker querying the young man about yet an additional possible, though rather absurd, reason for his failure to marry: does the lad fear rendering some poor woman a widow?

First Quatrain: A Blunt Question

Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye,
That thou consum'st thy self in single life?
Ah! if thou issueless shalt hap to die,
The world will wail thee like a makeless wife;

In the first quatrain, the speaker bluntly puts the question to the young man: "Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye / That thou consum'st thyself in single life?" The speaker goes on approaching the subject from every angle, as he chides the young lad for not taking a wife.

The notion now is crossing the speaker's mind that the young man may not want to take the chance of leaving behind a crying widow. The speaker has usual is creating a solid straw man to allow the young man to watch him strike it down.

But the speaker's spin on such a fear is that if the young man dies "issueless," that is, without offspring, he will make the whole world sad crying for him, not just a poor woman who would then be without a mate upon his death. Thus, the speaker wants the young man to think in broader terms than just one family.

Second Quatrain: Mourning the Loss of a Generation

The world will be thy widow and still weep
That thou no form of thee hast left behind,
When every private widow well may keep
By children's eyes, her husband's shape in mind:

The speaker frames his claim quite clearly as he repeats: "The world will be thy widow, and still weep / That thou no form of thee hast left behind." If the young man died, the world would not only mourn his loss, but it would also mourn that fact that such a fine, human specimen left behind no beautiful issue.

If, however, the young man takes the advice of his elder, upon his possible demise, his widow would have their beautiful children who allow her to remember and and enjoy the pleasing appearance of her spouse. The speaker hopes again to play on the sympathy of the young man, while offering him logical possibilities to consider. The young man's single life is found wanting in every way in the eyes of this speaker, who might be considered meddling in affairs which are none of his business.

Third Quatrain: Urging with Logic

Look! what an unthrift in the world doth spend
Shifts but his place, for still the world enjoys it;
But beauty's waste hath in the world an end,
And kept unused the user so destroys it.

In the third quatrain, the speaker offers another logical argument to support his urging the young man to marry and produce offspring. When a spendthrift extravagantly squanders his money on things he does not need, he does not really do any damage in the world; he moves things around a bit. The money and the material things still belong to world.

But when one wastes one's beauty, one wastes something of value, and its value is precious because it will end. If one does not pass on one's beauty and pleasing qualities by siring pleasing offspring, he simply destroys that beauty. The speaker plays on the vanity as well as the sympathy of the young man, as he uses his powers of persuasion.

Couplet: Misanthropic Selfishness

No love toward others in that bosom sits
That on himself such murd'rous shame commits.

In the couplet, the speaker hurls a stark but exaggerated notion: that the young man's behavior is boarding on misanthropy. The speaker frankly opines that the young man could not possibly possess a loving heart and affection toward his fellow human beings, if he is so selfish as to waste his beauty and pleasing qualities on himself, while failing to father the next generation of beauty and pleasing qualities. The speaker accuses the young man of committing a "murderous shame"—an exaggeration aimed at stirring the lad to action.

Shakespeare Sonnet 10: "For shame! deny that thou bear’st love to any"

In Sonnet 10, the speaker challenges the young man’s sense of self, regarding his love and affection for others. The speaker exaggerates the lack as “murderous hate."

Introduction and Text of Sonnet 10: "For shame! deny that thou bear’st love to any"

The speaker so desperately desires the young man to marry and produce beautiful offspring that he resorts to exaggerating the young man's likely egotism. This sonnet sequence demonstrates the creative power and talent of the speaker's ability to dramatize his continuing and deepening wish that the young man heed his advice. He ultimately begs the lad to do it for the speaker even if he will not do it for himself.

Sonnet 10: "For shame! deny that thou bear’st love to any"

For shame! deny that thou bear’st love to any
Who for thyself art so unprovident.
Grant, if thou wilt, thou art belov’d of many,
But that thou none lov’st is most evident;
For thou art so possess’d with murderous hate
That ’gainst thyself thou stick’st not to conspire,
Seeking that beauteous roof to ruinate
Which to repair should be thy chief desire.
O! change thy thought, that I may change my mind:
Shall hate be fairer lodg’d than gentle love?
Be, as thy presence is, gracious and kind,
Or to thyself at least kind-hearted prove:
Make thee another self, for love of me,
That beauty still may live in thine or thee.

Reading of Sonnet 10

Commentary

The speaker is now challenging the young man’s sense of self, vis-à-vis his love and affection for others. The speaker then exaggerates the possible lack as “murderous hate."

First Quatrain: Accusations of Selfishness

For shame! deny that thou bear’st love to any
Who for thyself art so unprovident.
Grant, if thou wilt, thou art belov’d of many,
But that thou none lov’st is most evident;

The speaker, in the couplet of Sonnet 9, had accused the young man: “No love toward others in that bosom sits / That on himself such murderous shame commits.” In Sonnet 10, the speaker carries on with this theme of accusation against the young man for loving no one but himself. The speaker has often teased and rebuked the young man for his selfishness; thus, now the speaker is labeling such selfishness a murderous crime. An exaggeration, for sure!

The speaker yells accusingly,“For shame!” And then the older man provokes the young man to repudiate that fact that he is regardless of others, that the latter is, in fact, a charitable individual to others, at least as much so as they are to him. The speaker refreshes the young lad's memory that the latter certainly is cognizant that many other people feel love and affection for the young lad, but that the young man does not reciprocate that affection remains obvious—“is most evident.”

Second Quatrain: Exaggeration, Reprimands, Deadly Hatred

For thou art so possess’d with murderous hate
That ’gainst thyself thou stick’st not to conspire,
Seeking that beauteous roof to ruinate
Which to repair should be thy chief desire.

The speaker continues to exaggerate his claims in the second quatrain as he reprimands the young lad for holding deadly hatred in his heart. This speaker wants to impress the young man with the notion that such disaffection negatively impacts the interests of the latter. If the young man were to allow destruction of his own home and did nothing to stop it, he would be very foolish.

The speaker pours shame on such an attitude, asserting that the younger man should seek to rebuild his home from any damage. His "chief desire" should be the reconstruction of house or heart. Of course, the speaker is repeating the employment of his metaphor as he nudges the young man to guard himself from the ruination of leaving this life while leaving behind no sons and daughters.

Third Quatrain: Begins Begging

O! change thy thought, that I may change my mind:
Shall hate be fairer lodg’d than gentle love?
Be, as thy presence is, gracious and kind,
Or to thyself at least kind-hearted prove:

In the third quatrain, the speaker has continued his begging of the young man to change his thinking so the speaker can also change his own notions. The speaker does not wish to continue to believe that such heinous crimes of hate are actually nursed and nurtured in the heart of this beautiful, pleasant young individual. Fashioned as a rhetorical question, the speaker queries the lad whether it is easier to hate or easier to love.

Again, the speaker is trying to convince the young man that the former's argument can be well supported. The speaker then gives the lad a command, telling him to use kindness and grace because such qualities constitute the lad's appearance.

By showing his love and affection for a woman and producing an heir, the young man will show that he can take care of himself. The speaker has already demonstrated the bitter coldness, loneliness, and isolation of dying without leaving an heir. Now, he wants the lad to, at least, be kind to himself.

Couplet: Do It for Me!

Make thee another self, for love of me,
That beauty still may live in thine or thee.

In the couplet, the speaker invokes his own position in the young man’s heart as he commands the lad to produce offspring, even for the speaker's sake as well as his own. If he will not produce the offspring solely for himself, then the speaker asks him to do so for the speaker.

And then the speaker returns to the perpetuation of beauty theme; although, there are many reasons for procreating offspring, the passing on of beauty is one of the most important for a vain young man. At least, the speaker is counting on that vanity being part of the equation.

Shakespeare Sonnet 11: "As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou grow’st"

The older, persuasive speaker continues his urgings. He strongly desires a son-in-law, who will bestow pleasing grandchild upon him.

Introduction and Text of Sonnet 11: "As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou grow’st"

In marriage sonnet 11, the speaker continues to evoke the young man’s pleasing qualities, claiming that the lad has an obligation to marry and pass them on to offspring. The older man seems to believe strong that the older generation lives through the younger one.

The speaker, with each new drama, demonstrates his creative ability to invent arguments and present them in new and entertaining ways. As he grows more desperate that the young man produce offspring, he grows more inventive, employing colorful and varied metaphors and exciting, bracing images.

Sonnet 11: "As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou grow’st"

As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou grow'st,
In one of thine, from that which thou departest;
And that fresh blood which youngly thou bestow'st,
Thou mayst call thine when thou from youth convertest,
Herein lives wisdom, beauty, and increase;
Without this folly, age, and cold decay:
If all were minded so, the times should cease
And threescore year would make the world away.
Let those whom nature hath not made for store,
Harsh, featureless, and rude, barrenly perish:
Look, whom she best endow'd, she gave thee more;
Which bounteous gift thou shouldst in bounty cherish:
She carv'd thee for her seal, and meant thereby,
Thou shouldst print more, not let that copy die.

Reading of Sonnet 11

Commentary

First Quatrain: The Imploring Continues

As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou grow'st,
In one of thine, from that which thou departest;
And that fresh blood which youngly thou bestow'st,
Thou mayst call thine when thou from youth convertest,

The speaker in sonnet 11 titled "As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou grow’st" continues to implore the young man to marry and produce offspring. This time is chides the lad reminding him that he will grow old and wither. But if the lad will just listen to the older, mature fellow, he can mitigate the difficulty: his good looks and amiable personality will live on in his heir, or so the speaker believes.

The speaker has, at least, convinced himself that people will continue living in their offspring. Or could this speaker only marginally believe such tripe and still use the notion to gain what he seeks? That the young man marry his daughter. The speaker tries to persuade the young man to believe that his own blood will then be freshened in his offspring, even as the blood in his body becomes broken and stale.

Second Quatrain: To Achieve Wisdom

Herein lives wisdom, beauty, and increase;
Without this folly, age, and cold decay:
If all were minded so, the times should cease
And threescore year would make the world away.

The speaker urges the young man to believe he will be wise in his behavior only if he marries and has children. Only by reproducing will be offer beautiful, wonderful acts to the world. He will be productive instead of destructive, giving to the world, instead merely taking from it.

The speaker fears that by aging without reproducing, the young man will eventually have to give in to "cold decay." But if he has produced offspring, he will avoid the folly of growing old alone and failing the world by leaving it without his progeny.

The speaker then pours out the old chestnut that goes, what if everyone behaved as callously as you, not marrying and reproducing? Well, according to the speaker, the world would come to an end in only two or three generations. A dour thought for sure, something for the young to cogitate upon.

Third Quatrain: Brutish Prigs and Their Ilk

Let those whom nature hath not made for store,
Harsh, featureless, and rude, barrenly perish:
Look, whom she best endow'd, she gave thee more;
Which bounteous gift thou shouldst in bounty cherish:

The speaker then offers the notion that only brutish prigs would allow the world the end this way. If the beautiful, pleasing people fail to multiply, the multiplying will be done by those whose qualities are "harsh" and "featureless" and "rude."

The folks who possess unpleasing qualities should not reproduce. The speaker assumes that young man will agree with such a policy. But the speaker also wants to instill in his protege that the latter does possess pleasing qualities in abundance.

The speaker hopes to make he young man aware that he should cherish his beauty and be so proud of it that he would choose to produce children who would naturally possess those same qualities.

Couplet: Qualities to be Copied

She carv'd thee for her seal, and meant thereby,
Thou shouldst print more, not let that copy die.

In the couplet, the speaker utilizes a metaphor of a printing press. Nature has given the young man qualities that she would like to have copied. He is the original print copy, and if he will only marry and produces offspring, he will be like a printing press, shooting out copies of the beautiful text of himself. The speaker says, "print more" so the original does not die. The speaker seems to be in a contest with himself, trying to find as many "copy" and "reproduce" metaphors as possible.

Of course, the speaker's real mission in these marriage poems is to instill in the young man the speaker's notion that the young man should marry: not just for himself, but for reproducing offspring to continue in the world a set of pleasing qualities of beauty and fine physical features.

Shakespeare Sonnet 12: “When I do count the clock that tells the time”

The speaker, in sonnet 12, is comparing the lad's youth to nature being undercut by "Time's scythe,” the sharp blade that slices through all lives.

Introduction and Text of Sonnet 12: “When I do count the clock that tells the time”

The speaker of Shakespeare’s marriage poem 12 again shows how changing nature always comes under “Time’s scythe,” and only one remedy can fend him off: producing an heir.

In marriage sonnet 12, “When I do count the clock that tells the time,” the speaker frames a series of “when” clauses followed by a “then” clause; in other words, he proposes a situation as “when such and such happens, then one can expect such and such will result.”

Sonnet 12: “When I do count the clock that tells the time”

When I do count the clock that tells the time
And see the brave day sunk in hideous night;
When I behold the violet past prime,
And sable curls, all silver’d o’er with white;
When lofty trees I see barren of leaves,
Which erst from heat did canopy the herd,
And summer’s green all girded up in sheaves,
Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard,
Then of thy beauty do I question make,
That thou among the wastes of time must go,
Since sweets and beauties do themselves forsake
And die as fast as they see others grow;
And nothing ’gainst Time’s scythe can make defence
Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence.

Reading of Sonnet 12

Commentary

In sonnet 12, the speaker metaphorically likens the lad's youth to nature giving way to "Time's scythe,” which will cut him down unless he acts as the speaker wishes.

First Quatrain: Night Encroaching on Day

When I do count the clock that tells the time
And see the brave day sunk in hideous night;
When I behold the violet past prime,
And sable curls, all silver’d o’er with white;

In the first quatrain, the speaker begins his series by asserting that when he looks at the clock and sees times flying by and the “brave day” is being engulfed in the “hideous night," and when he sees a young man like a fresh flower turning into an old gray haired man, . . . . Then the quatrain stops with a semi-colon, and at the point, we do not know where the speaker might go with his “when” clauses.

Second Quatrain: Compared to a Tree

When lofty trees I see barren of leaves,
Which erst from heat did canopy the herd,
And summer’s green all girded up in sheaves,
Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard,

So we proceed to the second quatrain, wherein the speaker is continuing metaphorically to compare young man’s youth to trees that lose their leaves. What had once provided a leafy roof against the summer’s blazing sun becomes “summer’s green all girded up in sheaves, / Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard.”

It becomes evident that the speaker once again is likening the youth of the young lad to naturally occurring things and events. Particularly useful to the speaker is the ability to compare the young man to the leaves on trees, useful when young, not so much after they dry up and drop off the tree.

Third Quatrain: Then What Happens?

Then of thy beauty do I question make,
That thou among the wastes of time must go,
Since sweets and beauties do themselves forsake
And die as fast as they see others grow;

The third quatrain supplies the “then” or result of all the “whens”: then the youth and beauty that nature possessed passes away. And the speaker wants to ask the young man if he thinks his own beauty will not go “among the wastes of time.”

Since these other natural things—the day that sinks into night, the violet that withers in time, the black hair that turns white, the trees in summer that lose their leaves to winter—lose their youthful attributes, how can the young man not realize that he too will come under the sway of nature?

Couplet: Hurry Up and Reproduce!

And nothing ’gainst Time’s scythe can make defence
Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence.

The couplet, “And nothing ’gainst Time’s scythe can make defence / Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence,” offers the young man his only way to overcome “Time’s scythe”—that he marry and produce pleasing offspring.

The real "Shakespeare"

Source

Commentary

In sonnet 12, the speaker is likening the lad's youth to nature giving way to "Time's scythe."

First Quatrain: Night Encroaching on Day

When I do count the clock that tells the time
And see the brave day sunk in hideous night;
When I behold the violet past prime,
And sable curls, all silver’d o’er with white;

In the first quatrain, the speaker begins his series by asserting that when he looks at the clock and sees times flying by and the “brave day” is being engulfed in the “hideous night," and when he sees a young man like a fresh flower turning into an old gray haired man, . . . . Then the quatrain stops with a semi-colon, and at the point, we do not know where the speaker might go with his “when” clauses.

Second Quatrain: Compared to a Tree

When lofty trees I see barren of leaves,
Which erst from heat did canopy the herd,
And summer’s green all girded up in sheaves,
Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard,

So we proceed to the second quatrain, wherein the speaker is continuing metaphorically to compare young man’s youth to trees that lose their leaves. What had once provided a leafy roof against the summer’s blazing sun becomes “summer’s green all girded up in sheaves, / Borne on the bier with white and bristly beard.”

It becomes evident that the speaker once again is likening the youth of the young lad to naturally occurring things and events. Particularly useful to the speaker is the ability to compare the young man to the leaves on trees, useful when young, not so much after they dry up and drop off the tree.

Third Quatrain: Then What Happens?

Then of thy beauty do I question make,
That thou among the wastes of time must go,
Since sweets and beauties do themselves forsake
And die as fast as they see others grow;

The third quatrain supplies the “then” or result of all the “whens”: then the youth and beauty that nature possessed passes away. And the speaker wants to ask the young man if he thinks his own beauty will not go “among the wastes of time.”

Since these other natural things—the day that sinks into night, the violet that withers in time, the black hair that turns white, the trees in summer that lose their leaves to winter—lose their youthful attributes, how can the young man not realize that he too will come under the sway of nature?

Couplet: Hurry Up and Reproduce!

And nothing ’gainst Time’s scythe can make defence
Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence.

The couplet, “And nothing ’gainst Time’s scythe can make defence / Save breed, to brave him when he takes thee hence,” offers the young man his only way to overcome “Time’s scythe”—that he marry and produce pleasing offspring.

Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford

Source

Shakespeare Authorship / Crackpot to Mainstream

© 2016 Linda Sue Grimes

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Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Statistics
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)