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Stream of Consciousness in Virginia Woolf's "To the Lighthouse"


Virginia Woolf’s novel To the Lighthouse delves into the minds of its characters in a stream-of-consciousness approach. The characters’ thoughts and feelings blend into one another, and the outward actions and dialogue come second to the inward emotions and ruminations. In the dinner party sequence, for instance, Woolf changes the point of view frequently, with transitions often marked by sparse dialogue. While shifting the point of view from person to person, Woolf develops her characters through their thoughts, memories, and reactions to each other.

"To the Lighthouse"

"To the Lighthouse"

An Example

Chapter XVII of The Window begins with Mrs. Ramsay wondering what she has done with her life, as she directs guests to their seats and ladles out soup. She sees her husband at the far end of the table, frowning. “What at? She did not know. She did not mind. She could not understand how she had ever felt any emotion or affection for him” (83). As she thinks about her displeasure and disconnectedness with Mr. Ramsay, Mrs. Ramsay notes that she would not speak out loud about her inner feelings. There is a strict difference between her actions and her thoughts:

Raising her eyebrows at the discrepancy—that was what she was thinking, this was what she was doing—ladling out soup—she felt, more and more strongly, outside that eddy. (83)

Being outside of the eddy is her sense of “being past everything, through everything, out of everything” (83). Completely out of touch with Mr. Ramsay and everyone else at the table, she instead focuses on how shabby the room is, how sterile the men are, and how she pities William Bankes. Finding meaning and strength again in her pity, she gets past her mental weariness enough to ask him an innocuous question about his letters.

The point of view shifts abruptly to Lily Briscoe, who is watching Mrs. Ramsay intently and imagining her thoughts. Lily is able to read Mrs. Ramsay pretty clearly: “How old she looks, how worn she looks, and how remote” (84). She wonders why Mrs. Ramsay pities William Bankes, and she realizes that “the life in her, her resolve to live again, had been stirred by pity” (84). Lily does not find Bankes pitiable, but she recognizes that Mrs. Ramsay is fulfilling some needs of her own. Lily thinks about how Bankes has his work, then her thoughts switch to her own work, and she starts imagining her painting and the adjustments she will make. As if to remind the readers of the setting, Woolf has Lily take up “the salt cellar and put it down again on a flower in pattern in the table-cloth, so as to remind herself to move the tree” (84-85). After all of Lily Briscoe’s thoughts, Mr. Bankes finally responds to Mrs. Ramsay’s inquiry as to whether he has found his letters.

“What damned rot they talk,” thinks Charles Tansley, as the point of view shifts to him very briefly (85). Lily observes how he lays down his spoon “precisely in the middle of his plate, which he had swept clean, as if, Lily thought…he were determined to make sure of his meals” (85). As if she can read people’s thoughts, Lily’s attention turns to Charles Tansley, as she makes observations about him. She notes that his appearance is meager and unlovely, but she is still drawn to his blue, deep-set eyes. Mrs. Ramsay pities him as well, as she also asks him about his letters.

Tansley’s response is incorporated into the text, not as a direct quotation, as if he does not wish to join in the banal conversation but instead wallow in his thoughts. “For he was not going to talk the sort of rot these people wanted him to talk. He was not going to be condescended to by these silly women” (85). Tansley holds the women and their ways in disdain; he finds them silly and superficial. Why do they get dressed up for such occasions? He is wearing his ordinary clothes. Women “did nothing but talk, talk, talk, eat, eat, eat…Women made civilization impossible with all their ‘charm,’ all their silliness” (85). By portraying his inner frustrations, Woolf lets the reader know exactly how Charles Tansley feels about dinner parties, women, and civilization as a whole.

By shifting the point of view from character to character, Woolf shares each character’s thoughts and feelings, opinions, and reactions to one another. The dynamics between the characters are expressed more fully by their thoughts than by their words. The light dialogue serves to break up the transitions in perspective. By blending people’s inward feelings and keeping dialogue to a minimum, Woolf develops her many-dimensioned characters in a unique and memorable way.


Rupinder kaur on February 21, 2020:


Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on November 25, 2018:

Thanks for reading!

Mahdi Askry on November 25, 2018:

It was really helpful, and please post technique and concept of time in "To the Lighthouse".

Shreyasi on October 02, 2018:

Thank you..... it's really superb

Aamir Rathore on May 27, 2018:

it's just awesome,very precise,explicit and to the point. References from text and narrative technique is brilliant,thank you so much

Zarshad Ali on April 03, 2018:

Really it is a masterpiece.

Saheli Parvin on January 24, 2018:

Thank's really helpful.

Suhad H. Al Obeidi on September 06, 2017:

Really! ,it is hard to understand, besides there are merely quotations.

Any way,thanks

parizy on May 17, 2017:

Would u plz discuss three parts of the novel critically

Asfandyar on May 15, 2017:

I read in guide but that was very difficult,I couldn't understand, however, this helped me out thanks for sharing :)

umair on February 09, 2016:

best superb

munaza khan on February 17, 2015:

what a great novel ..

I like it

Marie Ryan from Andalusia, Spain on May 13, 2014:

Wonderful...a masterpiece. (This hub is also very good-but I am referring to "To the lighthouse" ! I love the 'stream of consciousness' as I feel as though I can let the stream flow over me....I think the technique is wonderful...the best way the writer can truly touch the reader's mind.

Thanks very much for reminding me that now I'm about to start on Woolf's first novel, "The Voyage Out".

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on March 13, 2014:

Thanks, tayba!

tayba on March 10, 2014:

supurb,i like it

LastRoseofSummer2 from Arizona on April 21, 2013:

"To the Lighthouse" was my first Virginia Woolf novel. When I got to the end I thought "This is probably one of the most amazing books I've ever read!". I have since read almost everything else she wrote and this is still my favorite.

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on March 26, 2012:

Why, thank you, Naila. I'm glad to hear it.

naila on March 19, 2012:

its really a wonderful experience to read this

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on March 14, 2012:

Thank you for your comments, meena and meenaali. I'm glad you stopped by and left feedback.

meenaali on March 13, 2012:

a crystal clear discussion about the term of stream of consciousness.Woolf pens down the term as a jewel casket,beautiful in itself.

meena on March 12, 2012:

a very clear thought which i read in this passage

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on March 07, 2012:

Much appreciated, ronhi. I'm glad you found it helpful.

ronhi from Kenya on March 04, 2012:

i found this via Google search! And ma happy with what i read because it is exactly what i was looking for! Thaanks for sharing. voted up useful

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on December 05, 2011:

Good observation, Louis. I agree. Thanks for reading and commenting.

Louis philippe on December 05, 2011:

Mrs.woolf sees men and women from within rathan than from without.

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on October 25, 2011:

I'm glad it makes you want to read more, The Write thing6. I need to read more Woolf myself. Thanks for stopping by!

The Write thing6 on October 24, 2011:

I found this item both interesting and useful having read at least one of Wolf's books recently--A Room of Her Own--I now want to read this book also.

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on May 18, 2011:

Joyce is masterful at the technique, it's true. Thanks for reading and commenting, reem!

reem on May 17, 2011:

well i read thiis novel and i think the technique of stream of conciousness is superbly used by her but james joyce is still the master of this technicque.

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on March 25, 2011:

I do, too, Summaya! There's a lot to study in Woolf's books. Thanks for reading!

summaya on February 11, 2011:

i like this book specially for the techniques used by virginia,stream of consciousness,flash back technique.and,moreover,for symbollic aspects.

Brittany Rowland (author) from Woodstock, GA on June 03, 2010:

Thanks, billyaustindillon! I like unique books, too, and Woolf has a special way with words and changing perspectives!

billyaustindillon on June 02, 2010:

I remember this book from school and this is a brilliant critique of To the Lighthouse. It was very unique at the time, and still is with the shifting thoughts of the characters.