The Diseases That Columbus Brought With Him

Updated on October 5, 2019
harrynielsen profile image

New World history is a rich field that is constantly being analyzed for new material. The complexity of these tales never fails to amaze me.

Columbus and the Native Population

After landing on an outlying island, Columbus quickly found his way to Hispanola with its large population of Native Americans.
After landing on an outlying island, Columbus quickly found his way to Hispanola with its large population of Native Americans. | Source

Medical Reality in 1492

In 1492, there was almost no understanding of how diseases could be transported from one person to another much less from one continent to one that lay on the other side of a large ocean.Furthermore, there was almost no comprehension of micro-organisms and what role they might play in the spread of diseases. Another factor that contributed to mass outbreaks of sicknesses was the lack of cleanliness, along with the lack of understanding of how poor personal hygiene might aid the transmission of communicable diseases.

During the 15th and 16th century disease transmission was often associated with spiritual impurity, moral decay or the work of evil forces. Only as the Renaissance era came to be in Europe, did Western man begin to discover some understanding of how diseases evolved and spread. In these years,scientific inquiry was just beginning and over time the new process would lead to many medical breakthroughs. One of the major developments of these years, which lead to many medical insights was the advent of the autopsy.

Boatbuilding Ingenuity

Seafaring watercraft in 1492 differed significantly from previous ships.
Seafaring watercraft in 1492 differed significantly from previous ships.

Advanced Ship Technology Advances the Spread of Disease

One of the reasons the Vikings, did not spread much disease to the New World, was that their open-hulled ship design exposed the entire ship's hull to the rugged elements of the North Atlantic. Still, disease could still pass from one infected person to a healthy victim. This did happen on occasion in both Iceland and Greenland, where smallpox outbreaks occurred in the 1200 and 1300s.

Disease Among Native Americans

Diseases such as smallpox and measles spread far and wide in the New World causing much misery
Diseases such as smallpox and measles spread far and wide in the New World causing much misery

Diseases Associated with the Early Spanish Explorers

Following is a list of 30 diseases that modern-day scientist believe were either brought to or intensified in the New World by the Spanish explorers. They include smallpox, measles, influenza, Bubonic plague, diphtheria, typhus, cholera, chicken pox, scarlet fever, yellow fever, malaria, Lyme disease, Q-disease, whooping cough, Leishmania, African sleeping disease, dengue, Filaria, Septicemic plague, Schistosomiasis, botulism, anthrax, tetanus, Toxoplasmosis, Staphylococci, tape worms, mycotic disease, Legionellosis and Streptococci. Of all these many ailments, the three that proved to most deadly were smallpox, measles and influenza.

It should be noted here that the spread of infectious disease in the Americas was greatly aided by lack of any natural immunity among the indigenous population. Thousands of years of physical isolation made the Native population particularly susceptible to new infections.

This vulnerable situation was exaggerated by the large city states and their high concentration of residents, especially in Central America. In other words, the high concentration of Native Americans all across the Americans made these people ripe for the spread of new diseases. In the first years of contact it has been estimated that over 90% of the Native population died from infectious disease.

P.S. Important Note; Many of the diseases associated with exploration of the New World did not take hold until after Columbus had passed away. For example, the island of Hispanola did not experience its first smallpox outbreak until 1518.

The Travels of Christopher Columbus in the New World

Christopher made four voyages to the Americas
Christopher made four voyages to the Americas | Source

Diseases Brought Back to Europe from the New World

in the 16th century, trade between Europe and the Americas was not a one way affair. In agriculture, quite a few new commodities were introduced to the European palate. Where would we be today without the Native American contributions of chocolate, vanilla, tomatoes, potatoes, corn, pumpkins, squash and hot peppers, just to name a few.

Unfortunately, a little bit of the bad came over with the good. In regards to New World illnesses introduced to Europe, the main culprit appears to be syphilis.

The Viking Longboat

This actual viking hull from the Viking Museum in Roskilde, Denmark shows how open to the elements these seafaring vessels actually were.
This actual viking hull from the Viking Museum in Roskilde, Denmark shows how open to the elements these seafaring vessels actually were. | Source

Outbreak in Greenland

Surprising as it may sound, Columbus was not the first European to introduce a new disease to the Western Hemisphere. The culprit in this case are the Vikings who back in the fourteenth century (the 1300s), introduced a Bubonic plague epidemic to the sparsely-populated island of Greenland, killing off half of the Native population in the process.

However, by all evidence, the disease that did so much damage in Europe did not leave the island. The few researchers, who have studied the outbreak, believe that Native populations in that part of the world in those years were too small and too scattered to support an outbreak on the mainland.

The Viking Disease

The Viking Disease is not life-threatening, but in general, produces a deformity in some of the outside fingers. The uncommon condition is believed to be hereditary among Aryan populations of Northern Europe, especially in places, where the Vikings were present during their heyday. As a result, Dupuytren’s disease or DD, as the malice is sometimes called is most prevalent in Scandinavia, the British Isles and Iceland.

Somewhere around 1000 A.D. the Vikings introduced this deformity to the British Isles. Today, the deformity of the fingers can still show up in these places. Worst case scenario produces deformed fingers along with numerous lesions on the hand.

Columbus in the New World

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

    © 2019 Harry Nielsen


      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment

      No comments yet.


      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

      Show Details
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
      ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)