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The French Revolution: Cause and Effect

James A. Watkins is an entrepreneur, musician, and a writer with four non-fiction books and hundreds of magazine articles read by millions.

"The Triumph of the Guillotine in Hell" by Nicolas Antoine Taunay (1795)

"The Triumph of the Guillotine in Hell" by Nicolas Antoine Taunay (1795)


The late 1700s found Paris at the center of international culture and France the most dominant power in the world. The French Revolution plunged all of Europe into a crisis.

The revolutionaries sought to transform France fundamentally. They promised the people hope and change—liberation from religion, nobility, and monarchies. What they delivered was tyranny, terror, and mob rule. Three hundred thousand souls would be murdered.

Presenting the French and American revolutions as siblings is a grievous error. For one reason, what happened in the two countries happened because of men animated by opposite spirits.

'Revolution' means a complete overthrow of a system of government along with a nation's social, economic, and cultural foundations. Therefore, there was no 'American Revolution' in 1776 but rather an 'American War of Independence.' To see what revolution looks like, we must look to France.

The French Enlightenment had convinced many people that religion and reason were incompatible because they pulled in opposite directions. On the other hand, English and Scottish Enlightenment thinkers saw reason and faith pulling in harness toward the same ends, which was the founding philosophy of America.

No wisdom radiated across the Atlantic from the American Founding Fathers to those in charge in France after 1789. Diderot declared their philosophy: "Man will not be free until the last king has been strangled with the entrails of the last priest."

"The Tennis Court Oath" by Jacques-Louis David (1794)

"The Tennis Court Oath" by Jacques-Louis David (1794)

The French Revolution

By 1789, France was bankrupt and politically paralyzed. All of Europe buzzed with talk of revolution. Perhaps it came first to France because its rulers were more worn out and despised than others.

The Americans proclaimed poor old bumbling King George III of England a tyrant, but he paled in comparison with the monarchs on the Continent. Americans demanded no taxation without representation when no European nation even had a Parliament.

The Ancien Regime was making progress in many ways. It abolished torture and advanced toward free enterprise. King Louis XVI was committed to reform, and many aspects of government saw vast improvements during his reign. Unfortunately, French nobles blocked many of his reforms. And he was the victim of a cyclical agrarian depression in 1787-1789 that led to food shortages.

Antoine Barnave (1763-1791) authored the Jacobin Manifesto in 1788. In January of 1789, Abbe Sieyes—a clergyman who coined the term 'sociology'— followed that up with the pamphlet What is the Third Estate? The 'Third Estate' represented the ordinary people of France. Abbe Sieyes wrote that it was "Everything. And what has it become until the present time? Nothing. And what does it demand? To become something."

The Third Estate

In April 1789, 576 members of the Third Estate signed the "Tennis Court Oath," a formal declaration against the French Monarchy. The shortages of an exceptionally harsh winter came to bear that same month. The lower classes of Paris lacked work and they lacked food.

The bankrupt government was in no position to alleviate their suffering. Angry crowds destroyed several bureaucratic buildings. In response, French soldiers killed 300 citizens to maintain order.

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In June 1789, the Third Estate declared itself the sole National Assembly. Many nobles and clergymen were initially on their side—not realizing their ultimate fate. Pandemonium ensued. Paris exploded—it became a notorious playground for sexual debauchery, with live sex shows enhancing political meetings.

By July, Paris was lost to the king after revolutionaries raided an armory, confiscated 30,000 muskets, and stormed the royal fortress—the Bastille.

The successful storming of the Bastille triggered an orgy of attacks on 40,000 jails in France, freeing nearly all criminals in the country to create mayhem. Castles and Abbeys were burned to the ground. Bandits now ruled highways. Peasants committed atrocities around the country, attacking clergymen and successful people. Most of the nobility of France fled the country.

Hatred was mounting and spread among the members of the Assembly. They wanted to save the world from ignorance. They desired to lift the poor, oppressed ordinary person by killing any who might outdo them.

Yet the men of 1789 backed off their original aim of giving the vote to all because they realized they could not trust ignorant and illiterate men and women without property to keep their fingers out of the national till.

"The Jacobins Hold a Seance"

"The Jacobins Hold a Seance"

The Antichrist Cometh

The Church of France was enormous and rich. It employed 130,000 clerics. Except for the Capuchins, who were very poor, monks lived comfortable lives like gentlemen with even a month's holiday each year. The revolutionaries all agreed that the monks had to go.

The new regime was bankrupt, so they summarily confiscated the vast holdings of the Church, which they declared State property, and used it to back the new paper currency. Eventually, they issued more notes than the value of all the property they had stolen from the Church, which naturally resulted in rampant inflation.

Catholicism was not unpopular in and of itself. At first, it was assumed it would continue as a State Church. But the revolution quickly changed its initial focus on kings and nobles to a revolt against the clergy and Christ. Tithes were prohibited by law, and the concept of Christendom was dissolved.

Soon municipalities were being run by anti-clericals with scores to settle. The new Assembly of 1791 was comprised almost entirely of Atheists, and it moved quickly to ban monastic vows and destroy monasteries. In 1792, a decree ordered the deportation of any priest denounced by 20 'active' citizens.

One prison massacre saw three bishops and 220 priests slaughtered. A new method of execution was invented, drowning priests bound in pairs, dubbed "de-Christianization by immersion." This was the first full frontal attack on Christ since the Roman Empire.

Paris soon swelled with various fashionable superstitions—Gnosticism, Paganism, Pantheism, Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, and Illuminism. Andre Chenier described the Illumines as "adapting a whole accumulation of ancient superstitions to the ideas of their sect, preaching liberty and equality like Eleusinian or Ephesian mysteries, translating natural law into an occult doctrine and a mythological jargon."

Ideological fanaticism caused the revolution to go wildly off course, ending in a disaster of massacre, bloodshed, and ruin.

The new rulers of France sought to remove and replace Christianity. They were the forerunners of Karl Marx, the Bolsheviks, and Chairman Mao. Perhaps 40,000 priests fled France; up to 5,000 were executed, and another 20,000, including 23 bishops, renounced Christ to save their skins.

"The Goddess of Reason" by Jose Barrera

"The Goddess of Reason" by Jose Barrera

The Jacobins

The French Revolution accelerated and became increasingly radical until all of the previous political and social order was eventually swept away. The new rulers of France, the National Convention, got busy, passing 11,250 laws in three years.

In 1791, the First French Constitution was written, which includes, as its preamble, The Declaration of the Rights of Man. By this time, radical revolutionaries had cast aside the original moderate revolutionaries. As nearly always happen in such movements. This allowed the extremist Jacobins under Robespierre to seize power.

The Jacobins abolished the monarchy altogether; stormed the royal palaces; massacred the King's Swiss Guard; imprisoned the King and his family. There were only 3,000 Jacobins in the beginning, but they were able to take absolute power over twenty-five million people.

Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) was a severe man. To the Paris mob, he was a hero because he preached the redistribution of wealth. But to any who opposed him, he was the devil incarnate. His right-hand man, Antoine Saint-Just, became known as 'the Archangel of the Terror.'

The Jacobins were militant atheists, and all were either lawyers or journalists. Among them were the world's first communists, socialists, and feminists. Their support came from gullible peasants. The Jacobins began executing their rivals, but having run out of them, they started killing each other.

The French Republican Calendar

In 1792, the French revolutionists boldly attempted to disorient the citizenry by abolishing the calendar. After all, the calendar throughout Europe then—and the world today—is based on the Birth of Jesus Christ. We still number our years according to when Christ was born.

That is why Atheists in our time work without ceasing to abolish B.C. and A.D., to be replaced not by new numbers but by B.C.E. and C.E. to disavow the Savior of Humanity.

The Jacobins abolished Sundays and seven-day weeks—the week being the only period on the calendar that is not related to lunar or solar rotations but only based on a decree by God Himself. Therefore, the godless Jacobins created ten-day weeks.

Henceforth, many peasants who had helped the Jacobins seize power changed their minds and turned against them. The realization crept over them that these people were far worse than their predecessors. These people were the servants of Satan.

The Jacobins responded to these murmurings by sending armed gangs on tour through the French countryside to destroy all churches and press the sons of Catholics into military service, where they would be 're-educated.' Thus an Atheist government would force Christian youth to die for it. In contrast, the sons of atheists were exempt from military service.

The Church disestablished, public life de-Christianized

Once Atheism took hold in the minds and hearts of the revolutionaries, the usual violence burst forth. The Church was disestablished, public life de-Christianized, and new secular cults were invented.

People no longer saw their neighbors as Images of God with eternal souls but as mere animals—such as animals routinely slaughtered for the "good" of the community—human bestiality felt no restraint.

Mob rule, riots, and lynchings became commonplace. Heads of formerly successful people were paraded around on pikes by their executioners. Random assaults were made on nobles and priests, and the theft or destruction of their property became routine occurrences. Massacres, slaughters, and assassinations were a daily part of life.

Then came the 'Reign of Terror'—a deliberate government policy to destroy Christians and create an atmosphere of fear to squelch all dissent. Tens of thousands of innocent people were fed to the guillotine. The crowded tumbrels carted the condemned through hate-filled streets. People took to spying on and informing on their long-time neighbors and friends.

Maximilien Robespierre

Maximilien Robespierre

The Reign of Terror

The men who gained power did not have mature political talent. Two distinct types of ability are needed to govern well—political skill and a grasp of good administration.

Political skill is sensing what can be done and how to move others to want it. Perhaps one in twenty men has this ability, but even then, most candidates are incapable of administration, which is to keep order when the world tends to disorder.

The petty minds that filled the three successive French assemblies were ill-equipped for the task. They were articulate, and great at politicking, but unable to resolve essential issues or deal with the pressure of emergencies.

They wrote and delivered endless speeches and held countless debates. But their product is abstract, diffuse strings of generalities aimed at applause but vague on details except for denouncing their rivals as traitors.

The revolutionaries planned to remove children from their parents so the state could brainwash them. The idea emerged of equality as communism imposed by violence, terror, and dictatorship.

Robespierre led the first efficient police state with agents in the countryside viciously purging thousands of men suspected of being against some part of his plans along with their wives and children. The successful members of society had to flee the country in waves. Still, the roster of those beheaded was distinguished, including the chemist Lavoisier and the poet Chenier.

The new regime promoted a Cult of Reason, with a visible goddess who was actually a half-naked whore enthroned on the altar of Notre Dame Cathedral. Robespierre instituted something he called "Worship of the Supreme Being," by which he meant the worship of Satan.

Also witnessed here is the first appearance of a new archetype: the Jewish revolutionary. But though Jews were involved, they were also targeted, especially for their religion.

Voltaire said of Jews: "They are a totally ignorant nation who for many years has combined contemptible miserliness and the most revolting superstition with a violent hatred of all those nations which have tolerated them."

Diderot added, "The Jews bore all the defects peculiar to an ignorant and superstitious nation."

The prominent Atheist revolutionary Baron d'Holbach wrote, "The Jews are the enemies of the human race."

The Vendee Uprising

The Vendee Uprising

The Vendee Uprising

Christians from the Vendee region—a "Catholic Army of Saints"—rose up against the Atheist government armed at first with only pitchforks and scythes. A civil war of three years ensued that included 21 pitched battles. The Christians actually won about five of these fights.

By 1793, they had been able to arm 30,000 men. Followed by several hundred thousand supporters of all ages, this rebel army trekked toward Normandy. They had been deliberately fed misinformation that the British would be there to help them.

Upon arriving at the port of Granville and realizing they had been deceived, they decided to go home. But home was 120 miles away, and it was now winter. The men lacked warm clothes and food.

Soon enough, the Vendees were attacked. Fifteen thousand died in the streets of Le Mans. They were hunted, robbed, and raped by government forces. The Vendees were trapped near Nantes two days before Christmas, and genocide was employed. The man who crushed them, General Westermann, wrote to the government:

"According to your orders, I have trampled their children beneath our horses' feet; I have massacred their women. I do not have a single prisoner. I have exterminated them all. The roads are sown with corpses. Christians are always arriving to surrender, and we are shooting them non-stop. Mercy is not a revolutionary sentiment."

The Vendee region from whence these Christians came was then fallen upon by revolutionary troops in 1794. Tens of thousands were shot, guillotined, burned in their barns and churches, starved to death in prison, or drowned.

The officers of the Atheist government had too many to kill and not enough ammunition. So they took to loading large ships with Christians at night, sinking them, and refloating them in the morning to start the 'process' again.

Revolutionary propaganda described the Christians to Parisians as ignorant, superstitious peasants controlled by evil priests. Their devotion to God would have been widely admired in any other European country.

The revolutionaries had publicly mocked their religion; they had been humiliated and subjected to repeated physical assaults. Napoleon would later call these martyrs "giants."

Queen Marie Antoinette with two of her three children in 1785

Queen Marie Antoinette with two of her three children in 1785

The French Revolution: Cause and Effect

The French Revolution soon began to kill its progenitors. More and more people were executed, including Robespierre himself, in 1794. King Louis XVI tried to escape the slaughter by fleeing to Germany, but he was caught at the border and executed along with his Queen, Marie Antoinette.

Dr Josephe-Ignace Guillotin did not invent the guillotine. It was invented by his friend Antoine Louis. Dr. Guillotin was simply the man who persuaded the revolutionaries to use the guillotine, something he promoted as a more humanitarian execution machine. Most people mistakenly believed he had invented it, so he became an eponym.

Many others became eponyms during the 18th century and since. The minister of religious affairs for Napoleon was Jean Bigot. Also living at this time was the ultra-patriotic soldier named Nicolas Chauvin. Many plants have been named after their discoverers, such as Begonia, Dahlia, Fuchsia, and Magnolia.

The unit for electric current was named after Andre Ampere. Ohm, Volt, and Watt are all eponymous names, as are Cardigan, Diesel, and Shrapnel. Pants and panties were named after Pantaleone de' Bisognosi; the sandwich after the 4th Earl of Sandwich; baroque after Federigo Barocci; hooligans after Patrick Houlihan; and leotards after Jules Leotard.

But I digress.

The Execution of King Louis XVI

The Execution of King Louis XVI

Blood Red is the Color of Leftists

From the beginning, revolutionaries, communists, and socialists adopted the color red for their flags and banners. Since Roman times the red flag had signaled war and stood for the blood to be spilled in the cause. "True Blue" was traditionally the color of conservatives, such as Spanish aristocrats or British Tories.

I find it fascinating—though hardly noticed by many—that the leftist Main Stream Media of America quietly switched conservative states to "red" and liberal states to "blue" in 1992, reversing the colors of election maps. Democrats did this to dissociate themselves from the color red waved by their ideological comrades, because those comrades were responsible for the deaths of a hundred million people in the 20th century.

Actual photograph of guillotine victim

Actual photograph of guillotine victim


Equality is a simple idea easily grasped in arithmetic. In a society, it is complex and elusive. The concept comes from the fact that human beings are equal before God on Judgment Day.

Thinkers who argue about the state of nature find it easy to say that all men are born free and equal. That is only because, in that imagined state, there are no standards to measure people by and, at birth, no talents to compare.

Equality before the law means the same procedures for like cases. But equality in business, politics, or social life has never been on earth. Many brilliant minds have argued against this truth. What does equality mean? There is no measure by which human beings are equal. If, as it does, merit and ability produce unequal results, is it iniquitous?

The radical revolutionaries wanted to war against nature by creating forced equality in which all people would have "equality of enjoyments." They called this "social justice," which meant equal wages for all, from the street sweeper to the surgeon.

The difference in wages in a free market economy is, of course, the difference in ability from scarce skills to common skills. More people will pay far more money to hear Beyonce sing than to listen to me sing. More will pay more to see Albert Pujols play baseball than to see me play. The rarer the ability, the more it is worth to the world. Some are more equal than others.

Adam Weishaupt, Founder of the Illuminati

Adam Weishaupt, Founder of the Illuminati

The Illuminati

It is possible that the 'Illuminati' deliberately launched the French Revolution. In France, the Illuminati operated as 'The French Revolutionary Club,' which held its meetings at the Hall of the Jacobins Convent. From the very name of this convent, the hard-core revolutionists began to be called 'Jacobins.'

The secret society entitled the 'Order of the Illuminati' was founded in Bavaria, southern Germany, by a law professor named Adam Weishaupt. He was a Mason, and later an Occultist (Satanist). Weishaupt listed the goals of the Illuminati:

  • Abolition of monarchies and all ordered governments
  • Abolition of private property and inheritances
  • Abolition of patriotism and nationalism
  • Abolition of family life and the institution of marriage
  • Establishment of communal education of children
  • Abolition of all religion

Anacharsis Clootz, the Satanist who called himself the “Orator of Mankind” and was the self-declared “Personal Enemy of Jesus Christ,” was in the Illuminati. Like all 'Illumines,' Clootz was a proponent of a world state, and he imagined the institutions of the world state along the lines established by the French Revolution.

The idea was first to implement Atheism and Communism in France. Satanism took hold, complete with sex orgies in the street, public butchering of Christians, mass murder of priests, desecration of cemeteries, and even some cannibalism.

Prostitutes were enthroned on altars of churches as goddesses called 'Eroterion' at 'Feasts of Reason'—modeled on Adam Weishaupt's plan to honor a demonic 'goddess of love.' Illuminists from around Europe came to join in the fun—to participate in the orgies and witness the bloodshed.

The Affair of the Necklace

Cagliostro was an occultist, magician, forger, and swindler initiated into Illuminati in 1783. He was entrusted with disseminating radical ideas across Europe to prepare the ground for the French Revolution. At the end of his tour, he went to France and became a Jacobin.

At the Grand Masonic Congress in 1785, Cagliostro received a new directive to prepare for revolution. In a letter he wrote in 1787, he predicted that the Bastille would be stormed and the Church and monarchy would be abolished. A new religion based on the principles of reason would be imposed.

His first order of business was to spark the French Revolution by setting in motion the 'Affair of the Necklace' that turned the French masses against Marie Antoinette.

The Queen was the victim of this conspiracy, which was devised to give the impression that she had a love affair with a Cardinal. That irreparably dented the reputations of the Church and the monarchy among the people.

Jacobins create food shortages

The Jacobins manipulated the grain market to create the food shortage that started the revolution. That produced a famine so intense that it brought the nation to the edge of revolt.The Duke of Orleans was undoubtedly involved. He was also the Grand Master of the Grand Orient Lodges of the Freemasons and in the Illuminati.

The Illuminists claimed that their revolution would be for the benefit of the ordinary person. In reality, the conspirators held up the food supplies. They blocked all reforms in the National Assembly to exacerbate the situation—while the commoner starved.

Toward the end of 1793, the new revolutionary Republic faced hundreds of thousands of working men for whom it could not find employment. The revolutionary leaders embarked upon a fearful new project that was to be copied by tyrants ever since—depopulation.

The idea was to reduce France's population of twenty-five million down to about half that many, a plan Robespierre believed "indispensable." Members of the revolutionary committees in charge of the extermination toiled day and night over maps, calculating just how many heads must be sacrificed in each town. In Nantes, 500 children were killed in one butchery.

After four years of destruction, France lay in ruins, reduced to rubble and chaos. Its libraries were burned, its merchants were wiped out, and its industry was decimated. France's economy was in shambles, its trades were destroyed, and unemployment ran rampant.

The country's desolation was sickening. And the answer to these problems proposed by Satan was simply exterminating half the population.

George Washington wrote in a letter about this time: "It was not my intention to doubt that the Doctrines of the Illuminati and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied with this fact than I am."

"Cagliostro" by Gold-Copper

"Cagliostro" by Gold-Copper


The people of France chose darkness rather than light. The nation was, therefore, to reap the results of this course. The restraint of God's Spirit was removed from a people who despised His grace. Evil was permitted to come to full maturity. And the entire world witnessed the fruit of willful rejection of the light.

French Atheism denied the claims of the living God, and a spirit of unbelief and defiance reigned. The corruption, as usual, manifested itself in the licentiousness that became the signature characteristic of the nation.

"The world, for the first time, heard an assembly of men, born and educated in civilization, and assuming the right to govern one of the finest nations of the European nations, uplift their voices to deny the most solemn truth which man's soul receives, and renounce the belief and worship of a Deity unanimously," wrote Sir Walter Scott.

France lifted its hand in open rebellion against the Author of the Universe. It became the first state in world history to issue a decree through its legislative assembly that pronounced there is no God. Moral debasement followed.

One of the first moves was to reduce the union of marriage from what it is—the most sacred engagement human beings can form, the permanence of which leads most strongly to the consolidation of society—to a mere civil contract of a transitory nature, which any may cast loose at pleasure. Whatever was graceful and venerable in domestic life was to be destroyed, but the focus was on the degradation of marriage.

Jesus Christ was declared to be an imposter. The French infidels rallying cry was "Crush the Wretch," meaning Christ. Blasphemy, abominable wickedness, cruelty, and vice were now fully displayed.

The National Assembly abolished the worship of God. Bibles were collected and publicly burned. Baptism and Communion were expressly banned. The only religious worship allowed was the worship of the state, which encouraged revelry and blasphemy.

When the restraints of God were cast aside, it was found that the laws of man were inadequate to hold in check the powerful tides of human passion. Peace and happiness were banished from the homes and hearts of men. No one was secure because whoever triumphed today might be suspected and condemned tomorrow. Lust and violence held undisputed sway.

The cities were filled with scenes of horror and terrible crimes. Spies lurked on every corner. The guillotine worked long and hard all day long. Gutters ran foaming with blood into the Seine. When the knife of the deadly machine rose and fell too slow for the work of slaughter, long rows of captives were mowed down with grapeshot. Great flocks of crows and kites feasted on naked corpses.

The Devil's steadfast purpose is to bring woe and wretchedness upon men and women, to deface and defile the workmanship of God. By Lucifer's deceptive arts, he blinds the minds of men and leads them to throw back the blame for his work upon God.

In France, the Bible was dismissed as a fable, and the people gave themselves up to unbridled iniquity. Wicked men and spirits of darkness exulted in their attainment of the object so long desired—a kingdom free from the restraints of the law of God.

And yet: "The Bible is an anvil that has worn out many hammers."

The Lake of Fire

The Lake of Fire


The French Revolution did not achieve any of the significant reformist objectives of 1789. Almost immediately, the Jacobins were forced to impose economic paternalism. Worse, it inaugurated an era where violence determined the direction of the state more than anything else. You need the power to take power, argues historian Simon Schama, which accounts for much of the period's horror.

The revolution was not a movement of 'the people' but a small elite who cared little for the proletariat despite their pronouncements. They used them when necessary—not out of altruism but to achieve their aims. The French were ready and eager to send neighbors and associates to the guillotine.

It was not until 1804 that France found stability. It found it in the cult of personality constructed around General Napoleon Bonaparte. All the people came together with dreams of empire and world conquest.


  • From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life by Jacques Barzun
  • Europe: A History by Norman Davies
  • A History of Christianity by Paul Johnson
  • The Great Controversy by Ellen G White
  • New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies by William T. Still

"Men have forgotten God; that's why all this has happened.

— Alexander Solzhenitsyn


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on October 27, 2019:

BPatel ~ Thank you for taking the time to read my article. I appreciate your awesome accolades and I am flattered that you would consider me worthy of helping you with your work. However, I am very busy these days with family, writing, and preparing for a music concert I will be giving soon.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on May 14, 2018:

Thank you for your kind comments Jayden! I am glad you love it.

Jayden on May 14, 2018:

this give me so much information i love his website

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on March 25, 2015:

Evan Smiley~ Thank you! Thank you very much!!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on March 25, 2015:

sundar~ You are quite welcome. Thank you for reading my article.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on March 25, 2015:

DDA---You are most welcome. Thanks for visiting.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on March 25, 2015: Thank you for taking the time to read my article. I enjoyed your excellent remarks, too, especially this that you wrote: "The left have always been pro's at disguising who they really are."

Evan Smiley on January 04, 2014:

Awesome Hub!!! Definitely linking it to my hub about the French Revolution!!!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on October 03, 2013:

mommyof5— Yes, thanks for asking. My sources include "From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life" by Jacques Barzun; "The Great Controversy" by Ellen G White; "Europe: A History" by Norman Davies; "A History of Christianity" by Paul Johnson; and "New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies" by William T. Still.

mommyof5 on October 02, 2013:

do you have any source documents you could point us to regarding the philosophies you portrayed? Of course they aren't found in textbooks. French Revolution plans on the history lesson this month - along with Church History.

sundar on June 16, 2013:

thank u for giving some important fact about french revolution

DDA on May 30, 2013:

Thanks. This really helped. from upstate, NY on March 01, 2013:

" that the Liberal Main Stream Media of America quietly renamed conservative states "red" and liberal states "blue." This was done in the late 1990s to dissociate the New Left from the color waved by their ideological comrades."

The left have always been pro's at disguising who they really are.

It's my belief that the French culture had to have become corrupted to have allowed these evil man to come to power. No doubt the comprimised dead religion of the Catholic church helped create an environment conducive to athiesm.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on December 22, 2012:

John King IV--- There is much wisdom in your remarks, friend. I am not sure I would that far in my analysis of Lennon or even the whole rock and roll band thing--lest we forget, I was in one for over 20 years! :D

But I sure appreciate your discernment and your extraordinarily perceptive comments. Thank you!!


John King IV on December 18, 2012:

Interesting. Yes, I can see John Lennon as a type of school boy idealism. I see John lennon as a symbol of ignorance, poverty, worthlessness, and even immorality. He is often associated with the hippy culture of rock and roll, drugs, and a repugnant kind of love. Whenever I picture this artist and his works, I get images of chaos. Where no body owns property, family units are done away with, all people take up poverty in some kind of twisted form of communism, where the vanity of singing, drugs, and fornication, are promoted.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on December 15, 2012:

John King IV-- Thank you for your patience and graciousness. I agree with your thoughts on John Lennon. As a long-time professional musician and singer I can attest to his artistic genius. The song "Imagine" is surely beautiful. I believe Beelzebub is among the greatest songwriters ever, too. But the lyrics to Lennon's song, that so many are so taken with, remind me of schoolboy idealism: wouldn't it be great if we just took all the stuff in the world, all the food, clothes, houses, cars, etc. and put them in a big pile and divided them up equally between all the people in the world?

John King IV on December 14, 2012:

Fascinating very very fascinating....

When I hear informative things like this, it makes me want to research and learn more.

There is something very creepy about John lennon. I do not know exactly how to explain it. I just get the impression that John Lennon seems like bad news or something like that. A good music artist, but awful lyrics in my opinion.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on December 14, 2012:

John King IV— Please accept my apology for not responding to both of your excellent comments earlier. I have been working hard on getting my first book finished and neglected to acknowledge your gracious remarks. I do appreciate the correspondence. And I will come over soon to read some of your Hubs. Your titles certainly sound interesting.

As I noted in my article, Adam Weishaupt founded the Illuminati and listed his goals: Abolition of monarchies and all ordered governments; Abolition of private property and inheritances; Abolition of patriotism and nationalism; Abolition of family life and the institution of marriage; Establishment of communal education of children; Abolition of all religion.

It makes me think of John Lennon's song, "Imagine." Imagine no property, no states, no borders, no nationalities, no religion, no marriage, no families. A New World Order with a One World Government.

Now the people who are most in favor of this and in some sort of position to help it become reality are those who wish to rule the world. For instance, to Karl Marx, the family, marriage, and the church are obstacles to State Power. These are rivals for people's loyalties and affections.

I am quite familiar with the writings of Thomas Jefferson. It is true that he wa swept up in the fad of his day: Deism.

But he was only one of the 57 Founding Fathers of America, all but three of whom were orthodox Christians.

It is certainly true that the Founders did not want a European situation, which up to then was that everybody in a kingdom was expected to have the same religion as the king, often with deadly consequences for dissenters.

At the time of the founding the debate was not truly between what religion people were, 99% of all Americans were Christians, it was a debate between denominations. And rightfully, the Founders did not want the Federal Government to take sides, with the Baptists, the Episcopalians, or the Catholics, et al.

The Constitution says that the Congress, i.e., the Federal Government, cannot establish a state religion that people are forced to join.

The Declaration of Independence is not exclusively a secular document per se, and the Constitution is a continuation of it. Article VII uses the term "The Year of our Lord." Who do you suppose that refers to?


John King IV on December 04, 2012:

Mr. Watkins:

oopps made a mistake. Forgot that you already addressed who the illuminati is. You even named the founder, and some important individuals. I guess you can disregard my first question. The illuminat seem to be for you intelligent free thinkers who where thinking outside the Christian way of thinking. The illuminati seem to be a group of very influential people in history. Is this more or less what you believe the illuminati are?

John King IV on December 04, 2012:

You yourself sound like such a pleasant soul:

I wish I could say more, but as I said earlier, I am simply not very informed about this periode of history. (And I wish to avoid communicating foolishness to you).

To be frank with you, I do not really fully understand who these "illuminati" of your are. Who do you identify them as?

I can however say a bit more about American history. Even though most of the fathers where protestant believers, they actually founded America as a secular society. Example, look at Thomas jefferson. The guy was not your typical christian. He rationalized and humanized the gospels and jesus. The Jesus of Jefferson, is human and not divine. Many others of the fathers where either athiest masons, or else at least heavily influenced by free masonry, and ideas of secular philosophers such as Hume, Lock, or Kant. After the civil war (mid 1800's CE), it is very clear, that America totally kicked out religion and Christianity from the government. I am not saying that America was anything like the old french of the revolution era, who where athiest and anti christian. Far from this, america supports freedom. This means freedom of Christians and non christian religions. (But religions of any kind is certainly and obviously not a part of the american government. America is secular and not religious or christian as society was in the colonial era, or in the medieval eras.

I just do not see the state and the church in harmony, but I do see the state as guiding the church to conform to the states version of harmony.,

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on December 03, 2012:

John King IV— Thank you very much for taking the time to come over and read my article on the French Revolution. Your presence on my Hub is an honor. I appreciate your discerning insights and thoughtful remarks.

I notice on your profile page that you "also like many other modern topics such as science or politics. (I usually like connecting them all with religion and philosophy)."

This describes me as well. Perhaps we are kindred spirits in at least some ways. It is a pleasure to make your acquaintance and I look forward to reading your writings, which I shall attend to soon.

I am glad that you enjoyed my article and I am grateful for your kind compliments.

As to your point number one, it is a bit murky but I do see strains of communist/socialist thought among many of the revolutionaries, at least the more radical ones.

Secondly, I am not certain of the extent of involvement by the Illuminati. Normally I am very skeptical of such a thing but in reading some evidence that was new to me recently my opinion was swayed to the side of believing they might have had something to do with it.

As for your third point, you are surely correct in regard to the French Revolution but not the American Version, which was almost the opposite, though Liberal historians like to lump them together. 54 of 57 Founding Fathers of America were highly Christian men—none of their French counterparts were—and the Constitution honors the Year of our Lord, our Lord being undoubtedly Jesus Christ, and claims itself to be a continuation of the Declaration of Independence, which certainly credits God with creating humankind and stating plainly that our rights come from our Creator, God the father, NOT from the men who run our government. This is the crucial difference in the American Founding Documents as opposed to the French versions, which are truly secular. It is true that our Founders wisely did not want clergymen ruling over the country but they surely saw the State and the Church as pulling together in harmony toward the same goals.

John King IV on November 30, 2012:

This is a very interesting article. It is long, but I read it all, ...with pleasure. It is also a pleasure to now comment.

You are obviously informed, and knowledgeable on this subject. You also show clear signs of having a christian perspective.

What I like however, is that you take on a historical approach to the matter.

Here are some small things that struk me.

1) It seems you think communists or communism was linked with this revolution. If this interpretation of your ideas is true, I disagree. The french revolution can be likened much more to a totalitarian secular government. However, it is true that both communism and the french revolution openly promoted athiesm.

2) The illuminati: A small band of elites caused the revolution. I am very skeptical of this. Even though I am not very informed on this periode of history, I suspect the prolitariat, (or common men of the lowest classes where at the root of the revolution). These elites probably just used the pheasant revolters as a tool to promote their own agendas as well.

3) Finally, I wish to point out that secularism was a founding priniple for the new french republic, as well as for the new independent America. The only difference, USA gave freedom of religion; while France did not tolerate any religion, whether christian or non-christian.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on October 29, 2012:

Onusonus— Cool. I will check it out. Thank you very much.

Onusonus on October 27, 2012:

I only mentioned a few stark contrasts between America's and Franc's in one of mine. Not nearly as in depth as this piece.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on October 27, 2012:

Onusonus— Thank you, kind sir! I do not recall you writing about the French Revolution but I've just now made myself a note to come over and read it. I appreciate your kind words.

Onusonus on October 25, 2012:

Excellent article James! Any time I go to write an article I must remember to see if you haven't already written a better one on the same subject.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 24, 2012:

thelyricwriter— It is great to 'see' you again! Thank you ever much for the 'voted up and across.' I appreciate your awesome accolades and even more that you would think enough of this article to share it with your friends. That is high praise indeed. :)

I do love history. I am glad you do too and that you enjoyed this Hub.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 24, 2012:

Vladimir Uhri— What a great pleasure it is to hear from you, Brother. I am well pleased that you like my review very much. That makes my day. As you said so well:

"Illuminati came from Bavaria. In Germany they became not welcome so they hid in the Masonic Lodges. They were welcome in France. They are crib of communism. There goal is: 1. Distribution of wealth, 2. Eliminating states (One World Government) 3. Eliminating religion 4. Eliminating family 5. Using women to their purpose."

You are right on! Thank you very much for sharing your wise words with us.


Richard Ricky Hale from West Virginia on September 23, 2012:

James, truly a class "A" article as always. I enjoy reading and share your passion of history. Very detailed article that is very professional all the way through. Awesome work. Will share this also. Your articles always bring a wealth of comments, shows your a great writer James. Best wishes always my friend. Voted up and across but funny.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 23, 2012:

Rod Marsden— Yes, my friend, all of your points are well taken. Marx was wrong about nearly everything. He predicted that the 'working man" would rise up and take over but that is not what happened. Lenin, Stalin, and Castro—none of them were working men and while they spouted off rhetoric that they represented the working man, they were lying when they said it. They lied to get power. That is what happens when evil men come to rule.

Marx also said that in America, capital would come to rest in fewer and fewer hands and just the opposite happened.

Your comments are extraordinary and I thank you for them.

Vladimir Uhri from HubPages, FB on September 22, 2012:

James I like your review very much. Illuminates came from Bavaria (Germany as you mentioned). In Germany they became not welcome so they hidden to Mason Lodge. They were welcome in France. They are crib of communism. There goal is: 1. Distribution of wealth, 2. Eliminating states (One World Government) 3. Eliminating religion 4. Eliminating family 5. Using women to their purpose. I am glad, James, you broadened my information. Only God can help us to stay in freedom. I urge people with normal mind to consider: 2Ch 7:14 If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.

Rod Marsden from Wollongong, NSW, Australia on September 19, 2012:

James, my final point was reform. Marx predicted an English revolution as bloody if not bloodier than the French revolution. It didn't happen. It could have done if those in power in England and other parts of Britain at the time didn't recognize the warning signs and act. At the beginning of Queen Victoria's reign the threat was very real. Certainly by the 1860s there were people making sure that Marx's prediction did not take place. The sewage system of London that had resulted in many cholera deaths in summer and at one time the closing of parliament because of the bad smells rising from the Thames was scraped and a huge, then new, sewage system that actually worked put in its place. It was also decided that children from every background deserved an education and that work hours for all in factories and mines needed to be restricted. Miners were given adequate protection against gas explosions, etc . Reformers in Parliament helped but there was also the unions. I believe it was in the mid-1860s that the Salvation Army started up. Hence there was a French revolution but, apart from a spat of rioting in the countryside over laws dealing with grain import, there was no English revolution.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 19, 2012:

cristina327— Thank you for the kind words, my dear. It is a pleasure to hear from you again. It has been a while it seems. I hope all has been well for you over there.

I do hope this Hub might be helpful for students. That is a nice thought.

I sure appreciate this visitation and your blessings. And you are quite welcome.

God Bless You!

james :)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 19, 2012:

b. Malin— Thank you very much for taking the time to read my article about the French Revolution.

I share your feelings when you say, "The people of France chose the Darkness, rather than the Light...Makes me wonder in which direction our own Country is headed today."

Yes, indeed.

I appreciate your kind comments!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 19, 2012:

Michael-Milec— You are quite welcome, my dear friend.

I love your gracious description of my Hub: "an eye- opening piece of history presented at the time of need to know and to identify what is inconspicuously happening in this land of free (used to be)."

You also wisely noted "The signs as "distribution"; "killing innocent"; "equality "; offering lies in exchange for truth; redirecting faith in God into the "religion of government."

Well said, brother. You have a discerning eye.

And I enjoyed your line about 'implementing " hope and change " incoming communism and socialism.'


I surely agree with you that "when people forget and reject the God of the Universe, the things are rapidly changed from worse to worse under a god of this social system-- the devil himself."


Thank you ever much for these fabulous comments, as well as the 'Voted up, and high.'

I appreciate the blessings and the accolades! God Bless You.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 19, 2012:

Rod Marsden— Thank you, my friend, for coming back by with another interesting comment. The following are facts about persons in America defined as "poor" by the Census Bureau, taken from various government reports:

• Forty-three percent of all poor households actually own their own homes. The average home owned by persons classified as poor by the Census Bureau is a three-bedroom house with one-and-a-half baths, a garage, and a porch or patio.

• Eighty percent of poor households have air conditioning. By contrast, in 1970, only 36 percent of the entire U.S. population enjoyed air conditioning.

• Only 6 percent of poor households are overcrowded. More than two-thirds have more than two rooms per person.

• The average poor American has more living space than the average individual living in Paris, London, Vienna, Athens, and other cities throughout Europe. (These comparisons are to the average citizens in foreign countries, not to those classified as poor.)

• Nearly three-quarters of poor households own a car; 31 percent own two or more cars.

• Ninety-seven percent of poor households have a color television; over half own two or more color televisions.

• Seventy-eight percent have a VCR or DVD player; 62 percent have cable or satellite TV reception.

• Eighty-nine percent own microwave ovens, more than half have a stereo, and more than a third have an automatic dishwasher.

That is hardly what would qualify as "poor" in the world or even in the recent past in our own country. What it truly means is that some people are "poorer" than others. Relative to others, some are poor. This results in the great sibling sins of envy and covetousness. It results from thinking it is "unfair" that some have more than others. This is the great progressive bugaboo that makes their thinking latent communism.

Have you heard about the psychological experiment that found when asked "Would you be HAPPY making $50,000 per year if all your neighbors made $25,000?" Almost every person answered Yes!

But when asked "Would you be happy making $50,000 a year if all your neighbors made $100,000?" The answer is usually No! So it is not what you have; it is what other people have that you don't have that counts. :D

Cristina Santander from Manila on September 18, 2012:

Excellent hub which presents a great historical account which will be very helpful to history students. I found this hub highly informative and very educational and with great lessons to be applied in life. Thank you for sharing this great wealth of information here on Hubpages. I am wishing you a great day today. May you be blessed today and always. Best regards.

b. Malin on September 18, 2012:

Well James, you've done it again, with a Rich, and Rewarding, as well as Educational read on the French Revolution/Cause and Effect. The people of France chose the Darkness, rather than the Light...Makes me wonder in which direction our own Country is headed today.

You've given us a Fair and just Summary, along with Pictures that say so much.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 18, 2012:

Kaie Arwen— You are most welcome, melady. I am so happy to see you here and read that I meet your approval. That means a lot to me. :D

Thank you for the lovely laudations. I think I may write about the Illuminati again soon in a Hub about the New World Order.

Yes, this same pathetic pattern has repeated itself several times, at least. The Russian Revolution is quite similar in many ways. As Pete Seeger said in "Where Have All the Flowers Gone": 'When will they ever learn."

I didn't use a question mark because I am not sure it is (or should be) a question except rhetorically.

I am glad you like the first picture, Kaie. It is ever a delight to see you.



James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 18, 2012:

Rod Marsden— Hey! It is really good to "see" you. I hope all is well for you down there in Wollongong.

Thanks for the thumbs up and useful, friend. You do have a point about the American Revolution. My recollections of Russian history are that the clergy there served the people pretty well. Even after being outlawed for seventy years the Russian people still had a deep love for the Orthodox Church. Pretty amazing, methinks. And I do not recall that "the people" ever wanted to abolish the Church in Russia, only those few dozen atheists, the Bolshevik insiders did because Marx had taught them that the only way to have a communist state is if the State has no competition, so out goes the Church, as well as the Family.

As far as France goes, yes there was a poor harvest or maybe even several in a row. I agree with you about the propaganda against Queen Marie Antoinette. Not sure that the French Church didn't care about the peasants though. It seems the Church alleviated much suffering over the centuries in France. And not a few clergymen sided with the revolutionaries at first, not realizing it would turn about badly for them in the end. And yes, the king was weak. He did love his clocks, didn't he?

Well sir, I very much appreciate your thoughtful and insightful comments. Good to hear from you again.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 18, 2012:

Kieran Gracie— You are quite welcome, my friend. I appreciate the voted up and interesting. I am glad you found this story to be interesting.

Thank you very much for visiting and letting me know you were here with your kind comments. It is always a pleasure to hear from you.

James :)

Michael-Milec on September 18, 2012:

Dear James,

Thank you for an eye- opening piece of history presented at the time of need to know and to identify what is inconspicuously happening in this land of free ( used to ((be) ...).

From here ,to every classroom , every family-- is my humble desire, all to knov...

As this "horror" movement of ( hope and change) intensifies around the globe, not many are exempt..

The signs as "distribution..." ; " killing innocent" ; " equality "; offering lies in exchange for truth ; redirecting faith in God into the " religion of government"; buying favor of loyalty by money taken from working families ... ( you know the rest )

Your outstanding gift of writing has revived memories of a young boy, living trough the era of ongoing " horror" during the fascists occupation as well as implementing " hope and change " incoming communism and socialism in a country which doesn't exists anymore ...

( memories might fade, but never disappear thoroughly )

" Jacobins" (under other name), among all activities you've mentioned happening during the French Revolution , have been mercilessly performed, including making young boys to destroy the church building by hands...

( Thank God, this ended soon )

My plea to the readers would be to take the history lessen v e r y , very seriously and with the spiritual eye of discernment, see and recognize that when people forget and reject the God of the Universe, the things are rapidly changed from worse to worse under a god of this social system-- the devil himself.

Voted up, and high .

God bless you-richly, and you continue to be a blessing as you are.

Rod Marsden from Wollongong, NSW, Australia on September 17, 2012:

In the USA today there is a widening gap between rich and poor. In terms of health insurance the poor are in a bad way. Obama has made an effort to correct this in a small way. Throughout the western world poverty is growing and with it, in some areas, religious fanaticism and, in other areas, the opposite. The end result is still people living desperate lives and resorting to violence to shake the establishment up. The question that maybe should be asked is why didn't the English revolution of the early 19th Century eventuate? There was minor rioting in the countryside and the peasants were angry about the import tax on grain that made bread more expensive. There was also the lack of work and there was bad living conditions in the major towns and cities. The answer here was reform. It came in time to avert disaster.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 17, 2012:

sheila b.— It is great to hear from you again, my friend!

As you said so well, "In school we were told a nice fairy story about the peasants having no bread... so they revolted... killed the king and queen and lived happily ever after. "

Right. That is the official party line, comrade. :D

You said, "Interesting how the instigators always rile the peasants to revolt and in the end the peasants suffer even more."

Isn't it though?

Thank you for your excellent comments.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 17, 2012:

Angela Blair— Thank you so much for taking the time to read my article and offer such lovely laudations. Your nice note means a lot to me, Sis.

You wrote: "Throughout the whole piece I kept visualizing the state of our nation today and the horrible possibilities that could await us as more and more of our citizens deny and ridicule God."

Yes, indeed. Amen to that.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 17, 2012:

Hyphenbird— I am surely grateful to you for the wonderful compliments you paid me and my work. I am glad you enjoyed this piece and I sincerely appreciate the visit and your warm words.

James :-)

Kaie Arwen on September 16, 2012:

JJRBJ- There's nothing I can say about this article outside of "beautifully done." You may even have taught me a few things......... :-D .......... the section on the Illuminati was fascinating~ that in itself deserves its own Hub one day.

You wrote, "Ideological fanaticism caused the revolution to go wildly off course, ending in a disaster of massacre, bloodshed and ruin. The new rulers of France sought to remove and replace Christianity. They were the forerunners of Karl Marx, the Bolsheviks, and Chairman Mao. Perhaps 40,000 priests fled France; up to 5,000 of them were executed; and another 20,000, including 23 bishops, renounced Christ to save their own skins."

How many times in history have we seen this same pattern? Too many time to count........ unfortunately, the Devil seems to be able to use the same tactics over and over again.

Thanks for this~ the final product is fantastic, and your choice of "The Triumph of the Guillotine in Hell" by Nicolas Antoine Taunay as the opening image................ perfect! YF&A Kaie

Rod Marsden from Wollongong, NSW, Australia on September 15, 2012:

I'll give you a thumbs up and a useful. I disagree about the American revolution not being a revolution. A king lost his holdings in the Americas. Blood was shed. A form of democracy that was new though based on earlier models came into being thus a change of government and way of thinking. Sounds like revolution to me. And of course there was a war of independence as well.

There had been previous attempts at revolution before in France and they had all failed. There were a number of factors I believe for the success of the revolution you wrote about. A poor harvest for one. This usually kicks things off. The uncaring attitude of the Church in general toward the peasant. The rise of the middle class in France. Propaganda against the queen making her more unpopular than she need be. (The let them eat cake bit which she probably didn't say but was made out to being said by her in pamphlets anyway) Then there is the weak king. Everyone , including the king, would have been better off if he was a clock maker or clock repairman instead of a monarch.

I can't blame the peasants and the middle class from being angry with the clergy. They had grown fat while the peasants had starved. Mind you, there were probably parish priests or their equivalent that had always done their best for the poor and the middle class. It was the same thing with the Russian Revolution. The clergy in Russia had grown fat while the people starved. Hence they were not popular when revolution came.

Kieran Gracie on September 15, 2012:

A really interesting summary of the French Revolution from start to finish. I have always known that it was much more complicated than we ever learned from school or Hollywood but could never face one of those hefty histories crammed with so much bloodletting. Thank you James for your scholarly narrative that has put the whole saga into perspective for me. Voted up, of course, and interesting.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 14, 2012:

kashmir56— Hello there. I agree with your analysis that this could happen here. We have to remember that people there didn't think this would happen to them.

I am well pleased at your response to this piece of work. I am grateful for your awesome accolades, my friend. Thank you for sharing this article with your friends. That means a lot to me. And I appreciate the voted up and more as well, of course.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 14, 2012:

Esrom Art— You are quite welcome. It is good to hear from you. Thank you ever much for the lavish laudations!

God Bless You!

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 14, 2012:

dahoglund— Hello! Thank you very much for sharing this with your followers. That alone is high praise indeed. And I appreciate you adding this illuminating detail:

"many of the priests escaping the French Revolution came to the United States and were somewhat the prime influence on the American Catholic Church until the Irish came to dominate. "

Excellent observation!

sheila b. on September 13, 2012:

I knew about one third of what you told about the French Revolution. And what I knew was from my own reading, not from school. In school we were told a nice fairy story about the peasants having no bread... so they revolted... killed the king and queen and lived happily ever after. Interesting how the instigators always rile the peasants to revolt and in the end the peasants suffer even more. As for France today - ugh!

Angela Blair from Central Texas on September 13, 2012:

James -- you certainly enhanced my education with this Hub -- and so beautifully written. Throughout the whole piece I kept visualizing the state of our nation today and the horrible possibilities that could await us as more and more of our citizens deny and ridicule God. Excellent, exceptional work, my friend -- congratulations! Best/Sis

Brenda Barnes from America-Broken But Still Beautiful on September 13, 2012:

This is an incredible example of a real history lesson. You included so many little known details. I am a history buff and you taught me some things. Great, great job here James.

Thomas Silvia from Massachusetts on September 13, 2012:

Hi my friend James, WOW i have read some awesome hubs from your pen but this one is impressive and so well written it urged me to read more and more of this fascinating hub. I was never bored and always interested to read more . And ended up learning more about the French Revolution.

Vote up and more !!! SHARING !

I think if our government don't smarting up we may have a Revolution here in the U.S.A.

Esrom Aritonang from Indonesia on September 13, 2012:

I always love your hub, especially this one. French revolution is one of my favorite historical book. Thanks for write it rich brief fact and opinion about it. Marvelous, James. Keep write excellent hub for us. God bless you.

Don A. Hoglund from Wisconsin Rapids on September 13, 2012:

Hi James. This is a most impressive summary of the French Revolution and its aftermath. It is a lot to digest but I learned a lot that I did not know about the philosophy involved. One effect it had on our country is that many of the priests escaping the French Revolution came to the United States and were somewhat the prime influence on the American Catholic Church until the Irish came to dominate. Sharing this with my followers.

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 13, 2012:

old albion— Thank you for taking the time to read my Hub, Graham. You know that I appreciate the Voted up and all. I am also glad to read that you like the pictures. I hope I didn't run on too long. I whacked a few hundred words right at the end before I hit the "publish" button. Thanks again for your patience and your kind compliments.


James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 13, 2012:

newusedcarssacram— Thank you!! Thank you very much! :)

James A Watkins (author) from Chicago on September 13, 2012:

Faith Reaper— Thank you very much for being my first visitor! You have made my day with your awesome accolades. I am so glad that you liked this piece and thought enough of it to share it with your friends. I am grateful to you for the Voted Way Up and beyond. :-)

I appreciate your kind comments. I do not believe this is the way the French Revolution is presented in schools and colleges but I believe this is the Truth of what happened and why.

God Bless You!


Graham Lee from Lancashire. England. on September 13, 2012:

Well James. The longest and most interesting history lesson I have ever been given. Absolutely first class. From the revolution to Beyonce and modern day America. Photos were exceptional and your research and ability shine through. Well done indeed.

Voted up and all.


newusedcarssacram from Sacramento, CA, U.S.A on September 12, 2012:

Awesome writing...up!

Faith Reaper from southern USA on September 12, 2012:

James, James, James ----Whew!!! This is one brilliant, stunning, excellent, and astounding write. I am totally blown away by your sheer gift of writing. Your words, so very descriptive, were shocking at the pure truth of it all, painting a vivid picture so clearly, even without any imagery. However, the imagery here is amazing, especially of the actual beheaded man!!! When we leave God out of the picture, then begins that terrible downward spiral into pure depravity of mind and spirit. Here is the evidence!!! Voted Way Up and beyond, except funny of course. Bravo dear Brother.!!! Have to share this one. In His Love, Faith Reaper

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