Katie graduated from LDS Seminary, Institute of Religion and BYU. Her studies included both a religious and academic study of the Bible.
The Hittite, Aryan, and Mitanni Civilizations
The Hittites are frequently mentioned in the Bible, but little background information is given about them. This article summarizes how the Hittite Empire and Mitanni civilization came to be and their relationship to their common ancestors, the Aryans. It also gives a historical overview of the Hittite and Mitanni civilizations.
Hittites are Credited with the Invention of the Chariot
The Indo-Iranian or Indo-Iranic peoples are sometimes known as Aryans. This was a self-designated term but has fallen out of popular use among scholars due to negative modern day connotations. The Proto-Indo-Iranians are believed to be descendants of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. They are believed to be the people of the Sintashta culture and the Andronovo culture on the Eurasian steppe that borders the Ural River and Tian Shan.
The Indo-Aryans were nomadic and pastoral Indo-European people who settled in South Asia after 1500 BCE. They kept sheep, goats, cattle, and horses and worshipped Indra. Indra was a God known for fighting, feasting, and drinking. When the Aryans came into conflict with the Dravidian peoples, who were already living in the Indian peninsula, they took Indra as their guide. Eventually, they intermarried and united with the Dravidian people.
The Indo-Aryans had to import horses because they didn’t breed well in India. Cattle were the principal measure of wealth in the Aryan society. Centuries later, due to the religious beliefs of the Indo-Aryans' descendants, cattle would come to be seen as sacred and unfit for consumption.
The Indo-Iranians are frequently credited with the invention of the chariot. With its help, it is believed that they underwent several waves of migration. Scholars believe that they moved from their homelands north of the Caspian Sea to the Caucasia (a region between the Black and Caspian Seas), Central Asia (Caspian Sea through China), the Iranian plateau, and Northern India, with smaller groups migrating to Mesopotamia and Syria. These migrations explain the introduction of the horse and chariot to the cultures of these areas.
The modern day languages: Albanian, Armenian, Latvian, Lithuanian, German, Dutch, English, Greek, Sanskrit, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Czech, and their extinct predecessors, as well as the extinct languages of the Hittites, Lycians, and Lydians, Ancient Greek, Latin, and Prussia, and many others, are classified as Indo-European languages. They all have grammatical structures that suggest that they originally descended from one language, known as the Proto-Indo-European language.
Scholars are unsure but believe that this language was spoken by a group of people they call the Proto-Indo-Europeans. It is believed that they lived in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, which is now eastern Ukraine and Southern Russia. As the domestication of horses allowed, and the invention and spread of agriculture forced, the Proto-Indo-European people spread across the Indian subcontinent, the Ancient Near East, Europe and parts of Asia.
They became the ancestors of the Anatolians, Armenians, Mycenaean Greeks and the Indo-Iranians during the Bronze Age. These groups were the primary ancestors of the Indo-Aryans, the Iranians (who included the Scythians, Persians, and Medes), the Celts (including the Gauls, Celtiberians, and Insular Celts), the Hellenic people, the Italic peoples, the Germanic peoples and the Paleo-Balkans/Anatolians (which included the Thracians, Dacians, Illyrians, and Phrygians) of the Iron Ages and the Balts, Slavs, Tocharians, Albanians, Medieval Europeans, Greater Persians and Medieval Indians of the Middle Ages.
The first wave of Indo-Iranians to migrate are known as Indo-Aryans. They settled in Anatolia, modern day Asia Minor, which is bounded by the Black, Mediterranean and Aegean Seas and the Indian Subcontinent. Those that settled in Anatolia were the primary ancestors of the Hittites and Mitanni. Those that settled in India, mixed with the Late Harappan cultures in the Indus River Valley and were the primary ancestors of the Vedic people. This wave migrated about 1500-1600 BCE.
The second wave of Indo-Iranians to migrate are known as the Iranian wave. This wave gave rise to the Scythians, Sarmatian tribes, Medes, Parthians, and Persians. This wave began during the 8th century BCE and continued through the 1st and 2nd centuries of the Common Era.
Hittite Empire Location
Indo-Aryans gave rise to the Hittite and Mitanni empires after settling in the Iranian plane. Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite empire established in the late Bronze Age (About 1600 BCE). Hattusa lies near modern Bogazkale, Turkey. The height of the Hittite Empire was in the mid-14th century BCE. At that time, the Hittite Empire was ruled by Suppiluliuma I and encompassed Asia Minor, parts of the Northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.
The empire collapsed around 1180 BCE with the civil unrest that occurred during this time. Possible causes for this unrest include the end of the Bronze Age, the dissolution of trade networks, and the arrival of Sea People, raiders of unknown origin (possibly from Western Anatolia or Southern Europe) who travelled by sea. This collapse created several Neo-Hittite or Syro-Hittite states who spoke Luwian, Aramaic, and Phoenician. These states eventually fell under the control of the Neo-Assyrian Empire between 911 and 608 BCE.
Locations of the Hittite Empire and Mitanni civilization
The Mitanni people were also known as Hanigalbat in Assyrian and Naharin in Egyptian texts. They lived in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 BCE-1300 BCE. They become the rulers over Babylon after the Hittites destroyed the ruling Amoritish Dynasty in the 1500s BCE. Egypt was originally their biggest rival. However, as the Hittite empire arose, the Mitanni people made alliances with Egypt to protect both groups from falling to Hittite control. Eventually, they fell to Hittite and Assyrian attacks and were reduced to a province during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1392 BCE-934 BCE).
Bentley, Jerry H., Herbert F. Ziegler, Heather Streets-Salter, and Craig Benjamin. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the past. Vol. 1. McGraw-Hill Education, 2016. Print.
"The Hittites and Ancient Anatolia (article)." Khan Academy. Web.
Aditya Raj Sharma on June 09, 2019:
But now paradigms are changing and many historians as well as archaeologists believe that the aryan invasion theory was a brilliant piece of propoganda devised by the colonizers to subjugate the indian masses.
T.B. Macaulay, who introduced Western education system in India once said in the British Parliament in the year 1835 that:
"I have traveled across the length and breadth of India and I have not seen one person who is a beggar, who is a thief. Such wealth I have seen in this country, such high moral values, people of such calibre, that I do not think we would ever conquer this country, unless we break the very backbone of this nation, which is her spiritual and cultural heritage, and, therefore, I propose that we replace her old and ancient education system, her culture, for if the Indians think that all that is foreign and English is good and greater than their own, they will lose their self-esteem, their native self-culture and they will become what we want them, a truly dominated nation."
And hence they diverted their efforts to make indians believe that they owe their roots, their history, their tradition and their knowledge to the Europeans themselves hence devising the Aryan invasion theory which served their purpose by debasing the Indians and also creating a rift between the north and sout Indians.
Moreover, the aryans in their rig veda, the oldest written document, mentions nothing about any "migration" and calls the bharatvarsh (the greater india) their motherland.
Also they describe the saraswati river as a goddess flowing in her full wake in their times thus completely uprooting the theory that they migrated somewhat around 2000BC, because the saraswati river starting drying up during 4000BC.
Just saying by the way!
Petrus on February 05, 2019:
Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) has been debunked with more and more supporting evidence that is coming to light. AIT was a political tool.
Sara on October 09, 2015:
Excuse me, I cannot post links and articles on videos and the internet, but I would like to get links and articles from both Google and Wikipedia, where it says, mittani and hitties were Indo - Aryan or Indo - iranian. Thank you very much.
Very good written. I loved it. Keep writing more on Google and Wikipedia that both Mittani and the Hitties were Aryans. Thanks
Sara on October 09, 2015:
So both the Mittani and Hitties Indo - Aryan. Because the texts says so.
Kevin Goodwin on August 16, 2015:
Very informative hub and answer by lawrenc01 that treaty was only made in order to save for Raamses to save his reputation, very well put.
Lawrence Hebb from Hamilton, New Zealand on July 13, 2015:
The earliest peace treaty we know of was between Raamses ll of Egypt and the Mitanni/ Hittites around 1275 BC.
Raamses reported it as a huge succes for Egypt but excavations showed it was more of a Hittite victory with the big difference was the Egyprians were using light chariots with a swordsman but the Hittites used heavier chariots with bowmen, kind of like a mobile artillery.
kbdressman (author) from Harlem, New York on July 02, 2015:
I'm glad you enjoyed it, Anamtweetie!
Anamtweetie on July 02, 2015: