The Lighthouses of Maine
Maine's Most Famous Lighthouse
Not only is the Portland Head Light the most photographed of all Maine lights, but it is also the oldest, having been completed in 1791 after being commissioned by President George Washington and then constructed with federal funds. The lighthouse is still in operation today, as it is maintained by the Coast Guard and has a powerful beacon, which can be seen 24 miles out to sea.
Besides being the most photographed lighthouse in America, the landmark structure has been subject of an Edward Hopper painting, a Longfellow poem and featured in the movie, Snow Falling on Cedars.
A Metal Lighthouse Shaped Like a Spark Plug
Maine Lighthouses In General
Overall, there are sixty lighthouses dotting the rugged coastline of Maine. They begin with the southernmost Whaleback Light at Kittery and continue northeast to the West Quoddy Head Light in Lubec, which is the easternmost lighthouse in the United States.
Most of the lighthouses were built during the nineteenth century, but a few date back into the 1700s, while a few others weren't constructed until the 20th century. Many sit on the mainland and can be visited by auto, but others are situated offshore on islands and can only be reached by boat. Eight of the Maine lighthouses are privately owned, including the Tenants Harbor Light, which is owned by renown artist, Jamie Wyeth.
An Old Stone Lighthouse at Pemaquid Point
The earliest lighthouses, such as the one at Portland Head, was constructed from field rubblestone gathered locally. Soon thereafter, quarried limestone became a popular building material, as it was readily available within the state. The lighthouse at Pemaquid was built from this material.. Over the years construction materials have varied with builders using granite blocks, kiln-fired bricks, concrete, cast iron and even wood to put up a lighthouse.
Sequin Island Lighthouse
The first lights on the Maine Coast were powered from whale oil and magnified by parabolic reflectors. This practice continued in various forms until at least 1822, when the Fresnel lens replaced the reflectors to create a much more powerful optical magnification. However, the whale oil continued in use until mid-century(1800s), when wild cabbage oil became employed and then kerosene as the fuel source.
By the turn of the century the first electric lamps were being used to illuminate the darkness, though the Fresnel lens was still a mainstay for concentrating and magnifying the light into a powerful beam. Today, the Fresnel lights are gradually being phased out and placed by more modern beacons.
Only 84 lighthouses in the U.S. still use the Fresnel lens and eight of them are in Maine. These lights can be found at Sequin Island, Browns Head, Fort Point, Owls Head, Pemaquid Point, Bass Harbor, Spring Ledge and West Quoddy. For those who wish to see a Fresnel lens firsthand, the place to go is the Maine Lighthouse Museum in Rockland, Maine.
Blackboard Fresnel Lens
The Tiny Bug Light
Where To Go
With over 60 lighthouses to choose from it is a difficult decision to decide where to go. If you consider that many are located on offshore islands, then the choice gets simpler. Here is a list of the top ten as compiled by freelance writer, James Nalley. In order of ascending popularity they are Owls Head, Seguin Island, Burnt Island, Portland Breakwater (Bug Light), Monhegan Island, Pemaquid Point, Marshall Point, Bass Harbor, West Quoddy and of course number one, the Portland Head Light.
http://www.mainelighthousemuseum.com/ Maine Lighthouse Museum
http://www.seathelights.com/other/anatomy.html Anatomy of a Lighthouse
http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/lighthouse/me.htm Lighthouses of the United States: Eastern Maine
http://listosaur.com/travel/top-10-maine-lighthouses-to-visit.html Top 10 Maine Lighthouses To Visit
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland_Head_Light Portland Head Light
Questions & Answers
© 2012 Harry Nielsen