The Roman Baths in Somerset: A Hot Spring and a Goddess - Owlcation - Education
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The Roman Baths in Somerset: A Hot Spring and a Goddess

Linda Crampton grew up in the UK and loves to visit the country. She is very interested in its natural history, culture, and history.

The Great Bath in the city of Bath, England; the bath, the light grey base of the surrounding pillars, and the passageway date from Ancient Roman times

The Great Bath in the city of Bath, England; the bath, the light grey base of the surrounding pillars, and the passageway date from Ancient Roman times

The City of Bath, Ancient Romans, and Celts

The beautiful city of Bath in Somerset is best known for its wonderful Georgian architecture and a fascinating complex called the Roman Baths. The complex was established by the Ancient Romans during their occupation of Britain and modified by later generations. It contains a natural hot spring, artificial pools that collect the spring water, and special rooms related to the ritual of taking a bath. It once contained an impressive temple as well.

The Ancient Romans used the baths as a spa and as a place to worship their goddess Sulis Minerva. The bath complex was famous and attracted many visitors from Britain and Europe. Before the Romans arrived in Britain, however, the hot spring that feeds today's baths and the natural pool that it created were sacred for Celtic people. They believed that the goddess Sulis presided over the spring.

Bath is located in Somerset (the red area in the map)

Bath is located in Somerset (the red area in the map)

The Geothermal or Hot Springs of Bath

Bath is situated in the county of Somerset, which is located in South West England. The city contains the only natural hot springs in Britain. Other geothermal springs exist in the country, but the temperature of their water is much lower.

Bath contains three natural springs: the Sacred Spring, the Cross Bath Spring, and the Hetling Spring. The Roman Baths owe their existence to the Sacred Spring, which is also known as the King's Spring after King Henry 1. Artificial boreholes have created other springs in the city in addition to the natural ones.

1,170,000 litres of water (240,000 imperial gallons) at a temperature of 46 degrees Celsius (about 115 degrees Fahrenheit) are released from the sacred spring every day. This awesome output has been a daily occurrence for thousands of years. Today the water emerges in the Roman Bath complex. The overflow from the baths flows into the River Avon, which runs through the city of Bath.

The springs in Bath are geothermal springs because their water is heated by activity below the Earth's surface. Researchers say that the basic process involved is as follows. First, rain seeps into the ground and enters the limestone rocks underlying the countryside around Bath. The water is then heated by geological activity within the Earth. The heated water travels under pressure through fault lines or fractures in rock and emerges as a spring. The details of this process are still being investigated. For example, although it's often claimed that the water source of the spring is rain falling on the Mendip Hills, some researchers think that this is unlikely.

A Quick Tour of Bath by Rick Steves

The Celts were a group of people who lived in Iron Age Britain. The dates given for this period vary, but the Iron Age is often said to have lasted from between 800 BC and 750 BC until the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 AD.

The Sacred Spring in Celtic Times

The Sacred Spring would once have been located in a steaming and bubbling pool surrounded by mud and marsh. The sight must have been awe inspiring for the Romans, the Celts, and the people who occupied the area before the Celts. It's easy to understand why they believed that a deity must have been in control of the spring.

The Celts believed that the goddess Sulis (or Sul) was the guardian of the hot spring. They may have believed that she was a goddess with healing powers, as was true for other Celtic goddesses of springs. Modern tests have shown that the spring water in Bath is rich in minerals, including magnesium, which can be absorbed through the skin. The minerals or the heat of the water may help certain ailments suffered by people who immerse themselves in the water or drink it. The Celts likely knew about the healing power of the water (or, according to their beliefs, of Sulis).

Over time, people may have embellished the area around the spring to honour its goddess. The Celts are not known for building temples for their deities, however. Their gods and goddesses were part of nature and were worshipped in nature. The local people may have marked the area around the spring in some way, such as by stones, or they may have left the area in a completely natural condition. Sadly, we may never know what the area looked like to the people of the time.

There is just one piece of evidence that indicates that the Celts may have made some changes to the area around the Sacred Spring. The Roman Baths website says that investigators have found what seems to be part of a constructed causeway or bank projecting into the spring. This structure is believed to date from Celtic times.

A photo of the Circular Bath at the Roman Bath complex that was created between 1890 and 1900 and colourized to create a photochrom

A photo of the Circular Bath at the Roman Bath complex that was created between 1890 and 1900 and colourized to create a photochrom

The Dubunni or Dobunni

The Celtic tribe that lived near the hot spring at the time of the Roman invasion was called the Dubunni (or the Dobunni). Despite the warlike reputation of the Celts, the Dubunni seem to have been farmers and craftsmen rather than warriors. They lived on farms, in villages, and in a larger settlement situated in the modern city of Cirencester in the county of Gloucestershire. They also had their own coinage.

The literature reports that unlike some Celtic tribes the Dubunni accepted the presence of the Romans in Somerset without resistance and lived peacefully—and even beneficially—beside them. Although the Romans invaded Britain, the results were not always typical of an invasion. Some Celtic tribal leaders were given positions of power in the new regime and a hybrid society with a distinctive Romano-British culture developed in certain areas, including the area around Bath.

Part of a mosaic floor at the Roman Baths

Part of a mosaic floor at the Roman Baths

The Romans and a Hot Spring

When the Romans discovered the hot spring, they realized its potential as both a spiritual centre and as part of a wonderful bath house. Construction is believed to have started around 65 AD. The Romans built an enclosure around the spring and its pool, constructed pipes to carry hot water out of the pool, and built reservoirs to collect the drained water. The reservoirs acted as baths. As time passed, the complex became more elaborate.

The spring was eventually enclosed by a building. This building had a vaulted roof, as researchers know from the collapsed remnants gathered from the spring in modern times. The interior of the building would have had a dark and steamy atmosphere. This would have added to the mystery and awe of being near the goddess. The building was located in a courtyard that contained an altar and steps leading up to a temple, which was situated on a podium. Unfortunately, the temple no longer exists, but remnants have been found and placed in the museum in the bath complex.

The complex was surrounded by a Roman city called Aquae Sulis (Waters of Sulis). Aquae Sulis became a popular spa and religious centre and attracted visitors from Europe as well as Britain. It eventually became the modern city of Bath.

Roman Baths and Museum in the City of Bath

The Celtic and Roman Goddess Sul or Sulis

The Romans seemed to have no problems incorporating the veneration of Sulis and other Celtic deities into their own religious beliefs. At first the name "Sulis" was maintained, as can be seen from the inscriptions on some interesting curse tablets recovered from the spring. The curse tablets were sheets of lead or pewter inscribed with requests for the goddess to punish people for offences, such as stealing someone's belongings at the baths. For the Romans at least, Sulis seems to have been associated with punitive justice.

The severity of the requested punishments in proportion to the crimes committed is rather alarming by today's standards. Some requests even ask for the death of the thief. A curse from a man whose hooded cloak was stolen is shown below. It's believed to date from the second century and can be seen on the Roman Baths website. The gaps represent areas that can't be read.

"Docilianus son of Brucerus to the most holy goddess Sulis. I curse him who has stolen my hooded cloak, whether man or woman, whether slave or free, that .. the goddess Sulis inflict death upon .. and not allow him sleep or children now and in the future, until he has brought my hooded cloak to the temple of her divinity."

The sentence in the curses were sometimes written backwards, or from right to left, forming a type of code. Very interestingly, one of the tablets recovered from the spring is inscribed with a previously unknown language, which is believed to be a Celtic one.

People threw many different objects into the sacred spring, believing that they were sending them to the goddess. These objects included coins, bracelets, brooches, and jugs as well as curse tablets. Most of the coins recovered from the spring are Roman, but some were Celtic.

Although no evidence that Sulis was considered to be a healing goddess has been discovered at the bath complex, the remains of a temple to Aesculapius have been found near the Cross Bath Spring. Aesculapius was a Roman god of healing.

The head of a statue of Sulis Minerva from the temple at the Roman Baths

The head of a statue of Sulis Minerva from the temple at the Roman Baths

The Roman Goddess Sulis Minerva

After initially accepting Celtic deities, the Romans often blended these deities with their own gods and goddesses who had similar characteristics, a phenomenon known as syncretism. Sulis eventually became fused with the Roman goddess Minerva and became known as Sulis Minerva. Minerva was the Roman goddess of wisdom and handicrafts. At some time in her history, she was also known as the goddess of medicine and of war. Apparently, the Romans saw enough similarity between Minerva and Sulis that they considered them to be the same deity.

A strigil used to scrape dirt from oiled skin

A strigil used to scrape dirt from oiled skin

Role of Baths in the Lives of Ancient Romans

Although the Roman Baths in the city of Bath are the most famous, there are remains of other bath complexes in Britain. Baths were not only a place to clean oneself but also a place to exercise, socialize, and conduct business. Snacks and drinks were available for people to enjoy. Some large bath complexes contained meeting rooms, libraries, gardens, and other facilities. The entrance fee to a bathhouse was small, so most people (except slaves) could afford to take frequent baths.

Ancient Roman bath complexes have been likened to today's recreation centres, which generally have places to exercise, showers for washing the body, and a place to eat and chat with friends and associates. The recreation centre near my home also contains a library, just like some Roman bath complexes.

Taking a bath was a public and multistep process for Ancient Romans. Only the richest people had a bath complex on their own property. The process started with the removal of clothes. The bather then entered a series of rooms or baths at different temperatures. Three important rooms during this process were the tepidarium with its warm bath, the caldarium with its hot bath, and the frigidarium with its cold one. Heat was used to open the pores and increase sweating in order to help clean the skin. An exercise session would also cause sweating. A brief dip in a cold bath was designed to close the pores and be refreshing.

At some point in the bath, a slave or bath attendant massaged the bather with oils and scraped their skin with a metal tool called a strigil to remove dirt. At Bath, a swim in the Great Bath would probably have been part of the bathing ritual as well.

Pools are located on both the west and the east side of the complex at Bath. They may have been arranged in this way to allow males and females to bathe separately at a discrete distance from one another. Although males and females often took baths separately, in some complexes they bathed together.

Bath Abbey; the Roman Baths are on the immediate right of the abbey and the Pump Room is next to the baths

Bath Abbey; the Roman Baths are on the immediate right of the abbey and the Pump Room is next to the baths

The Departure of the Romans From Britain

After the Romans left Britain in the fifth century, the buildings of the bath complex gradually fell into disrepair and collapsed and the spring outlet became blocked with silt. The complex became nonfunctional and stayed that way for hundreds of years. The temple begun to disintegrate even before the Romans left because the Christian Emperor Theodosius ordered all pagan temples in the Roman Empire to be closed in 391 AD.

The King's Bath was built in the twelfth century. This marked the beginning of renewed interest in the baths. Excavations gradually revealed the extent of the complex and it eventually became a popular and fashionable healing centre. Modifications in the structure of the complex were made at various times so that today the area is a mixture of architecture from different periods in history. Evidence of the original Roman complex can still be seen, though.

The entrance to the Roman Baths was built in Victorian times.

The entrance to the Roman Baths was built in Victorian times.

The Great Bath Today

A visitor to the Roman Baths today enters the Victorian entrance hall to buy a ticket. They then walk onto a terrace overlooking the Great Bath. This is the biggest pool in the complex and is open to the sun and sky, although in Roman times it had a roof. The bath has interesting statues of Roman military figures on its perimeter, which were created in the late nineteenth century. The water in the Great Bath is a beautiful green colour. This colour is produced by photosynthetic algae. The passageway around the Great Bath and the bottom of the pillars date from Ancient Roman times.

The Great Bath must have been a wonderful asset during the time of the Ancient Romans, since it allowed people to swim in the water instead of just bathe. The public isn't allowed to enter the Great Bath today, though. Water enters the pool through the original lead pipes laid down by the Ancient Romans, which is an amazing fact but is also a health concern due to the leaching of lead. A more serious concern is the possibility of infection. In 1978, a teenage girl swam in the Great Bath with her swimming club. Unfortunately, she became infected with an amoeba called Naegleria fowleri (the "brain-eating" amoeba) and died from meningitis.

People who would like to bathe in hot spring water can do so at the Thermae Bath Spa, which obtains its water from all three of Bath's springs, and at other baths In the city. The water for these baths is supplied through boreholes that have been drilled into the springs in order to access their water from a lower level. This deeper water has a lower oxygen content that prevents Naegleria fowleri from surviving.

The King's Bath

A photo of the Great Bath is often used in an article about the city of Bath (including this one). The bath is certainly impressive, but there are other interesting things to see in the complex. If a visitor walks beyond the Great Bath, they will see smaller baths, including the King's Bath. The complex also contains rooms without water that were once heated as well as an interesting museum.

Underneath the floor of the King's Bath is the sacred spring that was revered by the Celts. Water from the spring rises up through a shaft into the King's Bath and is channeled to other baths in the complex. Also under the floor of the bath are remains of the courtyard that was in front of the temple of Sulis Minerva.

According to the Roman Baths website, the builders of the King's Bath used the lower part of the walls of the Roman building enclosing the spring as a foundation for their new bath. Investigators are able to explore the structure of the baths because the water can be drained from them with the aid of a sluice.

The Hypocaust: A Heating System

A hypocaust was an Ancient Roman system of underground heating that warmed a room or rooms in a building. The floor of the room was raised and supported by piles of tiles and concrete. Wood was burned in an outside furnace tended by slaves to create the heat. The heat travelled into the building below the floor, moved upwards through spaces in the walls, and then left the house through a chimney. This enabled a room to be heated without filling the room with smoke. Part of a hypocaust system at the Roman Bath complex has survived and is on display.

The Museum

The museum in the bath complex contains a collection of both interior and exterior remains of the temple. These include the head of a Sulis Minerva statue, decorations from the outside of the temple, and a section of a mosaic floor. The interesting exhibits include coins and other objects collected from the spring. A visitor can also see the original drains created by the Romans to take water away from the complex and deliver it to the nearby River Avon.

The museum contains a model showing the complex as it was believed to exist in the fourth century. Hopefully, in the future more remains of the temple will be discovered to give us a better idea of its appearance.

The fountain that serves hot spring water in the Pump Room Restaurant

The fountain that serves hot spring water in the Pump Room Restaurant

The Pump Room Restaurant

The bath complex also contains the eighteenth century Pump Room Restaurant, often known as simply the "Pump Room". The restaurant contains an ornate water fountain which delivers spring water to visitors. My paternal grandparents lived in Bath. When I was a child, a visit to my grandparents usually involved a visit to the Pump Room for afternoon tea and a sample of the spring water. As I remember, the water had a strange smell and taste. It was once the custom to drink large quantities of the water for its supposed healing abilities. Today the fountain in the restaurant distributes water from a new borehole to prevent a Naegleria fowleri infection.

The spring overflow from the bath complex; the bricks are the original ones laid down by the Romans

The spring overflow from the bath complex; the bricks are the original ones laid down by the Romans

When this article was last updated, the Roman Baths website offered a virtual exploration of part of the complex via Google Street View technology. A link to the website is provided in the "References" section below. The site also shows what the area may have looked like in Roman times when the temple existed.

Discoveries About Ancient Roman Life in Bath

The modern city of Bath is built on top of the Ancient Roman city. This is why the Great Bath is below ground level today. New and exciting discoveries are being made about Roman buildings in the city, but the process of discovery is necessarily slow. Historians have to take advantage of the times when modern buildings and constructions are being renovated or demolished to see what lies beneath them, as well as wait for funding for their excavations.

There could be a treasure trove of information about Aquae Sulis hiding under Bath. On the other hand, future discoveries could be limited and many details about life in the ancient past could be lost in time. I'm hoping that this isn't the case and that the lives of Ancient Romans in Aquae Sulis continue to be revealed.

References

  • The Roman Baths website not only has information about visiting the museum but also has educational material about the bath complex. The site has a page dedicated to the curse tablets found in the baths.
  • The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) has a web page about the native tribes present in Britain at the time of the Roman invasion, including the Dubunni.
  • The BBC has also published an interesting article about how Britain and some other parts of the world became Roman.

© 2014 Linda Crampton

Comments

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 05, 2016:

Hi, aesta1. It's interesting to hear that you visited the bath complex! Thank you very much for the kind comment.

Mary Norton from Ontario, Canada on January 05, 2016:

I was lucky to have visited here but even better is reading your hub. I now have a better understanding of these baths.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 19, 2015:

Thank you for the congratulations, Faith. I hope you have a wonderful week, too!

Faith Reaper from southern USA on January 19, 2015:

Congrats on the HOTD! Well-deserved.

I hope you have a wonderful week.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Thank you very much for the visit and the lovely comment, ArtDiva.

ArtDiva on January 18, 2015:

Fascinating history lesson and tour through the ages. Well written, researched and presented— an all around enjoyable and good read.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Hi, PDXBuys. Thank you for the comment. I'm glad to hear from another person who thinks that Bath is beautiful and amazing!

PDXBuys from Oregon on January 18, 2015:

Thank you for the great article. I visited this location in 1986. It is beautiful and amazing. I wish I'd had a better camera at the time. Anyone visiting England should put it on the must-see list!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Thank you for such a kind comment, Mary! I appreciate it very much. Thanks for the votes and the share, too.

Mary Hyatt from Florida on January 18, 2015:

It's easy to see why this Hub got HOTD! You did a lot of research to supply all this information, and the photos were outstanding!

I would love to see these baths in person. I've been in hot baths in Costa Rica, but they don't claim to have healing powers; just nice to enjoy the warm water.

Voted UP, etc. Also shared.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Hi, pstraubie. Thank you so much for the comment and the vote! I appreciate your visit very much.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Hi, traveleze. Thank you very much for the comment! I share your opinion about Bath. It's a beautiful city.

Patricia Scott from North Central Florida on January 18, 2015:

What a wonderful experience the bath was. It could be a most relaxing experience, no doubt.

Lucky you to visit the Pump Room and have that memory to recall now.

Absolutely deserving of HOTD, congrats Voted up up and away

Lee John from Preston on January 18, 2015:

Bath is simply one of the beautifulest city in the UK and the World!, My cousin studied there when i visited her i was amazed at such beauty! I would recommend bath to anyway! thanks stunning article! x

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Thanks for the amusing comment, poetryman6969!

poetryman6969 on January 18, 2015:

Yeah, if I found myself naked in public because someone had stolen my clothes at the public bath I would definitely curse them!

Nice hub.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Thank you very much for the votes and the share, chef-de-jour. I agree - Ancient Roman technology is very impressive!

Andrew Spacey from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK on January 18, 2015:

Some useful information and insights here, thank you. How canny these Romans were - baths, underfloor heating, olive oil massages and the like! I've been to many places in my time but not yet managed to visit this most famous of baths. Your article invites.

Votes and a share.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Thank you very much, Flourish. I appreciate the congratulations and your kind comment.

FlourishAnyway from USA on January 18, 2015:

Congratulations on HOTD, Linda. I recall reading this -- very impressive and well worth the award.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 18, 2015:

Thank you very much for the second visit and the congratulations, Heidi! I hope you have a great weekend, too.

Heidi Thorne from Chicago Area on January 18, 2015:

I enjoyed this hub when you first published it. Congrats on Hub of the Day! Well deserved for this beautiful and interesting hub. Have a great weekend!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on January 04, 2015:

Thanks for the visit, Arachnea. Good luck with your hub.

Tanya Jones from Texas USA on January 04, 2015:

This goes on my list of places I hope to visit. I have a hub started from a few months ago which I intend, full well to complete.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on December 12, 2014:

Thank you very much, Anne! I appreciate your visit and comment.

Anne Harrison from Australia on December 12, 2014:

A fascinting hub; the amount of detail you have included is impressive. I did not realize the size of the place. Most definitely on the bucket list now, thank you

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on November 05, 2014:

Thank you, VioletteRose. I think you'll enjoy the baths if you visit them!

VioletteRose from Atlanta on November 05, 2014:

Very interesting, I enjoyed reading this hub :) I hope to visit these one day!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on September 19, 2014:

Thank you very much, Kim! I'd love to visit the baths again in the near future. The city and the baths are great places to explore.

இڿڰۣ-- кιмвєяℓєу from Niagara Region, Canada on September 19, 2014:

Oh, how I wish to visit. This hub was extremely well done. The history behind the baths are incredible. I need to add this to my bucket list. LOL. Great job. Kim

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 04, 2014:

You're welcome, gardener den!

Dennis Hoyman from Southwestern, Pennsylvania on August 04, 2014:

Thank You My grandfather my Dads father is from Somerset County in Pennsylvania. You are very helpful. And Thank You Again!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 04, 2014:

Hi, gardener den. I didn't know the answer to your question so I checked on the website of the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce in the United States. I found that the county is indeed named after Somerset in England!

Dennis Hoyman from Southwestern, Pennsylvania on August 04, 2014:

AliciaC I have a question for you. I live in Westmoreland County Pennsylvania. In the county east of Westmoreland County is Somerset County it the county that borders Westmoreland to the east. Do you think that Somerset County Pennsylvania is named after Somerset County in England were the city of Bath is located? Would you know anything about this?

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 04, 2014:

Thank you very much for the kind comment, gardener den! I appreciate your visit.

Dennis Hoyman from Southwestern, Pennsylvania on August 04, 2014:

AliciaC

Great Hub and enjoyed all the information. Allot to learn about the Romans. You are a great story teller. Gardener Den.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 23, 2014:

Thank you so much for such a lovely comment, Deb! I appreciate it very much.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 23, 2014:

Hi, Chatkath. It's great to hear from you again! Thank you very much for the kind comment.

Deb Hirt from Stillwater, OK on July 23, 2014:

What a wonderful and historical lesson. Impressive work, enlightening, and certainly done in a manner to hold one's attention.

Kathy from California on July 23, 2014:

Wow. Wish I would have read this before my one and only trip to England in 1997. You have summarized the beauty and significance of Bath quite literally. Great detail and well organized history. Cheers

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 20, 2014:

Hi, Dianna. Thank you very much for the comment. Yes, health spas are reminiscent of Roman baths. The objects in the spring have been recovered and some of them are on display in the museum.

Dianna Mendez on July 20, 2014:

Your research on this topic is so interesting to read. I suppose our spas have whirlpools that would almost equal the purpose, but the beauty is far from equal. I wonder what they did with all the objects thrown into the spring? Thanks for sharing on this topic.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 19, 2014:

Thank you very much for the visit and the comment, Vellur. I appreciate them both!

Nithya Venkat from Dubai on July 19, 2014:

Great hub about Roman Baths, enjoyed reading. Interesting and informative hub.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 18, 2014:

Thank you very much, Audrey. I hope you make it to Bath and that you enjoy your visit!

Audrey Howitt from California on July 18, 2014:

Wonderful article--I am hoping to visit Bath next year!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 17, 2014:

Thank you so much for the lovely comment, Mel! I appreciate it a great deal.

Mel Carriere from San Diego California on July 17, 2014:

Fascinating travelogue and history lesson all rolled into one. Your writing style is very engaging and captivating. Awesome hub!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 15, 2014:

Thank you very much for the kind comment, Rebecca. The Roman Bath complex is a fascinating topic to write about!

Rebecca Mealey from Northeastern Georgia, USA on July 15, 2014:

An interesting read. Those ancient people and cities are fascinating to learn about and you did a fantastic job researching and presenting info on the Roman Baths.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 15, 2014:

Thank you very much for the comment, the vote and the shares, Bill! Yes, I'm sure you would enjoy visiting the Roman Baths and the city of Bath as well. There is a lot to see in the area.

Bill De Giulio from Massachusetts on July 15, 2014:

Hi Linda. Sounds like a place I need to add to my list. How interesting. What a fascinating history to Bath. Great job. Voted up, shared, pinned, etc... Thanks for the history lesson.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 14, 2014:

Thank you very much, Devika. I appreciate your visit and comment!

Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on July 14, 2014:

You have created such a beautiful hub. I like the photos and the way you chose to inform us on an interesting topic.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 14, 2014:

Thank you for the comment and the votes, Nadine. I hope you see the Roman Baths for yourself one day.

Nadine May from Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa on July 14, 2014:

Many thanks for this very interesting article about Bath and the Ancient Roman bath complexes. Next time I'm visiting the UK I must try to visit this beautiful city of Bath in Somerset. Voted up, awesome.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 13, 2014:

Thanks so much for the comment, votes and share, Heidi! The people of the time were certainly excellent engineers. It's amazing what they accomplished.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 13, 2014:

Thank you very much, MG Singh!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 13, 2014:

Hi, Cynthia. Thanks for the comment. I know what you mean about not visiting something on your doorstep! I visited somewhere nearby recently and wondered why I'd never been there before.

Heidi Thorne from Chicago Area on July 13, 2014:

What a beautiful hub! I've seen some about these amazing structures on TV documentaries. Incredible feats of engineering for the time. This would be a must-see on a trip to the UK. Thanks for sharing! Voted up, beautiful, interesting and sharing!

MG Singh from UAE on July 13, 2014:

This is an excellent hub. Thanks for it

CMHypno from Other Side of the Sun on July 13, 2014:

Thanks for a fascinating hub on the Roman Baths Alicia and marvellous photos. I haven't been to Bath in many years and shamefully did not visit the Roman Baths. Its funny how when things are on your own doorstep, just a train ride away, you don't go and visit.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 12, 2014:

Thank you, DzyMsLizzy! I appreciate your comment as well as the vote and the share. I didn't realize that so many British place names were transplanted to New England!

Liz Elias from Oakley, CA on July 12, 2014:

Most fascinating, indeed! What a well-done tour through place and time.

I am struck by just how many place-names were directly transplanted from that area to New England: Exeter, Weymouth, Portsmouth, Taunton, Swansea, Gloucester.....

Voted up++ and shared.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 12, 2014:

Thank you very much, Monis Mas. Yes, I think the Roman Baths are amazing!

Agaltom on July 12, 2014:

This place looks amazing. Very interesting hub!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 12, 2014:

Thanks so much for the comment, the vote and the shares, Flourish! I agree - Ancient Roman technology is impressive. They were a very creative people.

FlourishAnyway from USA on July 12, 2014:

This was a terrific hub with its historical information and photos. My family and I were lucky enough to visit several years ago and very much enjoyed the visit. Their mastery of technology was impressive. Voted up and sharing, plus pinning.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 12, 2014:

Thanks for the visit and the comment, Peg! I'm glad you enjoyed the hub.

Peg Cole from Northeast of Dallas, Texas on July 12, 2014:

I loved this interesting peek into the ancient city and learning more about the city of Bath. Your description, photos and video were very enjoyable.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 12, 2014:

Thank you very much for the comment and the vote, Prasetio. I hope you have a good day, too!

prasetio30 from malang-indonesia on July 12, 2014:

Nice review, Alicia. This is the first time I read your hub about this. Usually you write about health. Thanks for sharing. I like it so much, including the pictures as well. Voted up and have a good day!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Thank you, Jodah! I appreciate your comment and the vote. I would love to visit Australia, but I don't know if that will ever be possible. It would be so interesting to explore the country!

John Hansen from Queensland Australia on July 11, 2014:

Wonderful hub Alicia. I found it very interesting and would love to visit bath one day. The thermal springs and surrounding Roman architecture,are great. Voted up.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Yes, now is a great time of year to go exploring (in the northern hemisphere)!

Carolyn Emerick on July 11, 2014:

I am envious of him, too! :-)

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Thank you so much for the comment, the vote and the shares, Carolyn! I appreciate them all. I'm envious of your friend. I'd love to be in Bath right now!

Carolyn Emerick on July 11, 2014:

Alicia, what a coincidence! I have a friend who literally just visited Bath yesterday! Loved all the pics and info you provided. Upvoted and shared here on HP but I will also share via Pinterest and FB too :-)

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Hi, Ruthbro. I've never seen the Roman Baths lit up (except in the photo in this hub). It must be a beautiful sight in real life! Thank you for the comment. I appreciate your visit!

Ruthbro from USA on July 11, 2014:

I love Bath, growing up in South Wales I once went on a school trip to look at the architecture of the buildings and as an adult I visited the Roman Baths on a night tour. The water looked so beautiful all lit up. Thank you for bringing back so many memories, a great hub!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Hi, Nell. I hope you make it to Bath soon! The city is definitely worth a visit. Thanks for the comment.

Nell Rose from England on July 11, 2014:

Hi alicia, this was fascinating reading, and I am totally ashamed to say I have never been to Bath! I only live quite near Reading, so there is absolutely no excuse for me! But its definitely on my visit list after reading this, so thanks!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Hi, Bill. Yes, the Ancient Romans certainly did come up with some wonderful inventions and some great ideas! Thank you for the comment.

Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on July 11, 2014:

Loved the history lesson. The Ancient Romans really were amazing with their architecture and their practical solutions to problems, some of which we still use today.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

How lovely to live so near to Bath, Ann! I've been to the city often, but not for some time. I want to visit Bath again! As you say, there is so much to see in the city. I appreciate your visit and comment.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Thank you for the lovely comment, Dim. When I lived in the UK my home was in Cardiff, so it didn't take too long for my family to reach Bath. I feel the same way as you do - I have never become tired of Bath, even though I've visited the city many times!

Ann Carr from SW England on July 11, 2014:

Bath is one of my favourite towns with its beautiful river, architecture and history. I live about an hour away and it's a place we always take our visitors. There is so much to see and do, all within a small area.

Great hub, Alicia! Ann

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Thank you so much, Rachel! Creating the hub was a lot of work, but I enjoyed the process very much! I've always loved Bath and its history.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on July 11, 2014:

Thank you very much for the comment and all the shares, Peggy!! Yes, I have fond memories of Bath. I hope to visit the city again sometime soon. It's a beautiful and very interesting place. I love visiting the Roman Baths, but there's lots more to see in the city!

Dim Flaxenwick from Great Britain on July 11, 2014:

This is an excellent hub on a subject close to my heart. Most of my life l lived close to Bath and it was always a favourite place to visit. When l had children l started taking them there from an early age.

None of us ever tire of this beautiful city, especilly visitng the Roman Baths.

I must congratulate you on such a wonderful article.

Rachael O'Halloran from United States on July 11, 2014:

Oh the work you put into this hub was amazing! I enjoyed reading this piece of history. Thank you so much for publishing this. Every history buff will enjoy this article. :)

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on July 11, 2014:

That must have been wonderful getting to have tea in the Pump Room with your grandparents. What a place and what a memory for you! Enjoyed reading about Bath, the Roman Baths, Hot Springs and all the rest. Will definitely share by tweeting, G+, Pinning and sharing with my HP followers. Excellent article!

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