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The Roman Baths in Somerset - A Hot Spring and a Goddess

Updated on January 4, 2016
AliciaC profile image

Linda Crampton grew up in Britain and loves to visit the country. She is very interested in its natural history, culture, and history.

The Great Bath in the city of Bath, England; the bath itself, the light grey base of the surrounding pillars and the passageway around the bath date from Ancient Roman times
The Great Bath in the city of Bath, England; the bath itself, the light grey base of the surrounding pillars and the passageway around the bath date from Ancient Roman times | Source

Bath, Ancient Romans and Celts

The beautiful city of Bath in Somerset is best known for its wonderful Georgian architecture and a fascinating complex called the Roman Baths. The complex was established by the Ancient Romans during their occupation of Britain and modified by later generations. It contains a natural hot spring, artificial pools that collect the spring water and special rooms related to the ritual of taking a bath. It once contained an impressive temple as well.

The Ancient Romans used the baths as a spa and as a place to worship their goddess Sulis Minerva. The bath complex was famous and attracted many visitors from Britain and Europe. Before the Romans arrived in Britain, however, the hot spring that feeds today's baths and the natural pool that it created were sacred for Celtic people. They believed that the goddess Sulis presided over the spring.

The City of Bath and its Surroundings

The Geothermal or Hot Springs of Bath

Bath is situated in the county of Somerset, which is located in South West England. The city contains the only natural hot springs in Britain. There are other geothermal springs in the country, but the temperature of their water is much lower.

There are three natural springs in Bath - the Sacred Spring, the Cross Bath Spring and the Hetling Spring. The Roman Baths owe their existence to the Sacred Spring, which is also known as the King's Spring after King Henry 1. Artificial boreholes have created other springs in the city in addition to the natural ones.

1,170,000 litres of water (240,000 imperial gallons) at a temperature of 46 degrees Celsius (about 115 degrees Fahrenheit) are released from the sacred spring every day. This awesome output has been a daily occurrence for thousands of years. Today the water emerges in the Roman Bath complex. The overflow from the baths flows into the River Avon, which runs through the city of Bath.

The springs in Bath are geothermal springs because their water is heated by activity below the Earth's surface. Researchers say that the basic process involved is as follows. First, rain seeps into the ground and enters the limestone rocks underlying the countryside around Bath. The water is then heated by geological activity within the Earth. The heated water travels under pressure through fault lines or fractures in rock and emerges as a spring. The details of this process are still being deciphered. For example, although it's often claimed that the water source of the spring is rain falling on the Mendip Hills, some researchers think that this is unlikely.

Bath - A Quick Tour by Rick Steves

The Sacred Spring in Celtic Times

The Sacred Spring would once have been located in a steaming and bubbling pool surrounded by mud and marsh. The sight must have been awe inspiring for the Romans, the Celts and the people who occupied the area before the Celts. It's easy to understand why they believed that a deity must have been in control of the spring.

The Celts believed that the goddess Sulis (or Sul) was the guardian of the hot spring. They may have believed that she was a goddess with healing powers, as was true for other Celtic goddesses of sprIngs. Modern tests have shown that the spring water in Bath is rich in minerals, including magnesium, which can be absorbed through the skin. The minerals or the heat of the water may help certain ailments suffered by people who immerse themselves in the water or drink it. The Celts likely knew about the healing power of the water (or, according to their beliefs, of Sulis).

Over time, people may have embellished the area around the spring to honour its goddess. The Celts are not known for building temples for their deities, however. Their gods and goddesses were part of nature and were worshipped in nature. The local people may have marked the area around the spring in some way, such as by stones, or they may have left the area in a completely natural condition. Sadly, we may never know what the area looked like to the people of the time.

There is just one piece of evidence that indicates that the Celts may have made some changes to the area around the Sacred Spring. The Roman Baths website says that investigators have found what seems to be part of a constructed causeway or bank projecting into the spring. This structure is believed to date from Celtic times.

A photochrom of the Circular Bath at the Roman Bath complex; created between 1890 and 1900
A photochrom of the Circular Bath at the Roman Bath complex; created between 1890 and 1900 | Source

The Dubunni or Dobunni

The Celtic tribe that lived near the hot spring at the time of the Roman invasion was called the Dubunni (or the Dobunni). Despite the warlike reputation of the Celts, the Dubunni seem to have been farmers and craftsmen rather than warriors. They lived on farms, in villages and in a larger settlement situated in the modern city of Cirencester in the county of Gloucestershire. They also had their own coinage.

The literature reports that unlike some Celtic tribes the Dubunni accepted the presence of the Romans in Somerset without resistance and lived peacefully - and even beneficially - beside them. Although the Romans invaded Britain, the results were not always typical of an invasion. Some Celtic tribal leaders were given positions of power in the new regime and a hybrid society with a distinctive Romano-British culture developed in certain areas, including the area around Bath.

Part of a mosaic floor at the Roman Baths
Part of a mosaic floor at the Roman Baths | Source

The Romans and a Hot Spring

When the Romans discovered the hot spring, they realized its potential as both a spiritual centre and as part of a wonderful bath house. Construction is believed to have started around 65 AD. The Romans built an enclosure around the spring and its pool, constructed pipes to carry hot water out of the pool and built reservoirs to collect the drained water. The reservoirs acted as baths. As time passed, the complex became more and more elaborate.

The spring was eventually enclosed by a building. This building had a vaulted roof, as researchers know from the collapsed remnants gathered from the spring in modern times. The interior of the building would have had a dark and steamy atmosphere. This would have added to the mystery and awe of being near to the goddess. The building was located in a courtyard which contained an altar and steps leading up to a temple, which was situated on a podium. Unfortunately, the temple no longer exists, but remnants have been found and placed in the museum in the bath complex.

The complex was surrounded by a Roman city called Aquae Sulis (Waters of Sulis). Aquae Sulis became a popular spa and religious centre and attracted visitors from Europe as well as Britain. It eventually became the modern city of Bath.

The Roman Baths and Museum in Bath, England

The Celtic and Roman Goddess Sul or Sulis

The Romans seemed to have no problems incorporating the veneration of Sulis and other Celtic deities into their own religious beliefs. At first the name "Sulis" was maintained, as can be seen from the inscriptions on some interesting curse tablets recovered from the spring. The curse tablets were sheets of lead or pewter inscribed with requests for the goddess to punish people for offences, such as stealing someone's belongings at the baths. For the Romans at least, Sulis seems to have been associated with punitive justice.

The severity of the requested punishments in proportion to the crimes committed is rather alarming by today's standards. Some requests even ask for the death of the thief. Here is one curse from a man whose hooded cloak was stolen. It's believed to date from the second century. The gaps represent areas that can't be read.

"Docilianus son of Brucerus to the most holy goddess Sulis. I curse him who has stolen my hooded cloak, whether man or woman, whether slave or free, that .. the goddess Sulis inflict death upon .. and not allow him sleep or children now and in the future, until he has brought my hooded cloak to the temple of her divinity."

The sentence in the curses were sometimes written backwards, or from right to left, forming a type of code. Very interestingly, one of the tablets recovered from the spring is inscribed with a previously unknown language, which is beloved to be a Celtic one.

People threw many different objects into the sacred spring, believing that they were sending them to the goddess. These objects included coins, bracelets, brooches and jugs as well as curse tablets. Most of the coins recovered from the spring are Roman, but some were Celtic.

Although no evidence that Sulis was considered to be a healing goddess has been discovered at the bath complex, the remains of a temple to Aesculapius have been found near the Cross Bath Spring. Aesculapius was a Roman god of healing.

The head of a statue of Sulis Minerva from the temple at the Roman Baths
The head of a statue of Sulis Minerva from the temple at the Roman Baths | Source

The Roman Goddess Sulis Minerva

After initially accepting Celtic deities, the Romans often blended these deities with their own gods and goddesses who had similar characteristics, a phenomenon known as syncretism. Sulis eventually became fused with the Roman goddess Minerva and became known as Sulis Minerva. Minerva was the Roman goddess of wisdom and handicrafts. At some time in her history she was also known as the goddess of medicine and of war. Apparently the Romans saw enough similarity between Minerva and Sulis that they considered them to be the same deity.

A strigil used to scrape dirt from oiled skin
A strigil used to scrape dirt from oiled skin | Source

The Role of Baths in the Lives of Ancient Romans

Although the Roman Baths in the city of Bath are the most famous, there are remains of other bath complexes in Britain. Baths were not only a place to clean oneself but also a place to exercise, socialize and conduct business. Snacks and drinks were available for people to enjoy. Some large bath complexes contained meeting rooms, libraries, gardens and other facilities. The entrance fee to a bathhouse was small, so most people (except slaves) could afford to take frequent baths.

Ancient Roman bath complexes have been likened to today's recreation centres, which generally have places to exercise, showers for washing the body and a place to eat and chat with friends and associates. The recreation centre near my home also contains a library, just like some Roman bath complexes.

Taking a bath was a public and multistep process for Ancient Romans. Only the richest people had a bath complex on their own property. The process started with the removal of clothes. The bather then entered a series of rooms or baths at different temperatures. Three important rooms during this process were the tepidarium with its warm bath, the caldarium with its hot bath and the frigidarium with its cold bath. Heat was used to open the pores and increase sweating in order to help clean the skin. An exercise session would also cause sweating. A brief dip in a cold bath was designed to close the pores and be refreshing.

At some point in the bath, a slave or bath attendant massaged the bather with oils and scraped their skin with a metal tool called a strigil to remove dirt. At Bath, a swim in the Great Bath would probably have been part of the bathing ritual as well.

There are pools on both the west and the east side of the complex at Bath. They may have been arranged in this way to allow males and females to bathe separately at a discrete distance from one another. Although males and females often took baths separately, in some bath complexes males and females bathed together.

Bath Abbey; the Roman Baths are on the immediate right of the abbey and the Pump Room is next to the baths
Bath Abbey; the Roman Baths are on the immediate right of the abbey and the Pump Room is next to the baths | Source

The Departure of the Romans from Britain

After the Romans left Britain in the fifth century, the buildings of the bath complex gradually fell into disrepair and collapsed and the spring outlet became blocked with silt. The complex became nonfunctional and stayed that way for hundreds of years. The temple begun to disintegrate even before the Romans left because the Christian Emperor Theodosius ordered all pagan temples in the Roman Empire to be closed in 391 AD.

The King's Bath was built In the twelfth century. This marked the beginning of renewed interest in the baths. Excavations gradually revealed the extent of the complex and it eventually became a popular and fashionable healing centre. Modifications in the structure of the complex were made at various times so that today the area is a mixture of architecture from different periods in history. Evidence of the original Roman complex can still be seen, though.

The entrance to the Roman Baths was built in Victorian times.
The entrance to the Roman Baths was built in Victorian times. | Source

The Great Bath Today

A visitor to the Roman Baths today enters the Victorian entrance hall to buy a ticket. They then walk onto a terrace overlooking the Great Bath. This is the biggest pool in the complex and is open to the sun and sky, although in Roman times it had a roof. The bath has interesting statues of Roman military figures on its perimeter, which were created in the late nineteenth century. The water in the Great Bath is a beautiful green colour. This colour is produced by photosynthetic algae. The passageway around the Great Bath and the bottom of the pillars date from Ancient Roman times.

The Great Bath must have been a wonderful asset during the time of the Ancient Romans, since it allowed people to swim in the water instead of just bathe. The public isn't allowed to enter the Great Bath today, though. Water enters the pool through the original lead pipes laid down by the Ancient Romans, which is an amazing fact but is also a health concern due to the leaching of lead. A more serious concern is the possibility of infection. In 1978, a teenage girl swam in the Great Bath with her swimming club. Unfortunately, she became infected with an amoeba called Naegleria fowleri (the "brain-eating" amoeba) and died from meningitis.

People who would like to bathe in hot spring water can do so at the Thermae Bath Spa, which obtains its water from all three of Bath's springs, and at other baths In the city. The water for these baths is supplied through boreholes that have been drilled into the springs in order to access their water from a lower level. This deeper water has a lower oxygen content that prevents Naegleria fowleri from surviving.

Location of the Roman Baths

The King's Bath

A photo of the Great Bath is often used in an article about the city of Bath (including this one!). The bath is certainly impressive, but there are other interesting things to see in the complex. If a visitor walks beyond the Great Bath, they will see smaller baths, including the King's Bath. The complex also contains rooms without water that were once heated, as well as a museum.

Underneath the floor of the King's Bath is the sacred spring that was revered by the Celts. Water from the spring rises up through a shaft into the King's Bath and is channeled to other baths in the complex. Also under the floor of the bath are remains of the courtyard that was in front of the temple of Sulis Minerva.

According to the Roman Baths website, the builders of the King's Bath used the lower part of the walls of the Roman building enclosing the spring as a foundation for their new bath. Investigators are able to explore the structure of the baths because the water can be drained from them with the aid of a sluice.

The King's Bath
The King's Bath | Source

The Hypocaust

A hypocaust was an Ancient Roman system of underground heating which warmed a room or rooms in a building. The floor of the room was raised and supported by piles of tiles and concrete. Wood was burned in an outside furnace tended by slaves to create the heat. The heat travelled into the building below the floor, moved upwards through spaces in the walls and then left the house through a chimney. This enabled a room to be heated without filling the room with smoke. Part of a hypocaust system at the Roman Bath complex has survived and is on display.

A hypocaust at the Roman Baths
A hypocaust at the Roman Baths | Source

The Museum

The museum contains an interesting collection of both interior and exterior remains of the temple. These include the head of a Sulis Minerva statue, decorations from the outside of the temple and a section of a mosaic floor. There is also a model showing the complex as it was believed to exist in the fourth century. Hopefully in the future more remains of the temple will be discovered to give us a better idea of its appearance.

The museum also contains coins and other objects collected from the spring as well as original drains created by the Romans to take water away from the complex and deliver it to the nearby River Avon.

The fountain that serves hot spring water in the Pump Room Restaurant
The fountain that serves hot spring water in the Pump Room Restaurant | Source

The Pump Room

The bath complex also contains the eighteenth century Pump Room Restaurant, often known as simply the "Pump Room". The restaurant contains an ornate water fountain which delivers spring water to visitors. My paternal grandparents lived in Bath. When I was a child, a visit to my grandparents usually involved a visit to the Pump Room for afternoon tea and a sample of the spring water. As I remember, the water had a strange smell and taste. It was once the custom to drink large quantities of the water for its supposed healing abilities. Today the fountain in the restaurant distributes water from a new borehole to prevent a Naegleria fowleri infection.

The spring overflow from the bath complex; the bricks are the original ones laid down by the Romans
The spring overflow from the bath complex; the bricks are the original ones laid down by the Romans | Source

New Discoveries about Ancient Roman Life in Bath

The modern city of Bath is built on top of the Ancient Roman city. This is why the Great Bath is below ground level today. New and exciting discoveries are being made about Roman buildings in the city, but the process of discovery is necessarily slow. Historians have to take advantage of the times when modern buildings and constructions are being renovated or demolished to see what lies beneath them, as well as wait for funding for their excavations.

There could be a treasure trove of information about Aquae Sulis hiding under Bath. On the other hand, future discoveries could be limited and many details about life in the ancient past could be lost in time. I'm hoping that this isn't the case and that the lives of Ancient Romans in Aquae Sulis continue to be revealed.

Further Reading

The Roman Baths website not only has information about visiting the museum but also has educational material.

The British Museum has published an interesting document about the Romanization of Britain.

© 2014 Linda Crampton

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    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 3 years ago from Houston, Texas

      That must have been wonderful getting to have tea in the Pump Room with your grandparents. What a place and what a memory for you! Enjoyed reading about Bath, the Roman Baths, Hot Springs and all the rest. Will definitely share by tweeting, G+, Pinning and sharing with my HP followers. Excellent article!

    • RachaelOhalloran profile image

      Rachael O'Halloran 3 years ago from United States

      Oh the work you put into this hub was amazing! I enjoyed reading this piece of history. Thank you so much for publishing this. Every history buff will enjoy this article. :)

    • Dim Flaxenwick profile image

      Dim Flaxenwick 3 years ago from Great Britain

      This is an excellent hub on a subject close to my heart. Most of my life l lived close to Bath and it was always a favourite place to visit. When l had children l started taking them there from an early age.

      None of us ever tire of this beautiful city, especilly visitng the Roman Baths.

      I must congratulate you on such a wonderful article.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment and all the shares, Peggy!! Yes, I have fond memories of Bath. I hope to visit the city again sometime soon. It's a beautiful and very interesting place. I love visiting the Roman Baths, but there's lots more to see in the city!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you so much, Rachel! Creating the hub was a lot of work, but I enjoyed the process very much! I've always loved Bath and its history.

    • annart profile image

      Ann Carr 3 years ago from SW England

      Bath is one of my favourite towns with its beautiful river, architecture and history. I live about an hour away and it's a place we always take our visitors. There is so much to see and do, all within a small area.

      Great hub, Alicia! Ann

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for the lovely comment, Dim. When I lived in the UK my home was in Cardiff, so it didn't take too long for my family to reach Bath. I feel the same way as you do - I have never become tired of Bath, even though I've visited the city many times!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      How lovely to live so near to Bath, Ann! I've been to the city often, but not for some time. I want to visit Bath again! As you say, there is so much to see in the city. I appreciate your visit and comment.

    • billybuc profile image

      Bill Holland 3 years ago from Olympia, WA

      Loved the history lesson. The Ancient Romans really were amazing with their architecture and their practical solutions to problems, some of which we still use today.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Bill. Yes, the Ancient Romans certainly did come up with some wonderful inventions and some great ideas! Thank you for the comment.

    • Nell Rose profile image

      Nell Rose 3 years ago from England

      Hi alicia, this was fascinating reading, and I am totally ashamed to say I have never been to Bath! I only live quite near Reading, so there is absolutely no excuse for me! But its definitely on my visit list after reading this, so thanks!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Nell. I hope you make it to Bath soon! The city is definitely worth a visit. Thanks for the comment.

    • Ruthbro profile image

      Ruthbro 3 years ago from USA

      I love Bath, growing up in South Wales I once went on a school trip to look at the architecture of the buildings and as an adult I visited the Roman Baths on a night tour. The water looked so beautiful all lit up. Thank you for bringing back so many memories, a great hub!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Ruthbro. I've never seen the Roman Baths lit up (except in the photo in this hub). It must be a beautiful sight in real life! Thank you for the comment. I appreciate your visit!

    • CarolynEmerick profile image

      Carolyn Emerick 3 years ago

      Alicia, what a coincidence! I have a friend who literally just visited Bath yesterday! Loved all the pics and info you provided. Upvoted and shared here on HP but I will also share via Pinterest and FB too :-)

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you so much for the comment, the vote and the shares, Carolyn! I appreciate them all. I'm envious of your friend. I'd love to be in Bath right now!

    • CarolynEmerick profile image

      Carolyn Emerick 3 years ago

      I am envious of him, too! :-)

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Yes, now is a great time of year to go exploring (in the northern hemisphere)!

    • Jodah profile image

      John Hansen 3 years ago from Queensland Australia

      Wonderful hub Alicia. I found it very interesting and would love to visit bath one day. The thermal springs and surrounding Roman architecture,are great. Voted up.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you, Jodah! I appreciate your comment and the vote. I would love to visit Australia, but I don't know if that will ever be possible. It would be so interesting to explore the country!

    • prasetio30 profile image

      prasetio30 3 years ago from malang-indonesia

      Nice review, Alicia. This is the first time I read your hub about this. Usually you write about health. Thanks for sharing. I like it so much, including the pictures as well. Voted up and have a good day!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment and the vote, Prasetio. I hope you have a good day, too!

    • PegCole17 profile image

      Peg Cole 3 years ago from Dallas, Texas

      I loved this interesting peek into the ancient city and learning more about the city of Bath. Your description, photos and video were very enjoyable.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thanks for the visit and the comment, Peg! I'm glad you enjoyed the hub.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 3 years ago from USA

      This was a terrific hub with its historical information and photos. My family and I were lucky enough to visit several years ago and very much enjoyed the visit. Their mastery of technology was impressive. Voted up and sharing, plus pinning.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thanks so much for the comment, the vote and the shares, Flourish! I agree - Ancient Roman technology is impressive. They were a very creative people.

    • Monis Mas profile image

      Aga 3 years ago

      This place looks amazing. Very interesting hub!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much, Monis Mas. Yes, I think the Roman Baths are amazing!

    • DzyMsLizzy profile image

      Liz Elias 3 years ago from Oakley, CA

      Most fascinating, indeed! What a well-done tour through place and time.

      I am struck by just how many place-names were directly transplanted from that area to New England: Exeter, Weymouth, Portsmouth, Taunton, Swansea, Gloucester.....

      Voted up++ and shared.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you, DzyMsLizzy! I appreciate your comment as well as the vote and the share. I didn't realize that so many British place names were transplanted to New England!

    • CMHypno profile image

      CMHypno 3 years ago from Other Side of the Sun

      Thanks for a fascinating hub on the Roman Baths Alicia and marvellous photos. I haven't been to Bath in many years and shamefully did not visit the Roman Baths. Its funny how when things are on your own doorstep, just a train ride away, you don't go and visit.

    • MG Singh profile image

      MG Singh 3 years ago from Singapore

      This is an excellent hub. Thanks for it

    • heidithorne profile image

      Heidi Thorne 3 years ago from Chicago Area

      What a beautiful hub! I've seen some about these amazing structures on TV documentaries. Incredible feats of engineering for the time. This would be a must-see on a trip to the UK. Thanks for sharing! Voted up, beautiful, interesting and sharing!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Cynthia. Thanks for the comment. I know what you mean about not visiting something on your doorstep! I visited somewhere nearby recently and wondered why I'd never been there before.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much, MG Singh!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thanks so much for the comment, votes and share, Heidi! The people of the time were certainly excellent engineers. It's amazing what they accomplished.

    • Nadine May profile image

      Nadine May 3 years ago from Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

      Many thanks for this very interesting article about Bath and the Ancient Roman bath complexes. Next time I'm visiting the UK I must try to visit this beautiful city of Bath in Somerset. Voted up, awesome.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for the comment and the votes, Nadine. I hope you see the Roman Baths for yourself one day.

    • DDE profile image

      Devika Primić 3 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

      You have created such a beautiful hub. I like the photos and the way you chose to inform us on an interesting topic.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much, Devika. I appreciate your visit and comment!

    • bdegiulio profile image

      Bill De Giulio 3 years ago from Massachusetts

      Hi Linda. Sounds like a place I need to add to my list. How interesting. What a fascinating history to Bath. Great job. Voted up, shared, pinned, etc... Thanks for the history lesson.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the comment, the vote and the shares, Bill! Yes, I'm sure you would enjoy visiting the Roman Baths and the city of Bath as well. There is a lot to see in the area.

    • rebeccamealey profile image

      Rebecca Mealey 3 years ago from Northeastern Georgia, USA

      An interesting read. Those ancient people and cities are fascinating to learn about and you did a fantastic job researching and presenting info on the Roman Baths.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the kind comment, Rebecca. The Roman Bath complex is a fascinating topic to write about!

    • Mel Carriere profile image

      Mel Carriere 3 years ago from San Diego California

      Fascinating travelogue and history lesson all rolled into one. Your writing style is very engaging and captivating. Awesome hub!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you so much for the lovely comment, Mel! I appreciate it a great deal.

    • AudreyHowitt profile image

      Audrey Howitt 3 years ago from California

      Wonderful article--I am hoping to visit Bath next year!

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much, Audrey. I hope you make it to Bath and that you enjoy your visit!

    • Vellur profile image

      Nithya Venkat 3 years ago from Dubai

      Great hub about Roman Baths, enjoyed reading. Interesting and informative hub.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the visit and the comment, Vellur. I appreciate them both!

    • teaches12345 profile image

      Dianna Mendez 3 years ago

      Your research on this topic is so interesting to read. I suppose our spas have whirlpools that would almost equal the purpose, but the beauty is far from equal. I wonder what they did with all the objects thrown into the spring? Thanks for sharing on this topic.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 3 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Dianna. Thank you very much for the comment. Yes, health spas are reminiscent of Roman baths. The objects in the spring have been recovered and some of them are on display in the museum.

    • Chatkath profile image

      Kathy 2 years ago from California

      Wow. Wish I would have read this before my one and only trip to England in 1997. You have summarized the beauty and significance of Bath quite literally. Great detail and well organized history. Cheers

    • aviannovice profile image

      Deb Hirt 2 years ago from Stillwater, OK

      What a wonderful and historical lesson. Impressive work, enlightening, and certainly done in a manner to hold one's attention.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, Chatkath. It's great to hear from you again! Thank you very much for the kind comment.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you so much for such a lovely comment, Deb! I appreciate it very much.

    • gardener den profile image

      gardener den 2 years ago from Southwestern, Pennsylvania

      AliciaC

      Great Hub and enjoyed all the information. Allot to learn about the Romans. You are a great story teller. Gardener Den.

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the kind comment, gardener den! I appreciate your visit.

    • gardener den profile image

      gardener den 2 years ago from Southwestern, Pennsylvania

      AliciaC I have a question for you. I live in Westmoreland County Pennsylvania. In the county east of Westmoreland County is Somerset County it the county that borders Westmoreland to the east. Do you think that Somerset County Pennsylvania is named after Somerset County in England were the city of Bath is located? Would you know anything about this?

    • AliciaC profile image
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      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, gardener den. I didn't know the answer to your question so I checked on the website of the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce in the United States. I found that the county is indeed named after Somerset in England!

    • gardener den profile image

      gardener den 2 years ago from Southwestern, Pennsylvania

      Thank You My grandfather my Dads father is from Somerset County in Pennsylvania. You are very helpful. And Thank You Again!

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      You're welcome, gardener den!

    • klidstone1970 profile image

      இڿڰۣ-- кιмвєяℓєу 2 years ago from Niagara Region, Canada

      Oh, how I wish to visit. This hub was extremely well done. The history behind the baths are incredible. I need to add this to my bucket list. LOL. Great job. Kim

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much, Kim! I'd love to visit the baths again in the near future. The city and the baths are great places to explore.

    • VioletteRose profile image

      VioletteRose 2 years ago from Chicago

      Very interesting, I enjoyed reading this hub :) I hope to visit these one day!

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you, VioletteRose. I think you'll enjoy the baths if you visit them!

    • Anne Harrison profile image

      Anne Harrison 2 years ago from Australia

      A fascinting hub; the amount of detail you have included is impressive. I did not realize the size of the place. Most definitely on the bucket list now, thank you

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much, Anne! I appreciate your visit and comment.

    • Arachnea profile image

      Tanya Jones 2 years ago from Texas USA

      This goes on my list of places I hope to visit. I have a hub started from a few months ago which I intend, full well to complete.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thanks for the visit, Arachnea. Good luck with your hub.

    • heidithorne profile image

      Heidi Thorne 2 years ago from Chicago Area

      I enjoyed this hub when you first published it. Congrats on Hub of the Day! Well deserved for this beautiful and interesting hub. Have a great weekend!

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the second visit and the congratulations, Heidi! I hope you have a great weekend, too.

    • FlourishAnyway profile image

      FlourishAnyway 2 years ago from USA

      Congratulations on HOTD, Linda. I recall reading this -- very impressive and well worth the award.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much, Flourish. I appreciate the congratulations and your kind comment.

    • chef-de-jour profile image

      Andrew Spacey 2 years ago from Near Huddersfield, West Yorkshire,UK

      Some useful information and insights here, thank you. How canny these Romans were - baths, underfloor heating, olive oil massages and the like! I've been to many places in my time but not yet managed to visit this most famous of baths. Your article invites.

      Votes and a share.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the votes and the share, chef-de-jour. I agree - Ancient Roman technology is very impressive!

    • poetryman6969 profile image

      poetryman6969 2 years ago

      Yeah, if I found myself naked in public because someone had stolen my clothes at the public bath I would definitely curse them!

      Nice hub.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thanks for the amusing comment, poetryman6969!

    • traveleze profile image

      Lee John 2 years ago from Preston

      Bath is simply one of the beautifulest city in the UK and the World!, My cousin studied there when i visited her i was amazed at such beauty! I would recommend bath to anyway! thanks stunning article! x

    • pstraubie48 profile image

      Patricia Scott 2 years ago from sunny Florida

      What a wonderful experience the bath was. It could be a most relaxing experience, no doubt.

      Lucky you to visit the Pump Room and have that memory to recall now.

      Absolutely deserving of HOTD, congrats Voted up up and away

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, traveleze. Thank you very much for the comment! I share your opinion about Bath. It's a beautiful city.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, pstraubie. Thank you so much for the comment and the vote! I appreciate your visit very much.

    • mary615 profile image

      Mary Hyatt 2 years ago from Florida

      It's easy to see why this Hub got HOTD! You did a lot of research to supply all this information, and the photos were outstanding!

      I would love to see these baths in person. I've been in hot baths in Costa Rica, but they don't claim to have healing powers; just nice to enjoy the warm water.

      Voted UP, etc. Also shared.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for such a kind comment, Mary! I appreciate it very much. Thanks for the votes and the share, too.

    • PDXBuys profile image

      PDXBuys 2 years ago from Oregon

      Thank you for the great article. I visited this location in 1986. It is beautiful and amazing. I wish I'd had a better camera at the time. Anyone visiting England should put it on the must-see list!

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, PDXBuys. Thank you for the comment. I'm glad to hear from another person who thinks that Bath is beautiful and amazing!

    • profile image

      ArtDiva 2 years ago

      Fascinating history lesson and tour through the ages. Well written, researched and presented— an all around enjoyable and good read.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you very much for the visit and the lovely comment, ArtDiva.

    • Faith Reaper profile image

      Faith Reaper 2 years ago from southern USA

      Congrats on the HOTD! Well-deserved.

      I hope you have a wonderful week.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 2 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank you for the congratulations, Faith. I hope you have a wonderful week, too!

    • aesta1 profile image

      Mary Norton 18 months ago from Ontario, Canada

      I was lucky to have visited here but even better is reading your hub. I now have a better understanding of these baths.

    • AliciaC profile image
      Author

      Linda Crampton 18 months ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi, aesta1. It's interesting to hear that you visited the bath complex! Thank you very much for the kind comment.

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