Thomas Jefferson Biography – Third President of the United States
Thomas Jefferson was a man of many talents, an accomplished writer, architect, naturalist, inventor, diplomat, and educator. He helped draft the document that transformed his home state of Virginia from a British Colony to one of the original thirteen states that would form the new nation of the United States. In his later years, he founded the University of Virginia, working on every detail to establish it as an institute of higher education accessible to the common man. In service to his country, he was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence and also served as a diplomat, secretary of state, vice president, and president. He worked tirelessly for America’s most important ideal of liberty, asserting that human beings are born with natural rights, rather than rights given to them by a sovereign.
Thomas Jefferson was born on his family’s plantation in what is now Albemarle County in Virginia on April 13, 1743. He was the third of ten children in a wealthy family. Both his mother and father were from prominent families in the area. When he was only 14 years old in 1757, Jefferson’s father, Peter Jefferson, died. The estate was divided up, and each of the children received an inheritance. Thomas received five thousand acres of land, which was the family homestead. However, he would not receive full authority over the property until he reached the age of 21. The death of his father left Jefferson his own master, as he later wrote in a letter, “At fourteen years of age the whole care and direction of myself were thrown on myself entirely, without a relative or a friend qualified to advise or guide me.”
His wealth allowed young Thomas to attend the College of William and Mary, one of the oldest colleges in the United States, founded in 1693. In 1762, at age 19, he graduated from the college. After college he went on to study law under a prominent lawyer, George Wythe. After studying under Wythe, Jefferson was able to pass the bar exam in 1767. At that point he became a lawyer in rural Virginia. Then he entered into politics when he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgess, which during the colonial period was equivalent to a state legislature today.
In 1770, he started work on the house he inherited from his father, situated on a 5,000-acre tobacco plantation run by slave labor. He would call the home Monticello, which means “little mountain” in Italian. His house became an architectural marvel and would take most of Jefferson’s life to complete.
In 1772, he married a twenty-three-year-old wealthy widow, Martha Skelton. During their time together, they had six children but only two would survive to adulthood. A year into their marriage, Martha’s father died, leaving the couple 11,000 additional acres of land, 135 slaves, and the estate’s debt.
Political Life Begins
The shots fired at Lexington and Concord were the opening salvo of what would become the American Revolutionary War. Jefferson was loyal to the colonies and opposed British control at every opportunity. Jefferson was chosen as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress and traveled to Philadelphia to begin his role in the Continental Congress, a body that would shape a new nation.
Jefferson was never known for his skills as an orator; rather, he excelled in the written word. In 1776, he was appointed with four other men, including Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, to draft for the colonies a declaration of independence from Great Britain. After several drafts of the document, Congress finally approved the Unanimous Declaration of Thirteen Unified States of America on July 4,1776. Today, we know this document as the Declaration of Independence.
After serving in the Continental Congress, Jefferson returned to Virginia and was elected governor where he served two one-year terms starting in 1779. During his brief time as governor, he introduced measures for education, religious freedom, and revisions to inheritance laws. As the fighting from the Revolutionary War spread to the southern states, Jefferson was forced to abandon the capital of Richmond to escape the advancing British. His decision to abandon the city rather than stand and fight cast a shadow of cowardice over him that would follow him the rest of his political career.
After his term as governor was finished, Thomas and Martha returned to Monticello. In the spring of 1782, Martha delivered her last child. She never fully recovered from the pregnancy and after a long summer of illness, she passed away in the fall. In a letter, Jefferson wrote of his grief, “A single event wiped away all my plans and left me a blank which I have had not the sprits to fill up.”
Minister to France
Following a peace treaty with Great Britain, the new United States formed the Congress of the Confederation, to which Jefferson was appointed as Virginia’s representative in 1783. During his short tenure in Congress, he was involved in setting up the new government. The next year, he was appointed as minister to Europe and, in the summer of 1784, Jefferson departed for France with his daughter, Martha, and two servants. In the new position, he would work with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams to negotiate treaties of commerce and secure loans for America.
During his time in France, he developed a relationship with Sally Hemings, his wife’s half-sister and a slave in his household. By the time Jefferson and his entourage returned to the United States in 1789, Sally was pregnant with Jefferson’s child. Over the coming years, it is believed he fathered several children with her.
Secretary of State
Upon his return from France, he was appointed by President George Washington to be the first secretary of state. Jefferson’s ideology on the scope of the government was very different from that of the secretary of treasury, Alexander Hamilton, and the two men clashed on many occasions. Jefferson was a proponent of a small government with limited powers while Hamilton promoted a strong central government. Jefferson grew frustrated with President Washington’s reliance on Hamilton and resigned the position in 1794 and returned to Monticello.
The pillars of our prosperity are the most thriving when left most free to individual enterprise.— Thomas Jefferson
Vice President of the United States
George Washington declined to run for a third term and Jefferson and John Adams campaigned for the position. In a close race, Adams came out the victor and became the second president of the United States. Before the twelfth amendment was added to the Constitution, the candidate with the lesser number of electoral votes became the vice president. As vice president, Jefferson was the presiding officer of the Senate. Having studied parliamentary law and procedures, in 1800, he published his notes on Senate procedure as A Manual of Parliamentary Practice.
From 1797 to 1801, Jefferson served as vice president under John Adams. This didn’t really work out that well, because Jefferson was from the opposing political party, resulting in animosity between the two.
President of the United States
Adams turned out to be an unpopular president, and Jefferson and Aaron Burr opposed him in the election of 1800. The election exposed one of the flaws in the Electoral College, which allowed a tie between Jefferson and Burr, throwing the contest into the House of Representatives. In 1801, Jefferson became president of the United States after thirty-six votes in the House of Representatives. Historian Joyce Appleby said the election of 1800 was “one of the most acrimonious in the annals of American history.”
One of his first acts was to send the navy to the Mediterranean Sea to fight the Barbary pirates. When America would send a ship of commerce near the coast of northern Africa, the pirates would attack the ship, take it over, steal the contents of the ship, and imprison or enslave the crew. To resolve the issue, Jefferson built up the navy and sent ships to the region to quell the pirates. This led to the formation of the Marines and was America’s first foray into international affairs.
In 1803, the government of France, led by Napoleon, needed money to finance its war with Great Britain. To raise much needed funds, France offered 15 million acres to the United States government. The land was west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains. Jefferson, with approval from Congress, bought that land for about four cents an acre. It was a good deal for the growing nation and doubled the size of the United States.
Once in possession of this vast new land, Jefferson commissioned the Lewis and Clark expedition in 1803 to explore and chart this expansive wilderness. The expedition was a party of twenty-five that traveled to the Pacific Ocean and the Northwest territory and back to report their findings. The expedition, which lasted from May 1804 to September 1806, obtained a treasure trove of scientific and geographical knowledge of the region and established relationships with the indigenous tribes.
In 1804, Jefferson was elected to a second term as president by a wide margin. His second term in office turned out to be more troubling than his first. In the last few days of his presidency, Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the almost unenforceable Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809. This act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. The Embargo Act of 1807, directed at both France and Great Britain, triggered economic chaos in the United States and was strongly criticized at the time. Following the tradition set by George Washington, Jefferson did not seek a third term in office and retired to his plantation in Virginia.
Life After the Presidency
After years of public service, Jefferson retired to Monticello to manage his plantation, write, experiment, and pursue his intellectual activities. By 1815, Jefferson was growing short on money and the years of public service didn’t come with an old age pension. To raise funds, he sold his 6,700 volumes of books to Congress. This formed the basis of the Library of Congress that we have today. In addition to selling his library, he used his slaves as collateral for loans.
During his later years, Jefferson became very active in the establishment of the University of Virginia. Jefferson’s vision for the university was for it to be free of church influence, where students could specialize in different areas of study not offered at other colleges. He helped design the building, selected the faculty, raised funds, chose the curriculum, and nurtured the fledgling school to become a reality.
Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, on the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. He also died on the same day as and within just a few hours of John Adams, the second president of the United States—quite a strange coincidence in history. Jefferson’s remains were buried at Monticello, with an epitaph on his tombstone of his own words, which read: “HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON, AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, OF THE STATUTE OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, AND FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA.” Though Jefferson didn’t list his two terms as president as one of his accomplishments on his tombstone, historians now rank Thomas Jefferson as one of the top five most effective presidents of the United States.
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